Which of the following statements about bureaucracy is false

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 Which of the following statements about bureaucracy is false?

Answer

a.Secretaries and other assistants often have more power than their job description or salary indicates.
b.The informal culture of bureaucracy works to make all employees feel more connected and included.
c.Subcultures develop even in the largest bureaucracies.
d.Informal norms within a bureaucracy may increase or decrease worker productivity.

1 points    

Question 2

1.

Teenagers, truck drivers, and the elderly are all examples of _____.

Answer

a.secondary groups
b.social categories
c.primary groups
d.none of these choices

1 points    

Question 3

1.

Attribution error refers to a situation in which one

Answer

a.fails to see that group membership is the cause of a person’s behavior.
b.completely misunderstands the action in a particular situation.
c.falsely attributes a person’s behavior to membership in a particular group.
d.blames something on one person that is really the fault of another person.

1 points    

Question 4

1.

Which of these is not an example of a utilitarian organization?

Answer

a.the University of Michigan
b.Microsoft
c.NAACP
d.General Motors

1 points    

Question 5

1.

Which of the following illustrates a common type of attribution error?

Answer

a.a girl who does well in science is perceived as being unusually smart
b.a white person observes a white student taking a wallet out of someone’s purse and assumes the student was asked to do so by the owner
c.a Hispanic student is carrying a baseball bat and it is assumed he intends to vandalize something
d.All of these are illustrations of attribution error.

1 points    

Question 6

1.

The informal structure of a bureaucracy

Answer

a.increases the feelings of solidarity among all workers.
b.develops among those at the top of the organizational structure.
c.uses alternate channels to get some things done faster.
d.follows the same rules and regulations as the formal structure.

1 points    

Question 7

1.

Which perspective is most likely to focus on the fact that individuals experience stress and alienation as a result of being subordinated within a formal organization?

Answer

a.feminist theory
b.conflict theory
c.functionalist theory
d.symbolic interaction theory

1 points    

Question 8

1.

The psychological separation of a person from an organization and its goals is called _____.

Answer

a.alienation
b.risky shift
c.ritualism
d.organizational deviance

1 points    

Question 9

1.

Applied to a situation like the torture of Iraqi prisoners in American prison Abu Ghraib, Milgram’s and Asch’s findings would indicate that

Answer

a.soldiers are more sadistic than the average college student or American citizen.
b.American soldiers would only commit torture if following a direct order with fear of punishment for not carrying it out.
c.there was a serious breakdown in respect for authority that caused soldiers to violate the international standards for treatment of prisoners.
d.the cause of the American soldiers’ inhumane treatment of prisoners is partly the structure of the situation and group pressure.

1 points    

Question 10

1.

According to Weber bureaucracies have positive functions that contribute to their overall unity. Weber termed these _____.

Answer

a.manifest functions
b.eufunctions
c.positive functions
d.non-dysfunctions

1. According to sociologists studying crime,

Answer

a.both organized crime and corporate crime have an institutionalized character.
b.organized crime is a term that is applied only to the Mafia in the U.S.
c.financial loss from street crime is greater than that from organized or corporate crime.
d.All of these are true statements.

1 points    

Question 2

1.

A criticism of the functional perspective of deviance is that it

Answer

a.places too much emphasis on the individual.
b.fails to see the good that deviance accomplishes.
c.does not explain why some people are able to impose their ideas judgments on others.
d.overemphasizes injustice and inequality in society.

1 points    

Question 3

1.

From a functionalist perspective, daily MSC: NEWs stories of incidents of crime

Answer

a.focus attention on the underprivileged and hide the criminality of the upper classes.
b.plant ideas, and serves to socialize others into criminal behavior.
c.serve to define others in society as non-criminal and therefore good.
d.All of these choices are true.

1 points    

Question 4

1.

Which of the following is an example of informal deviance?

Answer

a.a traffic ticket
b.underage drinking
c.body piercing
d.polygamy

1 points    

Question 5

1.

How do sociologists define deviance?

Answer

a.as any behavior that is extreme and unsettling
b.they look at what the media focuses on
c.by applying the laws of society
d.through the understanding of social norms

1 points    

Question 6

1.

According to ______ people behave as they do because of the meanings that they give to different situations.

Answer

a.social control theory
b.functionalism
c.conflict theory
d.symbolic interaction theory

1 points    

Question 7

1.

A significant difference between functionalist and conflict theory is that

Answer

a.functionalism pays more attention to the individual than conflict theory does.
b.functionalism ignores the role of deviance in society, while this is a focus for conflict.
c.functionalism assumes the system works for the good of the whole, and conflict theory does not.
d.functionalists focus more on the social structure than conflict theorists do.

1 points    

Question 8

1.

Psychological explanations of deviance emphasize _____ as the underlying cause of deviant behavior.

Answer

a.the context within which the deviance occurred
b.the effects of labeling
c.individual factors
d.patterns of inequality in society

1 points    

Question 9

1.

A strength of conflict theory in terms of understanding deviance is

Answer

a.its insight into the significance of power relationships.
b.its ability to see how the entire social system works for the benefit of all.
c.its recognition of the importance of shared values and beliefs.
d.All of these choices are true.

1 points    

Question 10

1.

Within Merton’s structural strain theory, prostitution would best be described as a form of _____.

Answer

a.rebellion
b.ritualism
c.innovation
d.retreatism

1. Evaluations of the welfare reform of 1996 (PRWRA) have found that

Answer

a.the number of people receiving welfare has decreased.
b.the amount of poverty in the U.S. has decreased.
c.the wages earned in workfare programs are keeping women and their children out of poverty.
d.All of these choices are true.

1 points    

Question 2

1.

According to William Julius Wilson, the “underclass” is

Answer

a.actually comprised of unemployed individuals from rural, more than urban, areas.
b.the result of structural transformations in the economy.
c.the product of a welfare system that is so generous that going to work is not an attractive option.
d.mostly found in the suburbs of big cities.

1 points    

Question 3

1.

Which type of theorist would be most likely to see inequality in the social system as fair, because everyone has an equal chance of getting ahead?

Answer

a.social exchange theory
b.symbolic interaction
c.functionalism
d.conflict theory

1 points    

Question 4

1.

When members of the subordinated classes internalize the views of the dominant class and justify inequality, Karl Marx termed this ______.

Answer

a.class consciousness
b.normative consciousness
c.stratified consciousness
d.false consciousness

1 points    

Question 5

1.

Which of the following is false regarding social class?

Answer

a.Social class shapes one’s access to resources in society.
b.It is not possible for people to change whatever social class they are born into.
c.People in the same social class share similar opportunities.
d.It is not possible to directly observe social class.

1 points    

Question 6

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