Which of the following is one of the stages of prenatal development

Which of the following is one of the stages of prenatal development

1. Randi loves to cook, but unfortunately she finds herself almost incapable of creating meals by just “throwing together” different ingredients. She requires a recipe to make her dishes, and she follows those recipes precisely as written. According to Robert Sternberg, which type of intelligence does Randi fail to demonstrate in her cooking skills?

 

 

 

A. analytical

 
 

B. creative

 
 

C. practical

 
 

D. social

 

 

 

Question 2 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Ellen and Mike are trying to decide where to go for an anniversary dinner. Mike says to Ellen, “Okay, you can have anything you want. We can do Chinese, Italian, Thai, Mexican, or Spanish food. If you want sushi, that is fine, or we can go to an upscale steakhouse! I’m even fine if you want to go get a few fast-food burgers and then go for ice cream. So what will it be?” According to the concept of decision aversion, what is Ellen likely to choose?

 

 

 

A. Ellen is likely to get angry at Mike for not choosing dinner.

 
 

B. Ellen is likely to make no choice at all.

 
 

C. Ellen will choose the most expensive meal, since Mike gave her the option of choosing anything she wants.

 
 

D. Ellen will consider which meal she likes the best and choose a restaurant that will serve that meal.

 

3. During a lecture on the dangers of stereotypes, Dr. Humphrey stated to her class, “As an example of a commonly held stereotype, some people believe that African-American individuals are less intelligent than Caucasian individuals.” A student in her class who was not paying attention only heard her say, “African-American individuals are less intelligent than Caucasian individuals.” Clearly there will be a problem based on this miscommunication, but the real issue is that the __________ of the issue that was provided by the teacher was different than that which was received by the student.

 

 

 

A. communication

 
 

B. schema

 
 

C. point of view

 
 

D. framing

Question 4 of 40 2.5 Points

The __________ bias describes the effect that occurs when a person’s existing ways of thinking distort his or her logical decisions.

 

 

 

A. hindsight

 
 

B. representative

 
 

C. heuristic

 
 

D. belief

 
Question 5 of 40 2.5 Points

 

The ability to process information and act accordingly is called __________ intelligence, while the mental ability derived from previous experience is called __________ intelligence.

 

 

 

A. practical; analytical

 
 

B. crystallized; fluid

 
 

C. analytical; practical

 
 

D. fluid; crystallized

 
Question 6 of 40 2.5 Points

 

All politicians are dirty, crooked, and dishonest, right? How many examples of dirty politicians can you come up with? The fact that you might be able to immediately think of a few examples of dirty politicians may lead you to believe that all politicians are, in fact, dishonest. This is an example of the __________ heuristic.

 

 

 

A. conjunction

 
 

B. confirmation

 
 

C. availability

 
 

D. representative

 
Question 7 of 40 2.5 Points

 

As Rebekah is driving to the hotel where her business convention is being held, she finds that she cannot quite figure out how to get there. The set of __________, which consists of the steps she would need to figure out how to get to her destination, might first have her (1. pull to the side of the road, (2. retrieve her GPS unit from the glove compartment, (3. plug in the unit, (4. type in the address of her destination, and (5. follow the verbal commands until she gets to the hotel.

 

 

 

A. best fits

 
 

B. reductions

 
 

C. functionality

 
 

D. operations

 
Question 8 of 40 2.5 Points

 

The __________ state refers to a problem-solving condition in which a person has incomplete or unsatisfactory information.

 

 

 

A. initial

 
 

B. boggled

 
 

C. inadequate

 
 

D. misinformed

 
Question 9 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Research finds that strong central __________ functioning, the set of mental processes that governs goals, strategies, and coordination of the mind’s activities, is related to higher intelligence.

 

 

 

A. executive

 
 

B. cognitive

 
 

C. psychic

 
 

D. unconscious

 
Question 10 of 40 2.5 Points

 

__________ is the cognitive process of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions.

 

 

 

A. Verbalizing

 
 

B. Reasoning

 
 

C. Concentrating

 
 

D. Schematic processing

 
Question 11 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Research has demonstrated all but which of the following with regard to people who speak more than one language?

 

 

 

A. People who are bilingual from an early age show an increase in the density of the gray matter in the lower-left parietal area of the brain, suggesting that learning multiple languages actually promotes cognitive growth.

 
 

B. Adults who learn a second language later in life actually use different cognitive strategies than children who learn the second language, and thus their brains process the second language differently than people who learn a second language early in life.

 
 

C. Being bilingual is not a skill that is unique to human beings since animals who are able to learn to use sign language can learn multiple forms of sign language.

 
 

D. Asian immigrants who come to the United States of America as young children understand American English as proficiently as native speakers.

 
Question 12 of 40 2.5 Points

 

The term book knowledge most resembles __________ intelligence from the theory of Robert Sternberg.

 

 

 

A. analytic

 
 

B. emotional

 
 

C. practical

 
 

D. academic

 
Question 13 of 40 2.5 Points

 

The __________ fallacy is a phenomenon that causes people to believe that additional information increases the probability that a statement is true, even though that probability actually decreased.

 

 

 

A. hindsight

 
 

B. irrationality

 
 

C. conjunction

 
 

D. discursion

 
Question 14 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Have you ever been distracted while you were speaking and accidentally switched the sounds of two words? For example, a person might mean to say, “I’m going to get a turkey sandwich” and instead say, “I’m going to get a surkey tandwich.” This type of expressive inversion is called a __________.

 

 

 

A. phonemic reversal

 
 

B. syntactic switch

 
 

C. spoonerism

 
 

D. morphism

 
Question 15 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Going from broad to specific conclusions is called __________, while going from specific examples to broad conclusions is called __________ reasoning.

 

 

 

A. theoretical; analytical

 
 

B. deductive; inductive

 
 

C. analytical; theoretical

 
 

D. inductive; deductive

 
Question 16 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Regarding the relative influences on intelligence, which combatant in the nature-versus-nurture debate is ultimately the winner?

 

 

 

A. There is no debate, because there is no way to test which influence is more crucial to intelligence.

 
 

B. The winner is nature.

 
 

C. The winner is nurture.

 
 

D. It is a draw.

 
Question 17 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Recently, Marika had to end an eighteen-month-long relationship with Joshua, a man with whom she was deeply in love. She recognized, however, that they did not want the same things out of life; specifically, Joshua wanted to get married someday, and Marika was not interested in marriage. Though they tried to work out a compromise, it was not going to work out. Even though ending the relationship was painful, Marika was able to understand and manage her own feelings, even to the point of helping Joshua through the break-up with as little pain as possible. Marika is clearly very gifted in the area of __________ intelligence.

 

 

 

A. self-aware

 
 

B. intrapersonal

 
 

C. savant

 
 

D. emotional

 
Question 18 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Which of the following is one of the eight multiple intelligences proposed by Howard Gardner?

 

 

 

A. crystallized

 
 

B. general

 
 

C. creative

 
 

D. naturalistic

 
Question 19 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Chiang walks out of the dry cleaners holding his freshly laundered shirts on new hangers. He walks over to his car, only to find that he has locked the keys inside. Because he is suffering from __________, he calls a tow truck and waits for forty-five minutes, causing him to miss an important meeting at work instead of using one of the hangers to maneuver his way into unlocking the car door.

 

 

 

A. algorithmic limitations

 
 

B. the mental set

 
 

C. heuristic blockage

 
 

D. functional fixedness

 
Question 20 of 40 2.5 Points

 

__________ is a rare disorder that occasionally accompanies autism in which a person of below-average intelligence has an extraordinary ability.

 

 

 

A. Impulsive ability syndrome

 
 

B. Savant syndrome

 
 

C. Prodigy disorder

 
 

D. Schizoaffective disorder

 
Question 21 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Which theorist led the case for the influence of social interactions on cognitive development?

 

 

 

A. Urie Bronfrenbrenner

 
 

B. Lev Vygotsky

 
 

C. Sigmund Freud

 
 

D. Jean Piaget

 

 

22.In Piaget’s theory, the term __________ refers to concepts or frameworks around which people organize and interpret information.

 

 

 

A. centrations

 
 

B. operations

 
 

C. schemas

 
 

D. centrisms

 
Question 23 of 40 2.5 Points

 

__________ studies observe different individuals at different ages to track age differences.

 

 

 

A. Sectional

 
 

B. Cross-sectional

 
 

C. Sequential

 
 

D. Cross-sequential

 
Question 24 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Why is it easier for men to make the psychological adjustment to the physical changes of andropause than it is for women to adjust to the physical changes of menopause?

 

 

 

A. Because research suggests that being male makes a person more psychologically resilient to changes in all areas of life.

 
 

B. Because the loss of estrogen makes women far more emotional than men, who are simply seeing a reduction in testosterone.

 
 

C. Because it is far easier to hide the symptoms of andropause than it is to hide the symptoms of menopause.

 
 

D. Because the changes associated with andropause are more subtle and appear over a longer period of time.

 
Question 25 of 40 2.5 Points

 

By the time a child reaches the age of around eighteen months, he or she will start rapidly learning new words and associating them with their meanings. In fact, children at this age may learn up to __________ new nouns every day!

 

 

 

A. ten

 
 

B. twenty-five

 
 

C. forty-five

 
 

D. sixty

 
Question 26 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Why does exercise help to reduce memory loss and brain decline in older adults?

 

 

 

A. Because exercise reduces our need to use medications, many of which cause damage to brain cells over time.

 
 

B. Because exercise stimulates neurons and actually helps the brain to grow new cells.

 
 

C. Because exercise helps increase the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the brain.

 
 

D. Because exercise helps to remove toxins from our system that are stored in fat cells.

 
Question 27 of 40 2.5 Points

 

According to theory, which is supported by research, if children are deprived of the opportunity to learn language in the years before __________, it will be very difficult if not impossible for them to ever master the rules of grammar.

 

 

 

A. entering school

 
 

B. adolescence

 
 

C. toddlerhood

 
 

D. puberty

 
Question 28 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Which part of the brain experiences the greatest growth between the ages of three and six years?

 

 

 

A. temporal lobes

 
 

B. parietal lobes

 
 

C. frontal lobes

 
 

D. occipital lobes

 
Question 29 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Which of the following is a commonly discussed criticism of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in children?

 

 

 

A. Piaget felt that development was more fluid and continuous than modern researchers believe.

 
 

B. Piaget underestimated the cognitive ability of children.

 
 

C. The foundations of formal operational thinking appear later than Piaget theorized.

 
 

D. Piaget did allow for the fact that teratogens during pregnancy could impair cognitive development.

 
Question 30 of 40 2.5 Points

 

As Emily, a sixty-eight-year-old widow, went about her day, she was certain that there was something that she’d forgotten to do. Somewhere around 8:30 at night, she realized that she’d forgotten to go to the bank to buy traveler’s checks for her upcoming trip to Hawaii. This memory failure, which in this case was related to her __________ memory, is something that often declines in the later years.

 

 

 

A. proactive

 
 

B. executive

 
 

C. episodic

 
 

D. prospective

 
Question 31 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Xavier is doing a research study investigating the moral decision making of people at various ages. He wants to know if adolescents see right and wrong differently than senior citizens, so he gives his research subjects a moral dilemma and asks them to discuss the various moral issues involved. In developmental psychology, Xavier’s research is exploring age __________.

 

 

 

A. changes

 
 

B. development

 
 

C. concepts

 
 

D. differences

 
Question 32 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Despite popular believe that “most” people experience a crisis when they come to their middle adulthood years, recent research has found that only __________% of adults reported experiencing a midlife crisis.

 

 

 

A. 2

 
 

B. 5

 
 

C. 7

 
 

D. 10

 
Question 33 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Which of the following is true with regard to the order of development of motor skills?

 

 

 

A. Babies develop motor skills based on what they see, so it is largely a function of imitation.

 
 

B. Babies develop motor skills in very unique sequences, so there is no “order” of skills that is considered typical.

 
 

C. Motor development in babies has two predictable paths – one for sighted children and one for blind children.

 
 

D. Motor development tends to occur in a universal sequence and thus specific skills predictably develop before other skills.

 
Question 34 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Kayla was talking to her twelve-month-old daughter, and was talking in a very high-pitched, exaggerated voice. Experts refer to this sort of communication as __________.

 

 

 

A. babbling

 
 

B. infant-oriented speech

 
 

C. motherese

 
 

D. cooing

 
Question 35 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Which of the following is an example of a primary sex characteristic?

 

 

 

A. changes in vocal tone

 
 

B. growth of the breasts

 
 

C. growth of facial hair

 
 

D. growth of the genitals

 
Question 36 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Which of the following statements is the most accurate with regard to life expectancy?

 

 

 

A. There is no single trend about gender differences for life expectancy that can be generalized to the entire world, because nearly every country shows different patterns of life expectancy based on lifestyle choices.

 
 

B. On average, men outlive women by three years throughout the world, but women outlive men by two years in the United States.

 
 

C. On average, there is no difference in life expectancy between men and women throughout the world; however, in the United States men outlive women by five years.

 
 

D. On average, women outlive men by four years throughout the world and by five to six years in the United States.

 
Question 37 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Charmaine is interested in going to graduate school to gain expertise into the way in which people experience physical, cognitive, and social changes over the course of their lives. The type of program that Charmaine should be applying to is __________ psychology.

 

 

 

A. developmental

 
 

B. child

 
 

C. social

 
 

D. ecological

 
Question 38 of 40 2.5 Points

 

__________ is to girls as __________ is to boys.

 

 

 

A. Menarche; spermarche

 
 

B. Spermarche; menarche

 
 

C. Puberty; adolescence

 
 

D. Adolescence; puberty

 
Question 39 of 40 2.5 Points

 

Which of the following is one of the stages of prenatal development?

 

 

 

A. zygotic stage

 
 

B. germinal stage

 
 

C. intra-utero stage

 
 

D. umbilical stage

 
Question 40 of 40 2.5 Points

 

The development of the __________ lobes of the cerebrum allows an adolescent to start developing the ability to reason.

 

 

 

A. temporal

 
 

B. occipital

 
 

C. parietal

 
 

D. frontal

 

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