Week 4 discussion

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Intelligence and Adaptive Testing

Based on your understanding of the standard scores (i.e., estimate individual’s scores as above average, average, or below average as compared to his or her classmates), answer the following:

  • Explain at least two situational factors that may impact the usefulness of the different types of standard scores.
  • Which type of standard score—z scores, T scores, stanines, or percentiles—do you think is most useful when communicating assessment results to the general public? Why?
  • What are the advantages or disadvantages of using one type of score over the others?

Submission Details:

  • Submit your document to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned. Respond to at least two posts by the end of the week.
  • Use an APA style reference list with in-text citations in your initial response.
  • Use an APA style reference list with in-text citations in at least one of your two responses to classmates.

Psychological testing results.html

Psychological testing results

The results of a psychological test can be affected by a variety of factors, ranging from the way in which the tests are constructed to the environment the test is given in. The way in which the items on a test are ordered, constructed, and how they prime individuals to think can affect how items are responded to.

Errors made during administration or scoring can lead to unreliable results that do not represent an individuals’ actual intelligence. It is important to ensure that instructions are presented clearly and accurately to test takers.

Environmental factors can also affect results. If a room is too hot, too cold, dimly lit, noisy, or has some other distraction can lead test-takers to respond differently. Bad experiences with testing in the past can lead someone to have higher stress levels when testing. It is impossible to account for each individual’s internal environment and attitudes going into a test, but by making sure that all other factors aren’t interfering with responses, the reliability of a test increases markedly.

When examining test results, they are standardized to represent individual differences in the population. The distribution of all responses is represented graphically as a symmetrical bell curve. The center of the distribution represents the most common response, and the farther away from the center the tails go, the less common they tend to be. Extremes are seen in the responses furthest from the center.

For many published tests, norm tables are provided, and have been created through data collection from individuals across different demographics. Norm tables allow comparisons to be made between a score and the most appropriate demographic group. When this is done, it is assumed that the conditions in the normative sample and the administered test are the same.

Intelligence Testing.html

Intelligence Testing

How would you define intelligence?

Intelligence is a very abstract construct, and therefore, it is difficult to precisely define intelligence. Because there is no single definition of intelligence, there exist a number of theories of intelligence, each with a different idea of what makes up intelligence. Even though psychologists do not agree on what intelligence (or general mental ability) really consists of, being familiar with the theories will help you understand the structure and content of the mental ability tests.

The primary distinction between different theories of intelligence is based on whether the theory views intelligence as a single construct or as an entity consisting of multiple dimensions representing specific abilities.

Intelligence theorists who believe that intelligence consists of only one construct call that construct g, which represents general mental ability. For those theorists who believe that intelligence is made up of multiple constructs, a number of mental abilities should be assessed in the intelligence tests.

One of the most influential contemporary theories of intelligence is the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model. This model states that general intelligence (or g) is composed of two sub-factors: fluid intelligence and crystalized intelligence.

  • Fluid intelligence involves reasoning, conceptual classification, and problem-solving ability. It involves the use of new information in order to solve problems. Intelligence is fluid in the sense that it continuously changes on the basis of new information. Tests that require a respondent to solve problems on the basis of original or novel information test fluid intelligence.
  • Crystallized intelligence involves the knowledge acquired through experience and education. Crystallized intelligence involves using existing knowledge to solve problems. Tests of knowledge such as school tests assess crystallized knowledge.

Week 4 Discussion

Contains unread posts

Viviana Gonzalez Marquez posted Jun 22, 2022 12:37 PM


Standard Scores enable scores from different tests to be compared on the same scale. Standard scores express how far the raw score is from some reference point like the mean in terms of SD. It’s a measure of relative position that is appropriate when the data from the interval or ratio scale of measurement. The most used include Z score, T score, and stanine. (Adeyemi, 2011)

Many situational factors can influence test scores including socioeconomic factors, many studies have shown that children from low-income families statistically perform worse on tests than middle and upper class, state of mind at the time of taking the test, anxiety, and familiarization with the test and set also has an influence on the test results (Machucho, 2018).

Z scores are the difference between the score and the mean divided by the standard deviation. The Z scores transform data into standardized scores that are easier to interpret. This is the most basic standard score, the problem with using this in general public is that involves negative numbers and decimals, and could be difficult to explain to a parent that her son or daughter got a -1.00 on the test in this case this score should be transformed into T scores (Adeyemi, 2011).

T scores represent the number of standard deviations or units of measurement if your score is above or below the average is an alternative to the Z score and it was created with the purpose of obtaining a new set of scores that could be applied to another situation without standardizing the entire set of number (Kaplan, & Saccuzzo, 2017)

Stanine system converts a set of the score into transformed scales which range from 1 to 9 the term comes from standard 9 this standardized to have a mean of 5 and SD approximately 2. Stanines allow us to quickly understand where a test score lies compared to the rest of the test scores, the disadvantage is that stanines are not sized equally and scores in one stanine may be closer to the next stanine compared with their own stanine.

Percentiles the percentile ranks are the percentage of scores that fall below the observed Z scores. In negative scores, the percentage falls below the mean and should be less than 50. There are several ways to obtain the appropriate are under the curve and finding the percentile associated with the negative scores can be tricky. You can find percentile from z score and Z score from percentile. A percentile tells us the percentage of all scores that a test score lies above. Allow comparing different performances when of different ages or grades and are not influenced by the outliers. The disadvantages are that there are no equal interval scores so they cannot be added or subtracted from one another (Kaplan, & Saccuzzo, 2017)


Adeyemi, T. O. (2011, September 25). The Effective use of Standard Scores for Research in Educational Management. Maxwell Science. Retrieved June 22, 2022, from https://maxwellsci.com/index.php

Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2017). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues (9th Edition). Cengage Limited. https://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/books/9781337470469

Machucho, M. (2018, May 13). Factors that affect students’ test scores. Owlcation. Retrieved June 22, 2022, from https://owlcation.com/academia/Factors-That-Affect-Students-Test-Scores

T & Z Scores


T scores and Z scores can often be difficult to understand. Basically using t or z scores is changing a score into a standardized score that can be easier to explain than a raw score that can be so variable. The below graph will also help you with your week 4 assignment.

To simplify,

Z Scores

A Z score (also known as a z value, standard score, and normal score) is used to describe a particular score in terms of where it fits into an overall group of scores. In other words, a Z score is an ordinary score transformed so that it better describes the location of that score in a distribution. A Z score has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.

T Scores

T scores are used to tell individuals how far their score is from the mean. T scores have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. Therefore, if a student’s raw score was converted to a T score and their T score was 70 it would in turn mean that their score was 20 points above the mean. One advantage of using a T score over a z score is that T scores are relatively easy to explain to parents when reporting the student’s assessment scores.” (Area Education Agency, n.d.)


P.S. The graph above with the different types of scores and where they fall on the bell curve will make your life a lot easier for the first question on the week 4 project so you don’t have to do any statistics.

Area Education Agency. (n.d.). Z scores and t scores. Retrieved from

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History & Characteristics of Intelligence Testing.html

History & Characteristics of Intelligence Testing

In the early 1900’s, the first test, the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale, was developed to help classify school students based on cognitive ability. It is the scale off of which several subsequent psychological assessments have been based. This type of testing gives a composite score to a person’s intelligence level, and is based on measures of individuals’ abilities to reason, solve problems, and integrate newly-learned information to reach conclusions. Closer to the middle of the 1900’s, other intelligence tests were being developed, including the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale, which focused on patterns of factors of intellectual skills and shortcomings as well as general cognitive abilities. Several intelligence tests have been made using this scale in the years since its creation.

With the development and evolution of intelligence tests, and an increasing emphasis on measuring perception and motor skills, there became a pressing need for standardization of testing. Standardizing assessments allowed for results to be more reliable and generalizable when extending findings to different subgroups and demographics.

Intelligence tests are meant to measure an individual’s complete intellectual and cognitive capabilities at the time that the test is administered. They are often used in educational settings, such as when evaluating a student in order to ensure that he/she will be placed in the most appropriate level of classes.

All intelligence tests should include behavior samples that have been observed under standardized conditions. The environment should always be kept consistent among test-takers to eliminate the possibility that any variation in scores were due to environmental influences.

Perhaps the most important feature of intelligence tests is the way in which scoring occurs. Good tests have a specific set of rules for scoring; these rules keep examiners’ scoring of the responses consistent and results in a much more reliable test.


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