Week three discussion phd

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Part 1

Choose one concept, research finding, or question that stood out to you in your readings and content assigned for this week. Find an empirical research article about this that was published in the scientific literature and provide a summary of that article here answering the following questions. Attach the article to your post, and provide an APA style reference for it at the bottom of your post.   

1. What is the item that stood out to you and why?

2. What did the authors of the study you selected examine in their research? What did they hypothesize and why (rationale)?

3. What methods did they use? 

4. What were the most meaningful findings the authors reported?

5. What is one limitation to their study?

6. How do the findings from this study help you better understand the content from this week?

Part 2

Last week we began putting together the gap, rq, and hypothesis for the proposal.  This week we will continue this process by focusing on the types of variables used and potential measurement tools (scales, stimuli) that could be used to measure the variables.  Use the following format to 


Is there a relationship between Variable A and Variable B (in name of population being studied)?


Is there a difference in DV based on level of IV (in name of population being studied)?

Variable Types:

What type of variables (continuous or grouping) do you have and why?


What measures (include names) might you use to test the RQ (one measurement for each variable)? 

Read over the grading rubric for discussions before posting.  Post your initial response by Wednesday. You must make a minimum of two substantive responses to peers on two separate days of the learning week.

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Week Two Program Discussion

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What is the item that stood out to you and why?

Many items have been emphasized in the reading, but the main emphasis is the how the emotions influences the cognitive process in a human being. The article states that the emotion usually have a great influence in the attention. The main perception of the memory is remembering. Based on the cognitive approach, it is found that remembering depends on chronometric time. (Oberlin (2019) .The main reason behind standing with the interrelationship between time and remember is that one is prone to forgetting something as time passes. An aspect that stood out is that remembering is based on feeling and affection. The affection of love that controls many men and women plays an essential role in bringing back the lost sensations. The comparison of involuntary memory on the functionality of Henry Miller and Marcel shows that memory is based on time, and some aspects of love also is a function of memory. Several pieces of research were aimed at looking at the aspects of emotion and attention in the memory and even the colors.

What did the authors of the study you selected examine in their research? What did they hypothesize and why (rationale)?

The researcher’s main objective was to find the relationship between time and memory. The researcher also wanted to examine the relationship between emotion and attention and their effects on memory. The research also looked at the impact of emotion on color and its effects on memory. Some of the questions that the researcher wanted to look at are the influence of memory on the elements of time, color, emotion, and attention. (Zhao (2021). The researcher’s hypotheses stated that memory is influenced by attention and emotion. The main reason behind this hypothesis is that something that is much emotion attracts much attention and thus is driven to the permanent memory. The rationale is that people are more likely to remember the emotional aspects and history than neutral ones and do not pay much attention to them.

What were the most meaningful findings the authors reported?

The finding from the researcher is that there is a great struggle between the mind and the heart. Some core elements of the emotion are fear, anger, and elation. Some cognitive processes’ features entail logic, reasoning, and attention. The study showed that emotions and cognitive processes control people’s behaviors and, thus, their memory. (Gulley & Hankin, (2022). There is much information in the environment in comparison to the processing unit of the memory. Therefore, only a small portion of all the information found in the atmosphere is perceived in the memory.

The brain plays an essential role in selecting the only necessary information that will be perceived in the memory. Several factors dictate the selection in finding the information to be perceived in human memory. The first aspect that the researcher found is attention. According to him, attention is the cognitive process that enhances the perception and processing of specific information. Individual attention is known for focusing on a particular input. Thus personal goals and motivation play a core role in filtering data in the memory.

Concerning an individual memory, stimulus features related to the content of the emotion usually capture the attention. The engagement of attention and emotion starts automatically but is typically accelerated by universal imperative and personal idiosyncratic.

What is one limitation of their study?

Several limitations were identified in this research; the selected population was not separated based on gender. Different genders are well known for having different memories based on past events. For example, women are well known for having a lot of emotions compared to men. According to the researcher’s study, the feeling is a memory factor, it was essential to separate gender in this research. In addition, the number of participants involved in this study was few; thus, sampling could have been subjected to some biasness. There was no grouping of the individuals based on age. Though age plays an essential role in dictating an individual memory, it was not given much attention in the research.

How do the findings from this study help you better understand the content from
this week?

Having read the article, there many things that I can appreciate, such as how negative and positive information influences memory in the respective to neutral information. The negative information triggers an individual’s emotion, thus playing an essential role in memory saving. I can also appreciate the role played by color in our memory. The low level of perception of color influences emotion-induced memory. For example, the red color enhances negative information as it shows danger signals, while green induces a piece of positive information. Red color, therefore, increases a negative memory of the world while green increases a positive memory of something. These two colors have different functions in an individual’s memory.

I can also appreciate why individuals remember an emotional situation compared to the neutral one. This is because most people pay more attention to emotional circumstances than neutral ones. The initiation of emotional stimuli is more robust than neutral stimuli. Measuring of a reaction that plays a core role in our mind under a particular target is slower in the case of emotion as compared to neutral stimuli.

Part 2

RQ: Can diagnosing children at an early age against Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) help increase attention-paying students in the classroom?
IV1: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder program participant (pre versus post)
IV2: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder program participation (yes versus no)
DV: Deviant Behavior Occurrences #Gap: There are many numbers of researches that have been done to identify the cause of deviation of children having troubles in focusing and concentration tasks. Research shows that children with ADHD have difficulty concentrating on tasks and are easily distracted in case of commotion. Those children find it difficult to remain seated in the classroom and like interrupting others when they are playing, speaking or carrying on their tasks. (Bellgrove, & Wang (2021). A study showed that the diagnosis of children with ADHD plays an essential role in reducing the inattentive and hyperactive symptoms which result from the disorders. A study showed that different types of ADHD in children dictate the types of treatment to go through. This type of treatment changes over time. A study shows that many people who experience inattention change their body’s energy levels. People with ADHD have a greater extent of change in their energy levels than those without the condition. With all the above research, there is no correlation in a study on the age limit for diagnosing ADHD. The research also does not show the core cause of the deviation in ADHD stage levels. There is a need for research to be carried out on the levels of disorder and whether it is related to genetics.
Hypothesis: People who undergo a medication program for ADHD at their early stages show less deviance than those who do not undertake the program.


Chapter 33: Kensinger, E. A. & Schacter, D. L. (2016). Memory and emotion. In L. Feldman Barrett, M. Lewis, & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), 
Handbook of Emotions, 4th Ed. (pp. 564-578). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Arnold, M. M. & Lindsay, D. S. (2002). Remembering remembering. 
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 
28(3), 521-529.
Arnold, M. M. & Lindsay, D. S. (2002). Remembering remembering. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28(3), 521-529. – Alternative Formats

Basso, McHale, Ende, Oberlin (2019). Brief, daily meditation enhances attention, memory, mood, and emotional regulation in non-experienced meditators. Behavioural brain research, 356, 819

Chan, Xie, & Zhao (2021, October). A Review of Relationships between Attention and Emotion. In 2021 International Conference on Public Relations and Social Sciences (ICPRSS 2021) (pp. 581). Atlantis Press.

Mullin, Holzman, Pyle, Perks, Chintaluru, Gulley, & Hankin, (2022). Relationships between attention to emotion and anxiety among a community sample of adolescents. Psychological medicine, 52(8), 1548-1559

Faraone, Banaschewski, Coghill, Zheng, Biederman, Bellgrove, & Wang (2021). The world federation of ADHD international consensus statement: 208 evidence-based conclusions about the disorder. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 128, 803.


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