managing individual behavior case 1

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Module 1 – Case

Managing Individual Behavior

Assignment Overview

The cases in this class follow an experiential approach. This means you will reflect on your own experience in an organization and then apply the concepts from the module materials to think critically about these experiences and understand them better. The structure of the course and the assignments follow Kolb’s model of the adult learning process, which is discussed on the Module 1 Home page. (If you skipped the Module 1 Home page, you should read it now before you attempt to go any further.)

Case Assignment

Think about an experience you have had where you felt extremely motivated. Then, in a 4- to 6-page paper, analyze this experience according to the Kolb format below. Each subtitle represents a different section of the paper. You can use the subtitles as headings.

Introduction: Discuss the topic of the paper and how you will approach it. It is best to write this section after you have written the rest of the paper.

Concrete Experience: Begin with a specific situation/event. Describe the experience where you felt extremely motivated. Be objective and focus on just the facts: who, what, where, when, and how—similar to how a newspaper article is written—as if you were composing a newspaper article.

Reflective Observation: Reflect upon that experience from the multiple perspectives of other people involved or affected in the experience. Step back from the situation, look at the experience from your own viewpoint, and the viewpoints of all other parties involved or affected. You want to look at the circumstances surrounding the experience from every relevant perspective. Why was the experience motivating to you? What did others do that increased your motivation? Was the situation (or would the situation) also be motivating to others? (Note: Your discussion of theories and models from your module materials belongs in the following section.)

Abstract Conceptualization: Use critical thinking skills in order to understand and interpret the experience at a deeper, more generalizable level. Interpret and understand the events you have described by drawing on the concepts, theories, and models in the background material from this module. What behavior patterns can you identify in yourself and others that are similar to the ones described in the material on motivation, values, and/or goals? How do these concepts and principles explain why you were motivated? What general principles of motivation can you derive from this analysis? Be sure to cite all references to concepts, ideas, and quotes you use that come from any outside source. Be sure to apply at least three concepts, theories, and/or models and cite all references to concepts, ideas, and/or quotes that you use from any outside source.

(This Abstract Conceptualization section is the “heart” of your paper. Using critical thinking skills, provide a clear, specific discussion on the logic, theories, and models and how they apply to your experience.)

Active Experimentation: Identify ways to respond to the next occurrence of a similar experience. How are you going to put what you have learned to use? How will you use this knowledge to motivate yourself and others? What actions will you take to create a work environment that is motivating?

Conclusion: Sum up the main points of your analysis and the key learnings you are taking from it.

Reference List: List all references that you have cited in the paper using APA formatting. References include materials from the required background readings as well as any outside Internet or library sources you used in researching and writing your paper. If you have APA questions, refer to the optional listings on the Background page.

Assignment Expectations

Your paper will be evaluated using the criteria as stated in the Case rubric. The following is a review of the rubric criteria:

  • Assignment-Driven: Does the paper fully address all aspects of the assignment? Is the assignment addressed accurately and precisely using sound logic? Does the paper meet minimum length requirements?
  • Critical Thinking: Does the paper demonstrate graduate-level analysis, in which information derived from multiple sources, expert opinions, and assumptions has been critically evaluated and synthesized in the formulation of a logical set of conclusions? Does the paper address the topic with sufficient depth of discussion and analysis?
  • Business Writing: Is the essay logical, well organized and well written? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate for graduate-level work? Are section headings included? Are paraphrasing and synthesis of concepts the primary means of responding, or is justification/support instead conveyed through excessive use of direct quotations?
  • Effective Use of Information: Does the submission demonstrate that the student has read, understood and can apply the background materials for the module? If required, has the student demonstrated effective research, as evidenced by student’s use of relevant and quality (library?) sources? Do additional sources used provide strong support for conclusions drawn, and do they help in shaping the overall paper?
  • Citing Sources: Does the student demonstrate understanding of APA Style of referencing, by inclusion of proper citations (for paraphrased text and direct quotations) as appropriate? Have all sources (e.g., references used from the Background page, the assignment readings, and outside research) been included, and are these properly cited? Have all sources cited in the paper been included on the References page?
  • Timeliness: Has the assignment been submitted to TLC (Trident’s learning management system) on or before the module’s due date?

Module 1 – Home

Managing Individual Behavior

Modular Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to satisfy the following outcomes:

  • Case
    • Discuss the factors that lead to high motivation.
  • SLP
    • Assess your personality style and create a development plan for your personality type.
  • Discussion
    • Analyze how managers can create jobs that are motivating.

Module Overview

The DBA is an advanced degree in which the student learns to apply theory and models to diagnose and to resolve organizational problems. In the DBA program, you will be exposed to various functional areas of business in relative isolation (such as accounting, finance, & marketing). In the “real” world, however, these functions do not exist in isolation. It is necessary to study them separately so as to grasp the principles of a discipline and develop competencies to master your discipline and to apply theory to practice. As your coursework progresses, you will increasingly be asked to synthesize your knowledge of the functional areas. But one cannot run before learning to walk, so first we will be focusing on building a strong foundation, one course at a time. This course focuses on the field of management and human behavior in organizations.

Even though at first you will be dealing with your discipline in terms of its functional areas, it is good from the beginning to learn to view organizations as “open systems,” where the subsystems of the organization interact with each other, and the whole system interacts with its environment. Having this perspective will help you to see how the material covered in each individual class interacts with what you are learning in other classes—and thus the organization as a whole.

For a PowerPoint presentation discussing open systems, the field of management, and its challenges generally, view Introduction to Organizations.

A good place to start this course is by examining the effect of the changing environment on organizations. The United States is continually becoming more diverse and business more global in its operations. The way organizations manage their structures, people, communications, and processes (such as teams) are all critical to thriving in an era of unprecedented change and volatility. This reading will give you insights into the challenges that will face managers and leaders in the next 50 years. This course will give you the foundation necessary to navigate these challenges.

Aghina, W., De Smet, A, & Heywood, S. (2014). The past and future of global organizations. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/organization/the_past_and_future_of_global_organizations

Experiential Approach

I hear and I forget

I see and I remember

I do and I understand

—Confucious

We will be taking an experiential approach to learning this material. What this means is that you will be asked to reflect on your own experiences in organizations and use the concepts from the course to think critically about these experiences and understand them better. The structure of the course and the assignments follow Kolb’s model of the adult learning process. According to Kolb’s model, adults do not learn by simply reading or watching videos. Adult learning begins with a specific situation/event or Concrete Experience. The learner then Reflects on that experience from multiple perspectives. Once the experience is fully understood, the learner applies logic, known theories, and models in order to understand and interpret the experience at a deeper, more generalizable level (Abstract Conceptualization). Thus, the learner can now see ways to respond to the next occurrence of a similar experience (Active Experimentation).

By using an experiential learning approach, the emphasis is on improving skills in management, interpersonal relations, decision-making, and managing change. By relating management competencies to personal experience, we will be learning how to learn and adapt our knowledge to changing environments.

Advantages of Experiential Learning

  • Develop leadership capabilities to a significant level
  • Easy to transfer knowledge and skills
  • People and consequences are real
  • Provides a memorable activity and increases retention of concepts learned
  • Increases motivation to learn

Watch David Kolb explain why experiential learning is so powerful:

Hay Group (2012). What is Experiential Learning? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ZeAdN4FB5A

Module 1 – Background

Managing Individual Behavior

Note: All Background and Module Home materials are required unless designated as optional or general reference.

Module 1 focuses on the principles of individual behavior so that you can learn to manage people effectively. We are concerned here not only with managing subordinates, but also managing relationships with peers and developing effective relationships with superiors. It is best if you approach this module in three distinct sections. Start with values, attitudes, and perception. The second section will cover motivation and the third section will cover goal setting and job design as tools to maintain motivation.

Values, Attitudes, and Perceptions

Often we assume that the way we perceive and experience the world is the same way other people do. This assumption is false and can lead to ineffective leader and manager behaviors. Understanding how attitudes and perceptions influence individual behavior and performance at work is important to organizational study. Read in Organizations, Management and Leadership how personality, values, perceptions, and attitudes affect work behaviors.

Bauer, T., Erdogan, B., Short, J., and Carpenter, M. Chapter 3: Personality, Attitudes, and Work Behaviors. In Principles of Management. Retrieved from http://scholar.flatworldknowledge.com/books/29741/fwk-127512-ch02/read

Many people believe that a happy worker is a productive worker, but research tells us that people can be highly satisfied with their jobs and still not get much done! Nevertheless, organizations have reasons to care about employees’ satisfaction with their jobs. The following reading is an excellent explanation of the job satisfaction model and why it is important to maintaining a highly productive workforce.

Redmond, B.F. & Bower, C.P. (2015). Job satisfaction. In Work Attitudes and Job Motivation. Retrieved from https://wikispaces.psu.edu/display/PSYCH484/11.+Job+Satisfaction

Motivation and Job Design

With a variety of values, perceptions, and attitudes, people are not motivated by the same things. The following reading summarizes key theories to help you understand what motivates you and those around you. Be sure to watch the 4-minute video at the start of the article.

Motivation and motivation theory (2015). In Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business(2nd ed.) Retrieved from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Mar-No/Motivation-and-Motivation-Theory.html

Learn about the importance of job design in creating and maintaining a work environment that employees will find motivating. See the following talk on the Job Characteristics Model of Motivation:

Theories of Motivation: The Job Characteristics Model (2015). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUWsFHQsbh0

Goal Setting

Since the 1960s, management scholars have touted the effectiveness of setting high, but achievable, goals in attaining high levels of performance from employees. The following article reviews goal-setting theory and how to put it into practice.

Locke’s goal-setting theory: Setting meaningful, challenging goals. (2015). MindTools: Essential Skills for an Excellent Career. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_87.htm

Once we understand the power and potential of goal-setting, it is easy to overdo it. Here is a cautionary tale from the Harvard Business Review:

High goals often improve performance, but they also exacerbate unethical behavior: In one research exercise, the participants given the hardest math problems were 84% likelier to cheat than other participants, on average. The researchers—David T. Welsh, of the University of Washington, and Lisa D. Ordóñez, of the University of Arizona—say that demanding tasks deplete people’s self-regulatory resources over time, and that managers should be aware of the negative organizational consequences of consecutive rigorous goals.

Source: Stat Watch (2014). Harvard Business Review, 92(6), 28

Optional Reading

Early Management Theorists

To gain an understanding of the evolution of management thinking from an historical perspective, see this excellent article:

Wertheim, E.G. (2012) Historical Background of Organizational Behavior. Scribd. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/6926402/Historical-Background-of-Organizational-Behavior

The following paper is an overview of four important areas of management theory: Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management, Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Works experiments and the human relations movement, Max Weber’s idealized bureaucracy, and Henri Fayol’s views on administration. It will provide a general description of each of these management theories together with observations on the environment in which these theories were applied and the successes that they achieved.

Kerns, D. (n.d.). An overview of management theory. http://www.kernsanalysis.com/sjsu/ise250/history.htm

Management by Objectives (MBO)

1000ventures.com’s e-coach site has a thorough discussion on MBO including hotlinks throughout the discussion for further information. Also on this site are links to case studies, venture financing, and managing.

Management by Objectives (MBO). (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/mgmt_mbo_main.html

Ethical Values in Business

The Society for Business Ethics’ homepage includes the organization’s mission statement, newsletter, annual meeting, ethics links, and access to its journal, Business Ethics Quarterly.

Society for Business Ethics (2015) Retrieved from http://sbeonline.org/

Governing Corporations

Corporate Governance serves as a discussion forum and network for shareholders and stakeholders who believe active participation by concerned shareholders in governing corporations will enhance their ability to create wealth. The site provides news, Internet links, and a small reference library supported by purchases through Amazon.com.

Corporate Governance (2015) Retrieved from http://www.corpgov.net/

General References

The following site is full of useful articles and information on 675 different topics, including leadership, motivation, interpersonal skills supervision, and many more. Be sure to bookmark this site as it will be useful to you throughout the course and many others in the DBA curriculum.

Free Management Library (n.d.) Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/

Berry’s online glossary of business terms (retrieved from www.bplans.com) is a useful reference.

Berry, T. (n.d.) Business terms glossary. BPlans. Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/

APA Formatting

APA guide – In-text citations and end referencing. (2015). Trident University International.

If you need additional guidance on the use of APA Style in the proper formatting of papers, visit the Purdue OWL website: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/pdf/20090212013008_560.pdf

You also may find the following YouTube video helpful:

APA Formatting: The Basics. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdAfIqRt60c&list=PL8F43A67F38DE3D5D.

Required Reading

Aghina, W., De Smet, A, & Heywood, S. (2014). The past and future of global organizations. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/organization/the_past_and_future_of_global_organizations

Bauer, T., Erdogan, B., Short, J., and Carpenter, M. Chapter 3: Personality, Attitudes, and Work Behaviors. In Principles of Management. Retrieved from http://scholar.flatworldknowledge.com/books/29741/fwk-127512-ch02/read

Bunn, R. (2013) Intro to Organizational Behavior. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2Xv9Am7PWQ

Hay Group (2012). What is Experiential Learning? Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ZeAdN4FB5A

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory. Retrieved from http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/herzberg/

Humanmetrics: Jung Typology Test. (2013). http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/JTypes1.htm

Locke’s goal-setting theory: Setting meaningful, challenging goals. (2015). MindTools: Essential Skills for an Excellent Career. Retrieved from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_87.htm

Louis, D. J. (2015) Notes on the job characteristics model.

Motivation and motivation theory (2015). In Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business (2nd ed.) Retrieved from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Mar-No/Motivation-and-Motivation-Theory.html

Redmond, B. F. & Bower, C. P. (2015). Job satisfaction. In Work Attitudes and Job Motivation. Retrieved from https://wikispaces.psu.edu/display/PSYCH484/11.+Job+Satisfaction

Theories of Motivation: The Job Characteristics Model (2015). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LUWsFHQsbh0

Optional Reading

Berry, T. (n.d.) Business terms glossary. BPlans. Retrieved from http://articles.bplans.com/business-term-glossary/

Corporate Governance (2015) Retrieved from http://www.corpgov.net/

Free Management Library (n.d.) Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/

Kerns, D. (n.d.). An overview of management theory. http://www.kernsanalysis.com/sjsu/ise250/history.htm

Management by Objectives (MBO). (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/mgmt_mbo_main.html

Society for Business Ethics (2013) Retrieved from http://sbeonline.org/

Wertheim, E. G. (2012) Historical Background of Organizational Behavior. Scribd. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/6926402/Historical-Background-of-Organizational-Behavior

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