What purpose or purposes are fulfilled by debriefing research subjects immediately after a psychological

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Neurotransmitters are found in the

Select one:

a. cell nucleus.

b. dendritic spines.

c. cell body.

d. synaptic vesicles.

e. mitochondria.

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What purpose or purposes are fulfilled by debriefing research subjects immediately after a psychological experiment?

Select one:

a. It helps the participants understand the reason(s) for the study, and the importance of the study.

b. It allows the researcher to understand how the participants were affected by the study, if at all.

c. It allows the researcher to share the completed study or experiment results with the participants.

d. It helps the researcher compare the participant responses from a different research study method than the one used in the actual study.

e. It helps the researcher determine how the participants should be compensated for their involvement in the study.

f. A and B

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If you close your eyes and touch a sharp object, your initial contact with the object involves which process(es)?

Select one:

a. Transduction

b. Parallel processing

c. Sensation

d. Both sensation and perception

e. Perception

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A mental shortcut that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world is called a

Select one:

a. theory.

b. confirmation bias.

c. schema.

d. mental reference.

e. heuristic.

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The key to understanding human behavior, according to Sigmund Freud, was to focus on _____ and the _____ level of the human mind.

Select one:

a. external factors; conscious

b. external psychologcial process, uncosncious

c. external factors; unconscious

d. internal psychological processes; unconscious

e. internal psychological processes; conscious

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Match each example to the correct principle of scientific thinking.

A study finds that graduate students prefer online courses to traditional courses, and three other studies by other researchers produces similar findings with a sample of graduate students from another school. Answer 1
It is assumed that identical twins will tend to develop very similar personalities because they have the same DNA, suggesting that personality traits are inherited.  At the same time, identical twins are usually raised in the same household, which could suggest that the development of personality is also due to environmental factors. Answer 2
Supporters of psychics claim that because a person can make an accurate prediction, this individual is able to predict any future event and there is no other way to explain the accurate prediction.  However, it would best to first consider the possibility that the “psychic” just had a lucky guess, or had prior knowledge of the given situation that allowed an accurate prediction to be made. Answer 3
A theory asserts that depression and stress, when both are present at the same time, have a reciprocal relationship in which both amplify each other.  Assume this is considered a “good theory” because it can be disproven through testing of hypotheses. Answer 4
A friend witnesses a performer who claims to be a psychic and who can make predictions. During the performance, your friend insists that the ‘psychic’s’ ability to identify specific information about her could only be explained by telepathy or some form of ESP. You insist there are more logical and obvious explanations. Answer 5
Individuals who experience excessive stress as children tend to develop depression during adolescence, however this does not mean that depression is a direct result of stress. Answer 6

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Clay has played professional soccer for seven years and is easily able to tune out the sound of the crowd and all other irrelevant sensory information during the game. Bruce however is a rookie and is often distracted by what his opponents are saying and the mood of the crowd. Clay and Bruce are showing differing levels of

Select one:

a. top-down processing.

b. parallel processing.

c. selective attention.

d. inattentional blindness.

e. absolute thresholds.

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Which of the following is an example of how focused visual attention on a given task can lead people to miss other information?

Select one:

a. Change blindness

b. The cocktail party effect

c. Parallel processing

d. Color blindness

e. Synesthesia

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Place the following stimuli in increasing order (from least 1 to greatest 5) in terms of the “just noticeable difference” concept.

a wind chime Answer 1
a cat purring Answer 2
a person speaking in normal tone Answer 3
an explosion from a bomb Answer 4
an orchestra’s music Answer 5

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Match the behavior with the major region of the brain that is most likely involved

an individual remembers how to solve a math problem Answer 1
an individual reviews all information and decides which colleges to apply at Answer 2
an individual pretends that she is elsewhere during a boring class Answer 3
an individual watches a sad movie, and in response feels sad Answer 4
an individual bites his nails, even though his mom keeps telling him not to Answer 5
an individual is confronted by a burglar with a knife, and must prepare to either stay and fight, or run away Answer 6
a child imagines that she is a physician or a lawyer Answer 7
an individual has trouble with motor coordination and balance due to injury to this area Answer 8
an individual is so accustomed to her morning routine, that she does many actions automatically without thinking about it Answer 9

 

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_____ refers to a claim or statement that superficially appears to be scientific but is not.

Select one:

a. Pseudoscience

b. Misinformation

c. Falsifiability

d. Anecdotal evidence

e. Common sense

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Which of the following statements regarding heritability is accurate?

Select one:

a. Heritability is estimated by family studies, twin studies, and adoption studies.

b. Heritability tells us whether a trait can be changed.

c. Heritability applies to a single individual rather than differences among individuals.

d. Heritability is a fixed number.

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Label the following statements as either (a) placebo effect, (b) nocebo effect, or (c) positive response to experiment method

An individual is taking part in a new sleep medication study.  During the study, she is not given the actual drug being tested, and reports having increased difficulty with sleeping as compared to before starting the study. Answer 1
An individual participates in a study of a new migraine medication.  She is unknowingly assigned to the control group that does not receive the actual drug, and the person experiences fewer migraines. Answer 2
An individual who participates in a study regarding the effectiveness of a new memory recall method.  During the study, she is assigned to the group that is instructed to use a method that is not the one being tested, and reports improved memory. Answer 3
An individual participates in a study regarding effectiveness of a specific individual psychotherapy approach and receives weekly sessions for 12 weeks. She is assigned to the group that receives the therapy method being studied and reports improvement during 12 weeks of treatment and continued improvement in a 9 month follow-up. Answer 4

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The two main divisions of the nervous system are the _____ and _____.

Select one:

a. glands; muscles

b. fight, flight

c. autonomic; somatic nervous systems

d. peripheral nervous system; central nervous system

e. brain; spinal cord

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Zach and David decide to go exploring the forest behind their farm on a cold December day. The fact that they felt much colder when they initially got outdoors than they do five minutes later, despite having done nothing to warm themselves, is known as

Select one:

a. sensory adaptation.

b. transferable adaptation.

c. sensory interaction.

d. sensory illusion.

e. transduction.

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Dr. Sparks is concerned because he gave Julie a new intelligence test that he personally designed and her scores do not seem very consistent. With which aspect of psychological testing is Dr. Sparks concerned?

Select one:

a. Self-report measures

b. Administrator error

c. Falsibility

d. Validity

e. Reliability

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Hormones are chemicals that are secreted and go directly into _____.

Select one:

a. the brain

b. the bloodstream

c. muscles

d. nerve endings

e. specific organs

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Roger feels something land on his hand but has yet to interpret that feeling or identify it. At this point in time, Roger has experienced which process(es)?

Select one:

a. Parallel processing

b. Sensation

c. Perception

d. Synesthesia

e. Both sensation and perception

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Which of the following best describes how psychoactive drugs affect the brain?

Select one:

a. They cause new neural connections to be formed that produce new neurotransmitters

b. They change the types of neurotransmitters that are released

c. They alter the amount and/or action of the various neurotransmitters

d. They create new neurotransmitters

e. C and D

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What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?

Select one:

a. Hypothalamus

b. Amygdala

c. Pituitary gland

d. Thalamus

e. Endocrine system

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What is the main reason that causes the placebo and nocebo effects to occur?

Select one:

a. The expectations of the participants

b. The expected outcomes for the study

c. The way in which the data is analyzed

d. The type of study being conducted

e. The effectiveness of the treatment

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Which psychological school of thought was more focused on how mental processes influenced one’s interpretation of events?

Select one:

a. Cognitive PsychologyCognitivism

b. Structuralism

c. Behaviorism

d. Psychoanalysis

e. Functionalism

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In science a theory is best defined as a(n)

Select one:

a. speculation and opinion of facts.

b. educated opinion about the natural world.

c. personal understanding of natural laws.

d. explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world.

e. testable prediction about the natural world.

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After suffering a brain injury by falling from a ladder, Zack’s wife continues to tell the doctor that his personality has changed. He used to be fun loving and carefree, but he is now more critical and yells at his children for seemingly little reason. Zack is likely to have suffered damage to the _____ lobe of his cortex.

Select one:

a. frontal

b. occipital

c. temporal

d. cerebral

e. parietal

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A psychologist is often skeptical of claims suggesting that

Select one:

a. a person’s culture is an influence on his or her everyday thoughts and behaviors.

b. a particular behavior is the result of a single cause or variable.

c. behavior is too complex to make any predictions.

d. people are influenced by others’ thoughts and behaviors.

e. a person’s future behavior is often easy to predict accurately.

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After a head injury, a person reports that she is unable to see, although her eyes are uninjured. A doctor would suspect an injury in this lobe.

Select one:

a. parietal

b. occipital

c. backal

d. temporal

e. frontal

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Professor Clark gives her students an assignment to develop hypotheses on global warming. To be consistent with a scientific method, students should develop their hypotheses based on

Select one:

a. reports discussed on television.

b. a well-supported scientific theory.

c. their own existing beliefs about the issue.

d. untestable predictions.

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Match the type of processing with the correct example.

an individual experiences stimuli confusion, in which she claims she can hear the color green Answer 1
an individual has developed a belief that depression causes stress, and uses that belief to interpret his behavior in specific situations Answer 2
an individual talks on the phone while cooking dinner and listening to the news channel Answer 3
an individual learns about each step of classical conditioning in order to understand how it occurs Answer 4

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Our subjective (internal) experience and awareness of the world and ourselves is what psychologists refer to as

Select one:

a. consciousness.

b. sensation.

c. unconscious.

d. motivation.

e. perception.

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The _____ nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord.

Select one:

a. central

b. proprioceptive

c. autonomic

d. somatic

e. peripheral

 

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Assign the correct research method to the example:

A questionnaire is given to a sample of high school students from across the  county and the responses are tallied and compared. Answer 1
A researcher watches and records the social behavior of individuals during a major holiday sale at the mall Answer 2
Three individuals who have been diagnosed with a rare disorder are studied in detail, and the researcher makes comparisons between them to better understand the disorder Answer 3
A researcher records the number of students who receive a passing grade in a new course, and compares it to the number of students who receive a passing grade in the previous version of the course Answer 4
A sample of individuals is divided into two groups, one of which receives an antidepressant that is being studied, and the other that receives a sugar pill Answer 5

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A science is defined by

Select one:

a. its depth of knowledge.

b. its concern with solving real-life practical problems.

c. its popularity among the general public.

d. its approach to dealing with evidence.

e. A and B

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Match each example with the corresponding stage of sleep

an individual is experiencing vivid imagery, along with an elevated heart rate and blood pressure Answer 1
an individual is asleep and is very difficult to wake up, even when shook or loudly spoken to Answer 2
an individual is watching TV and gradually begins to doze off, but can be easily awakened Answer 3
an individual’s is asleep and his body temperature decreases, along with brain activity, and his muscles relax Answer 4

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25 year old Stan has been extremely afraid of cats since he was scratched as a 5-year-old. Whenever he sees a cat, he remembers the time he was scratched across his face and starts to feel afraid.  If a cat comes towards him, he often runs away immediately, as he is afraid of being scratched again. Stan’s behaviors and recollection of this trauma are a result of the _____ in the limbic system.

Select one:

a. thalamus

b. hypothalamus

c. medulla

d. amygdala

e. hippocampus

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Michelle constantly tells her boyfriend Niccolai that he doesn’t pay attention to her, and that this is why she tends to nag him to pay attention. Her repeated criticisms cause Niccolai to tune her out, which causes her to nag him even more. This bidirectional pattern of influence is what Albert Bandura would have called

Select one:

a. cyclical impingement.

b. unconscious motivation.

c. reciprocal determinism.

d. the premise of Occam’s razor.

e. scientific skepticism.

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Juanita is holding her pet cat, Belle. Juanita is gathering information about Belle’s weight as she sits on Juanita’s lap, and at the same time Juanita is hearing Belle’s purrs, and noticing Belle’s eye movements and tail twitching. This is an example of

Select one:

a. bottom-up processing.

b. top-down processing.

c. subliminal processing.

d. complementary processing.

e. parallel processing.

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Match the sleep disorder with the correct example

an individual falls asleep, but wakes up three hours later and is unable to fall back to sleep Answer 1
an individual experiences irregular or interrupted breathing periodically while sleeping Answer 2
an individual is in the third stage of sleep, gets up and goes downstairs, but has not recall the next day Answer 3
an individual has just awoke, but is unable to physically move right away Answer 4

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Match the neurotransmitter to the correct effect is helps produce.

helps to mitigate pain sensations and sometimes euphoria after intense exercise Answer 1
increases motivation, interests, and drive, produces feelings of euphoria Answer 2
slows the central nervous system and helps reduce anxiety and stress Answer 3
helps control sleep patterns, mood,and aggression Answer 4
necessary for learning and memory, serves to activates the brain Answer 5
activates muscle contraction and movement Answer 6
supports concentration and the fight/flight response Answer 7

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The tendency to look for supportive evidence, rather than actively seeking out contradictory evidence, is known as

Select one:

a. the confirmation bias.

b. the hindsight bias.

c. belief perseverance.

d. the availability heuristic.

e. the representative heuristic.

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The discipline of psychology is best thought of as

Select one:

a. the scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior.

b. a mixture of anecdotes and personal intuition about human behavior and mental processes.

c. a process for encouraging people to reach their ultimate potential.

d. a field of self-help principles to eliminate mental problems.

e. a study of conscious and unconscious processes.

 

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Left-brained people are

Select one:

a. logical.

b. scholarly.

c. analytical.

d. There is no scientific evidence for left-brained and right-brained individuals.

e. musically inclined.

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The knoblike structures at the far end of the axon are called _____.

Select one:

a. neurons

b. synaptic vesicles

c. axon terminals

d. receptor sites

e. synapses

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What psychological school of thought was most concerned with the influence of the general principles of learning on an organism’s or a person’s actions?

Select one:

a. Cognitivism

b. Functionalism

c. Behaviorism

d. Psychoanalysis

e. Structuralism

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Match the type of drug with the correct example

an individual falls and badly injures a leg and does not seem to be aware of the pain from the injury Answer 1
an individual’s perception of others and the environment is distorted, as if everything becomes wavy Answer 2
an individual shows decreased reaction time and is less responsive to stimuli Answer 3
an individual becomes hyper-excited, but then when the drug wears off becomes exhausted and even becoming depressed Answer 4

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Because people often want to believe they are correct, they are usually reluctant to give up cherished notions. This phenomenon is known as

Select one:

a. the confirmation bias.

b. belief perseverance.

c. the ultiamte attribution error.

d. the fundamental attribution.

e. the availability heuristic.

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Darla was in an automobile accident that resulted in an injury to her brain. Her sense of touch has been affected. Which part of the brain is the most likely site of the damage?

Select one:

a. Parietal lobes

b. Temporal lobe

c. Occipital lobe

d. Frontal lobe

e. Cerebellum

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Malcolm is studying alone in his room late at night when he hears a loud noise downstairs. His heartbeat increases significantly and his breathing becomes shallow. He wonders if a burglar has entered the house and decides to investigate. When he gets downstairs, he discovers his cat has knocked over a plant stand. His body begins to relax and return to normal. Which part of his nervous system is responsible for returning Malcolm to a normal state?

Select one:

a. Spinal cord

b. Sympathetic nervous system

c. Somatic nervous system

d. Parasympathetic nervous system

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Match each step in the scientific method with the correct example.

Sam predicts that studying with a group of fellow students will lead to higher test scores than his studying alone. Answer 1
Sam places his test scores into two categories – one for group studying, and one for independent studying – and finds the mean (average) score for both groups.  He then reviews these mean scores to see which is higher, and by how much. Answer 2
Sam reviews the current literature and takes notes regarding the differences between group and individual study methods in terms of effectiveness on grades. Answer 3
Sam notices that when he studies in a group, he remembers the material better than when he studies alone. Answer 4
Sam develops a plan to prepare for taking three different exams by working with a group of fellow students, and then he prepares for three other exams by himself.  For each test, he then records his test scores. Answer 5
Sam compares the differences in his test scores for the two study methods ( studying alone vs studying in a group) by using his original prediction that group study practice would be more effective than independent study. Answer 6

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Which part of a neuron is a long, tail-like extension that carries messages out to other cells?

Select one:

a. Dendrite

b. Soma

c. Axon

d. Synapse

e. Cell membrane

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A _____ is a fluid-filled space between neurons through which neurotransmitters travel. It is in this area where messages are transmitted chemically.

Select one:

a. terminal button

b. neuronal membrane

c. synapse

d. synaptic vesicle

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Sheila experiences cross-modal sensations, such as seeing sounds and hearing colors. This is called:

Select one:

a. The cocktail party effect

b. Color blindness

c. Change blindness

d. Synesthesia

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The minimum sensitivity of our sensory abilities and systems is demonstrated in our _____ thresholds.

Select one:

a. pain

b. psychophysical

c. difference

d. transduction

e. absolute

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The flight-or-fight response is mobilized by the

Select one:

a. central nervous system.

b. automatic nervous system.

c. sympathetic nervous system.

d. somatic nervous system.

e. parasympathetic nervous system.

 

 

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