# List all the element of the set Zp for p=11. Does every element of Zp have an inverse?…

Problem 1 [30pts] a. [3 pts] We know that encryption provides confidentiality. Does it provide privacy? (Explain) b. [3 pt] SHA-256 was used to hash a message, such that SHA-256(“The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog”) = D7A8FBB307D7809469CA9ABCB0082E4F8D5651E46D3CDB762D02D0BF37C9E592. What should be SHA-256(“The quick brown fog jumps over the lazy dog”)? Explain your answer. c. [10 pts] List all the element of the set Zp for p=11. Does every element of Zp have an inverse? Why/why not? For those that do, 5 and 7 (‘cause they are relatively prime with 11) give the inverse for each. Problem 2 [40pts] The following strings are ciphertexts that have been encrypted using one of the classical cryptosystems that were discussed in Chapter 2. Each of them decrypt to an English sentence. Cryptanalyze each one and provide the decrypted plaintext as well as the secret key used to produce it. Explain the process you went through and include any script you used in the cryptanalysis process.

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