Unit IV Reflection Paper For this assignment, you will imagine that it is now 1796; you are a Revolutionary War/War for Independence soldier or a patriot who was unable to fight.

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Unit IV Reflection Paper

  • Weight: 11% of course grade
  • Grading Rubric
  • Due: Tuesday, 02/22/2022 11:59 PM (CST)

Instructions

For this assignment, you will imagine that it is now 1796; you are a Revolutionary War/War for Independence soldier or a patriot who was unable to fight.

Write a reflection paper that explains the conflicting perspectives on the founding of the American nation during this time period. Discuss events that contributed to the development of the U.S. Constitution during this time period. Are the philosophies that you fought for/advocated for decades ago still represented today, in 1796? What principles and philosophes have changed? What principles and philosophies remain in place?

Your paper must be a minimum of two pages in length.

Adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. APA formatting, however, is not necessary.

Resources

 

 

Study guide

  1. Summarize the impact of foreign and local governments on civilian morale. 3.1 Discuss the conflicting perspectives associated with the founding of the American nation. 4. Compare the influence of political parties on society, government, and culture. 4.1 Identify significant events related to the development of the U.S. Constitution. 5. Discuss the evolution of American philosophies or ideals. 5.1 Describe the competing visions of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 3.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 7: Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790 (5 sections) Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820 (1 section) Webpage: Articles of Confederation Webpage: U.S. Constitution Webpage: Bill of Rights Video Segment: “An Empire for Liberty: A Land of Beauty” Video Segment: “An Empire for Liberty” Video Segment: “The Miracle in Philadelphia” Video Segment: “Establishing Precedents: Controversial Changes” Unit IV Reflection Paper 4.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 7: Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790 (5 sections) Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820 (1 section) Webpage: Articles of Confederation Webpage: U.S. Constitution Webpage: Bill of Rights Video Segment: “An Empire for Liberty: A Land of Beauty” Video Segment: “An Empire for Liberty” Video Segment: “The Miracle in Philadelphia” Video Segment: “Establishing Precedents: Controversial Changes” Unit IV Reflection Paper 5.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 7: Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790 (5 sections) Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820 (1 section) Webpage: Articles of Confederation Webpage: U.S. Constitution Webpage: Bill of Rights Video Segment: “An Empire for Liberty: A Land of Beauty” Video Segment: “An Empire for Liberty” Video Segment: “The Miracle in Philadelphia” Video Segment: “Establishing Precedents: Controversial Changes” Unit IV Reflection Paper UNIT IV STUDY GUIDE Securing the Early American Republic HIS 1301, American History I 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Throughout this course, you will be provided with sections of text from the online resource U.S. History. You may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of the material listed below as well as the information presented in the unit lesson. This unit’s chapter/section titles are provided below. Chapter 7: Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790, Sections Introduction, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, and 7.4. Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820, Section 8.1. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. (n.d.). Articles of Confederation. https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/articles-of-confederation U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. (n.d.). The Constitution of the Unites States: A transcription. https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/constitution-transcript U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. (n.d.). The Bill of Rights. https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/bill-of-rights The transcripts for these videos can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database. Discover what happened behind closed doors during the Constitutional Convention as 55 men debated the infant country’s government revolution. PBS (Producer). (2002). The miracle in Philadelphia (Segment 3 of 8) [Video]. In Revolution: Freedom, a History of US. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=44248&loid=113257 With the ratification of the United States Constitution complete, it was time for the first presidential inauguration and presidential cabinet selection, which only clarified the philosophical division within America. PBS (Producer). (2002). Establishing precedents: Controversial changes (Segment 5 of 8) [Video]. In Revolution: Freedom, a History of US. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=44248&loid=113259 President Thomas Jefferson struggled over the Louisiana Purchase, but it allowed for tremendous opportunity for the new country as a result of discoveries from Lewis and Clark’s expedition. PBS (Producer). (2002). An empire for liberty (Segment 6 of 8) [Video]. In Revolution: Freedom, a History of US. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=44248&loid=113260 America was founded on freedom, but as Dr. Eric Foner reminds us, it is a history in which not all were granted freedoms initially that reminds of the importance of freedom today. PBS (Producer). (2002). An empire for liberty: A land of beauty (Segment 7 of 8) [Video]. In Revolution: Freedom, a History of US. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=44248&loid=113261 HIS 1301, American History I 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Unit Lesson During the American Revolution and War for Independence, a mutual goal had been the galvanizing force that secured American unity. But now, as a sovereign nation, with domestic and international responsibilities, there was a need to again rally support to ensure a stable government. The removal of the crown’s influence did ensure that a new government could form, but independence alone does not a government make. The process to create the modern constitutional republic that the U.S. has today took multiple steps and revisions. A New Government In 1781, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union Between the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia,, dubbed by many America’s first constitution, was put into place. This document, a set of agreements determining the powers and responsibilities of the state and national government, is a representative look at the concerns of the American people as they separated from the British government. The Articles outlined strict limitations on the federal government while maintaining its responsibility to act as the unified voice of the new nation under the authority of a single congress of 13 delegations. Regardless of land size or population, each state had a single vote but could send multiple delegates. The congressional responsibilities included diplomacy, foreign relations, trade regulation, and ensuring a working postal service. The overwhelming consensus by these early delegates was the need to avoid a powerful central (federal) government in order to ensure that a new monarch would never emerge. However, what the Congress of the Confederation, under the Articles was not granted were the essential tools to create this new government, nor the reasonable ability to amend the law enough to make these changes. Additionally, for the federal government to be funded, it was the request of the Congress of the Confederation for the states to determine which collections went to the federal government and which to the state governments. Though currency was officially a federal requirement, each state had its own bank system. Also, it was the state that taxed the citizen, not the federal government. What this caused was an unequal financial responsibility for an equal vote—more population meant more tax dollars, but still only one vote, and there was no repercussion if the state forbade the funding of a mutual government with state currency. This presented a problem, because just like today, if the tax flow is inconsistent or short, the programs that depend on the money cannot operate. After the War for Independence, America owed France, Spain, and private Dutch investors money it borrowed for the new country’s aid and support. All bills of this type must be paid by a recognized national or world currency; however, with little tax support, the continental dollar stalled, and the money in banks could not compensate as their inflation rates were constantly changing. Not only did this put the economy into dangerous waters, but it also brought negative attention to the nation’s claim of unity and status—its sovereignty. So, why not simply amend the law to fix this oversight? There were two issues: 1. Taxpayers did not trust a strong central government because of their previous experience under a monarchy, and they were likely unwilling to support any powers of the state being transferred to the nation. Today, there is a general national culture across diverse regions, and most citizens would The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, written on six pieces of parchment, was ratified in 1781. (The National Archives, 2009) HIS 1301, American History I 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title never see the national government in action. However, from the earliest local governments, the colonies/states saw themselves as independent entities with unique identities, needs, and cultures. This is partly why the attempts at quickly fostering a sense of nationalism were important as the war ended. 2. The original inception of the Articles of Confederation needed to ensure that any laws or amendments must benefit the overwhelming majority of citizens. Depending on what the change was, it may have required seven, nine, or even all 13 states to vote, which was very difficult as it was not always guaranteed to have full representation present, or even enough for quorum. Problems With the Articles of Confederation As a confederation, the states were first locally governed. Each state wrote and ratified its own personal constitution, while the federal government’s role, in its limited capacity, was to appease the interests of that state, not the nation. Several states would include a bill of rights to outline the limitations of the federal government. As can be expected, with the differences between regions and the power struggle between state and federal authority, there was soon to be a series of debates. The most glaring was arguably the debate over slavery, which would start in the states but quickly blossom into the national forum. The local government was likely more visible to the common voter than the federal government, which also meant that local government was more likely to hear the voice of the common voter. Regarding who could vote and what rights they had also differed by state. Common qualifications such as property ownership, gender, race, and age, though defined differently throughout the states, brought forth voter segregation. This segregation was applicable to keeping those who were considered too out of touch with the government process to make the best decisions—a reasoning that enraged some upper class women to challenge this law, including future First Lady Abigail Adams. When these educated women discovered that some states left women out of the discussion altogether, they came to the polls. These demonstrations prompted some of the first amendments to state constitutions in order to ensure the status quo. African Americans, too, had difficulty in voting. Many states ensured that free African American men had to take great leaps to ensure their rights, often restricting voting to White males with property qualifications. For example, in Georgia, a White male had to own 50 acres of land to vote, whereas in Delaware, 50 acres of land was required, plus £40 of personal property. The Articles’ challenges and limitations did not end with its attempted design to bring forth unity in keeping the states united. In only a few years’ time, debt from the War for Independence, owed internationally and to the American people, had remained unpaid. Soldiers had not been paid, citizens had not been recompensed, and those European nations that stepped in to sway the war’s outcome demanded America’s attention. The states, as a loose association, simply did not have the strength, finances, or unity to represent themselves as one economic entity. There needed to be a centralized national authority. The Final Straws Along with these pressures, the relationships with neighboring Native Americans were still relatively hostile after the War for Independence. The most pressing issues were land disputes between states and tribes. Soon, the United States would begin its controversial push to the western lands, starting with the Northwest Territory, and this relationship would suffer like never before. The rhetoric of good faith would not be enough to compensate those who would lose their rights and claims. Native Americans would see that finding common ground with the American nation would prove difficult. Despite the protests of the majority of Americans, those with the power continued to refine the meanings of freedom and citizenship. HIS 1301, American History I 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title As the debts began to pile and multiply, again and again, Congress requested taxation from the states to use in relation to foreign powers and individuals. States, though, did not successfully collecting enough funds each and every year. Making this worse was the pattern of upper-class representation of the less wealthy, causing a lack of sympathy. With the common man taxed to the breaking point, and quite often having not received due pay, chaos ensued. An example of such chaos is Shay’s Rebellion, which occurred as a result of veterans of the War for Independence protesting against the state of Massachusetts for lack of payment for services rendered during the war. As a result of this lack of compensation, the soldiers who had returned were unable to pay their own debts and could be placed in debtor’s prison. Daniel Shay, who served as captain in the 5th Massachusetts Regiment of the Continental Army during the War for Independence was one of these veterans facing the possibility of debtor’s prison. Shay returned home to farm his land and serve his community in Pelham, Massachusetts after the war, one of those roles was to lead his community in their protests. Wealthy merchants called upon a militia of 3,000 to protect their businesses from the protesting citizens. While a series of events took place between 1786 and 1787, this rebellion is best remembered for its clash at the U.S. Armory in Springfield, Massachusetts. Shay and 16 others were arrested for treason, but were eventually released before seeing a hangman’s noose. Shay’s Rebellion forced the leaders of the country to take note of the realities of the struggles that continued to harm the now-free nation. Even though this challenge was too small to significantly destabilize the Union, the fact that these rebels were willing to take up arms was a grave concern to the young nation, considering the rhetoric of the Revolution had centered on the rebellion against unfair taxation and poor government representation. A Convention It was clear that the Articles of Confederation were not working, and the dream republic was dying; a new government was necessary. Hoping to amend these articles, leaders from the 13 states were called to Annapolis in 1786, but only five delegations showed. Without a quorum, the only decision made was to meet in Philadelphia in May 1787, but this proved to be the scene of a political revolution. This second attempt to address the flaws in the Articles successfully received representatives from 12 of the 13 states, but there were some notable holdouts. Rhode Island sent no one but was not the only outlier, as New York retained only the outspoken and over-ambitious Alexander Hamilton, and the fiery Patrick Henry felt something was amiss and refused to take part. Among those gathered in the Pennsylvania statehouse, the same place where the Declaration of Independence was written, was an unlikely sampling of the population. Each man was a highly educated, upper crust member of society, and (with few exclusions) from a generation raised in the ethos of revolution and the War for Independence. This gathering, however, was far different from the Sons of Liberty that used physical assault and personal sacrifice to rally troops against the oppressive British. Instead, this was a snapshot of the America’s political future: highly dogmatic, well-bred, and masters of rhetoric. In May 1787, about 55 men met secretly. It was the beginning of a sweltering summer, but the doors remained shut and the windows nailed down because no discussion could be allowed to be overheard. The simplest Image of Daniel Shay (l) and Job Shattuck (r), leaders of the Massachusetts “Regulators” during Shay’s Rebellion. (Cover of Bickerstaffs Boston Almanack, 1787) A contemporary image of the Pennsylvania statehouse, also known as Independence Hall., located in Philadelphia. (Mys 721tx, 2019) HIS 1301, American History I 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title misunderstanding outside could be enough to destroy confidence in the existing government. Within the halls, the stirring debate only increased the tension and temperature; a range of topics were brought forth to debate, ranging from state laws to federal offices. Questions such as what laws were subject to federal veto, repercussions to increasing federal power, the justification of the slave trade, what a slave’s value in the census would be, and whether a federal office should be voted on by the people were discussed at length. The primary dividing line, however, was the population debate. The states that had amassed both a large area and population, such as Virginia, felt that a single vote per state had been unfair to those they represented under the Articles of Confederation and suggested instead that population census dictate the number of votes given. States with smaller populations, such as New Jersey, identified the disparity and argued how if one region was able to sway the vote, then their population was no longer represented at all. The two plans for government that emerged were called the Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan. Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan 1. Votes given were based solely on population. 1. Votes given were equally based per state. 2. A bicameral Congress was proposed. 2. A unicameral Congress was proposed. 3. Congress can override states on matters. 3. Federal levels can require state action on matters. 4. Ratification of voting would be secured by popular vote. 4. Ratification of voting would be secured by state vote. After weeks of chaos, and on the verge of likely dissolution, both sides understood that they had to provide concessions, and from both plans emerged the Great Compromise, which is the foundation for the modern U.S. government structure. The compromise included the following: the office of the President moved from Congress into the executive office; a bicameral Congress was established with a House of Representatives (based on population) and Senate (equal representation), where the federal government had the ability to weigh in on state laws except where protected; and a system of state primaries was created to determine a statewide representative vote to ensure republican ideals. When the debates ended, the Constitution was signed by almost all, and sent for ratification. Ratification Fight Nine states had to approve the Constitution, but that in itself was going to be a fight. The Americans did not know that their government under the Articles of Confederation was expected to change and were still wary of a centralized (federal) entity, even if there were multiple branches that would assist in a system of checks and balances. In the final days of the British colonies, it was both George III and Parliament that outwardly denied representation and leniency, which led to the revolt. With the common man having little role in politics, it was not hard to imagine this situation developing again. The people were, however, lucky because of the deepening rivalries within the political elite, and the fact that it was the people who voted in the state conventions, not the legislators. As the ratification efforts began, some considered the point moot. Six states—New York, New Hampshire, Virginia, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Rhode Island—would not ratify the Constitution as it was. These states represented the largest populations or simply did not hold conventions. Either way, it mathematically stopped the potential for successful ratification. To vocalize and debate the intricate details of the proposed Constitution, two groups emerged: the Federalists (pro-ratification) and Anti-Federalists (anti-ratification). HIS 1301, American History I 7 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The immediate reaction to the mathematics problem caused the Federalists to emerge first. Their first action was to secure the states they could: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Maryland, and South Carolina came first. All of these had reasons for supporting a centralized authority. Surprisingly, Massachusetts, a larger-population state with reasons to support states’ rights, narrowly changed with the promise of amendments, and with eight for and only five against, there was a chance. With the change of heart by Massachusetts, the Anti-Federalists emerged and used the power of recent memory to illustrate the dangers of an overbearing central power. To be clear, though the two sides were near-polar opposites, the Anti-Federalists were not necessarily anti-central government. These supporters feared the potential for federal corruption because the rights of states were not clearly included in a bill of rights, such as those that several state constitutions had included to check their own powers. To appeal to the common people, these AntiFederalists painted the Federalists as elitists trying to ensure that elitists kept power. They pointed out the problems with a distant representative, the mathematics of addressing individual concerns, and they resurrected much of the same propaganda used by the patriots against the British. On June 21, 1788, with the promise of 20 amendments being put on the ballot for a bill of rights, New Hampshire flipped. A small state with a smaller population, this was likely the last possible option for the Federalists because the rest could economically survive as an independent entity. To unite the nation, there was still work to be done, and to aid the campaigns, both sides began putting their platforms on paper in the Federalist Papers and Anti-Federalist Papers. In May 1790, Rhode Island, the last to hold out, finally ratified the proposal, and the young nation was again united. To calm the fears of these states, more than 20 proposed amendments and 30 changes were promised to go before Congress in its first session in hopes of building a bill of rights and securing the balance with states’ rights. This period in building the United States is sometimes forgotten in the wake of war and powerful first leaders, but creating the nation took years of tiring effort from some of the most educated and enlightened minds in history. From declaring independence in July 1776 to the final ratification in May 1790, the new nation began with a rocky start, but strong leadership and determination saw it through. As the last of the old guard left, the still-divided younger generation came to maturity and to power. With their emergence, the nation again divided and found itself on the brink of war with an old ally. A New Government To clarify possible confusion, it is first important to note that after this paragraph, any mention of the term “president” in this course will reflect the context of the U.S. chief executive; however, the term “Office of the President” did not begin with George Washington. The modern U.S. government, as we know from this lesson, did not start in 1776. In the years 1774 to 1789, there were 16 appointments to the position of president, each for a one-year term. These 14 men (both Peyton Randolph and John Hancock held the position twice, non-sequentially) served as moderator and presiding officer of the Continental Congress. Appointed, and given little power, this was a largely ceremonial role, a way to help keep order in session but not to influence it. Similarly, one role of the With the approval of New Hampshire on June 21, 1788, the U.S. Constitution was officially ratified and became official on March 4, 1789. Nevertheless, the framers continued their efforts for all of the states to ratify the Constitution. (Constitutional Convention, 1787) (Publius, 1788) HIS 1301, American History I 8 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title modern vice president is to preside over the U.S. Senate, but with this position comes other responsibilities not granted to the President of the Continental Congress, including the potential ability to vote. King Washington? On April 30, 1789, with the ratification debate finally settled, the modern American government officially began with the inauguration of George Washington in 1789. The hero of American independence, Washington was the first chief executive unanimously elected by the Electoral College to the position of chief executive and commander in chief under the new government structure. Having successfully led the fight against Great Britain, Washington was easily the most recognized, respected, and legendary figure in the new nation; there was truly no other relevant choice to unite the people. His first term, however, was full of uncertainty. The 1790s served as a key turning point in the fate of the young nation. First, while leaders such as Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams moved into new political employment, other Founding Fathers passed on, most notable being Benjamin Franklin. As an entrepreneur, philosopher, abolitionist, political activist, diplomat, ambassador, and inventor, Franklin was truly a Renaissance man at the heart of the new nation’s development. His death in 1790 drew the attention and respect of dignitaries on both sides of the Atlantic. Washington also set the mold for the cabinet. Not officially a mandated requirement, Washington knew that he needed his most trusted advisors in a closed session to balance his ability to govern a nation, and four such positions came together to create the first cabinet: • Henry Knox, Secretary of War • Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of Treasury • Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State • Edmund Randolph, Attorney General None of these four men remained in these positions throughout the entirety of Washington’s two elected administrations, but he quickly filled any holes with another qualified candidate. It can be assumed that part of the reason for the abdications was the classic idea of familiarity breeding contempt. With the new titles and responsibilities, and with the changing of the political guard from elder statesmen to younger, a new spirit began to emerge throughout the capitol. Starting with the Federalists, who no longer needed to plead their ratification rhetoric, their success granted not only political influence but also ambition. Best known as one of the Federalist Papers authors, Alexander Hamilton was perhaps the most aggressively vocal, to the point where his brash views irritated even his allies. He and his sternest opponent and fellow cabinet member, Thomas Jefferson, bitterly fought over issues such as debt, and foreign policy. It was clear that these two gifted politicians found it nearly impossible to find common ground. Issues as trivial as the appropriate title for public gatherings were debated by the statesmen. Washington’s vice president, John Adams, was especially vocal about implementing monarchical designations. Washington, however, remained steadfast about his anti-crown intentions and pushed for a less ornate title. As vice president, Adams was not part of the cabinet, and in fact, was purposely separated from it, presumably to avoid the temptation of creating a pseudo prime minister, which was so familiar to the American leadership in the British style. Adams hated this position, saying to his wife Abigail Adams: “My country has in its wisdom contrived for me the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.” Inalienable Rights Also in a new role would be James Madison. Now a congressional representative for his home state of Virginia and previously a co-author of the Federalist Papers, he was first and foremost responsible to his neighbors and peers. Like his fellow Virginian, Jefferson, Madison understood and preached agrarian values that superseded any previous rapport he had with pro-ratification leader Hamilton. This new view from Hamilton scared his former friend, causing him to declare Hamilton’s economic plans unsuitable to the American people’s needs. Even Hamilton’s most like-minded peers feared his ambition, such as Adams, who dismissed his influence as elitist and vengeful. There were clear battle lines being drawn among the most HIS 1301, American History I 9 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title powerful men in the United States. It was a political powder keg, and the first divide in the new nation would only await the necessary opportunity to emerge. Just as Washington, the first executive, was having inaugural meetings, so was the first bicameral Congress. On their plate would be a topic of great passion and pressure: the Bill of Rights. To remind from the previous unit, ratification was only successful upon condition of this bill being passed; 80 possible amendments were suggested. In all, 12 amendments were debated, and only 10 received the necessary votes to pass. Several of these omitted amendments eventually made their way into the Constitution, however, including the voting rights amendments. What is remarkable about these rights is not so much what they say, but their relevance even today. It is true that a few are a bit outdated, such as the freedom from quartering soldiers in private homes, but it is not too far of a stretch to consider if that would have been the case in even the last century during the nation’s darkest days. And there are others, of course, such as the right to gun ownership, which remain a constant debate—not so much for the spirit of the original bill, but on how it is interpreted today. The first eight amendments focused on personal freedoms—the Constitution had outlined the “inalienable rights” of all men, so these guaranteed the rights of citizens. The final two are sometimes overlooked, but may have been the most significant of the time. These established the boundary between state and federal powers and guaranteed that the federal government could not assume powers that were unexpected by this first congress. One of the more unlikely outcomes of this new set of rights involved women. Although this was a nation “by the people, for the people,” women were largely second-class citizens concerning the political day-to-day of the nation. This, in tandem with vast changes in agricultural and factory innovations, such as the cotton gin and new roads, promoted a renewed emphasis on male dominance in economics, politics, and society. Also, with a growing American population, the growing family size was clearly visible, which left many women at home. A new ideal, however, did emerge, which some historians called “Republican Womanhood” or “Republican Motherhood.” This was essentially the role of the wife and mother to be educated, virtuous, and a strong teacher for the next generation of great Americans. One of the key names from this movement is Judith Sargent Murray. Her work, “On the Equality of the Sexes,” promoted this increase in education and ensured that it would not take away from the tradition and sweetness of women in the role of mother and wife. Women were expected to become champions of the public good—a source of political support in the home to reinforce the nationalistic causes taught in schools, workplaces, and among the political elite. Battle Lines Returning to the center of government, Hamilton, despite his abrasive nature, was very good at his job. He had a knack for understanding economic patterns, and his Report on Public Credit in 1790 showed how the nation that had struggled so mightily under the Articles of Confederation had quickly reversed its fortunes. Oddly enough, as smart as he was, he was often at a loss for practical convention. On the brink of ensuring financial security and repaying loans, Hamilton suggested the retention of a debt as a way of building equity and giving the richest of Americans and American institutions a stake in the success of the nation. He suggested that the federal government assume state debts to individuals and handle federal debts to partner nations. He foresaw this as a way to increase spending, which would have caused the economy to keep working, not unlike a modern stimulus package, and allow individuals the means to take care of debts in the interim, much like modern credit. The next step was to establish a bank to create a common currency, and to ensure its use, to trump the size of local banks. It would be so large that the federal government would only control 20% of the assets, while the rest belonged to individual investors. As economically savvy as this was, to doubters such as Madison, this was just asking for a small population to essentially take firm control over the government, which meant the likely dismissal of the voice of those without such means. Also, having the federal government taking over state debts could give the national government powers that the Bill of Rights was meant to protect. Despite his doubts, Madison could not stop the bank from emerging. Washington saw the potential in such a system and signed off on the bank in 1791. HIS 1301, American History I 10 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Jefferson and Madison did win one fight. A plan to increase manufacturing, which was heavily dominated in the North and very rare in the rich Southern growing fields, never even made it to the floor of Congress. Many of the representatives saw the fears associated with this as a gamble for the nation. Unsurprisingly, Hamilton’s strategy for financing these plans was specifically geared away from the wealthy elites he expected to support him. Instead, it landed on a product more common to agricultural communities: whiskey. After a few years’ time, uprisings such as the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 quickly brought public attention to the growing political divide, not unlike the impact of Shays’ Rebellion. Washington’s Resignation In 1792, after four prosperous years, Washington was reelected with the same confidence that earned him his first term. In his four years, he had administered great political changes, but also oversaw domestic pressures, including his diplomatic approach to Native Americans—most notably with the Creeks in the Southwest and the Ohio tribes. Internationally, Europe was heating up with issues ranging from conflicts on the continent, such as the festering relationships between crown and country in France, and off the continent, such as rebellions on slave-dominated plantations of the Caribbean. When Britain and France went to war in 1793, American loyalties were first tested. Washington, hoping to stay out of the fray, passed the Proclamation of Neutrality, which set the tone for the new nation to try and remain neutral in foreign affairs on future occasions, always ending in the fall toward war. Despite this, the French continued to benefit from American shipping while the British did not. Many Americans, still angry about how they were treated and the war’s effect on personal property and slave evacuations, were slow to support Britain. It was this international chaos that finally sparked that powder keg developing in Washington’s cabinet. Hamilton and British sympathizer John Jay were sent to negotiate with the British concerning the one-sided trade and American demands. Britain, with a strong influence in what is now Canada, remained a threat to the young nation. What he returned with only heightened emotions. A new treaty between the United States and Britain, Jay’s Treaty, gave the British their desired trade and ensured that American debts would be paid to England, with interest. The treaty did not account for any compensation for the many enslaved people taken or request expeditious removal of remaining British troops in America. These conditions were a direct blow to planters, Native Americans, and those of anti-British sentiment—none of whom were commonly Federalist supporters. The terms barely passed through Congress, even with a strong pro-Federalist stance, and the votes clearly showed a separation in ideals. The printing of the conditions for all Americans led to public burnings of the treaty and effigies of Jay throughout the nation. France would not take this agreement well, ending its alliance with the United States. With that, the powder keg was lit, and even Washington could no longer keep the rival sides together. As the dust settled from the Jay Treaty, the nation woke up to a new political divide. Those of the North who supported industry, Britain, and Hamilton’s fiscal plans came together to form the Federalist Political Party (not to be confused with the ratification group of a decade prior). In response, those of agrarian means, who did not support the Jay Treaty, and who saw the recent economic policies as a threat, merged under the leadership of Jefferson and Madison. In 1796, George Washington made a move that few believed he would. After two terms in office, he quietly and bloodlessly stepped down—a final sign of his faith in the republic he helped build. Washington’s Vice President, John Adams, technically a Federalist, but not a fan of Hamilton’s attitude or ambition or Jay’s negotiation, ran against his dear friend and political peer, Jefferson. 1796 Election Vying to take over for Washington in 1797 would be Washington’s Vice President, John Adams, and the man with whom he had waged a vocal campaign, former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson. During his time in the cabinet, Jefferson and Hamilton developed a deep rivalry, one that included significant international and domestic beliefs that countered each other. Jefferson saw that Washington and Hamilton were quite inseparable, and Adams also shared many of the same federalist (as in a heavy federal government) beliefs, while Jefferson feared a big government. This would become the root of the first two-party system. Though very close with Hamilton and Adams, Washington remained publicly, feverishly anti-party, even warning of the dangers of sectionalism and factionalism within the nation. HIS 1301, American History I 11 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Banking on the name recognition, Adams, Hamilton, John Jay, and other like-minded citizens developed the first political party: the Federalists. On the other side, Jefferson, Madison, and like-minded compatriots would respond with directly opposing views on numerous issues: Federalists Democratic-Republicans 1. Strong support of the Jay Treaty and trade with Britain 1. Remained loyal to the French whose influence helped win the war 2. Strong supporters of distant, centralized government 2. Feared centrality would hurt the planter and farmer and advocated a local government 3. Proponent of wealthy elites influence in the government 3. Feared the needs of the majority underclass would go unheard 4. Mainly Northeastern and urban support 4. Majority of support came from the planters and regular citizens By the midpoint of Washington’s second administration, the battle lines were set, and Washington’s fears were visibly coming to fruition. What had already been an unstable union was now directly divided down economic lines, with a heavy emphasis of higher class Northern industry leaders supporting Adams and planters supporting Jefferson’s Republicans. Adams would win the most votes, Jefferson second, and the remaining candidates a distant third and fourth. With this, Adams moved into Washington’s shadow and Jefferson became vice president, a very dangerous position of great power and little responsibility for the outspoken Republican leader. References Constitutional Convention. (1787). Constitution of the United States [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Constitution_of_the_United_States,_page_1.jpg Cover of Bickerstaff’s Boston Almanack. (1787). Daniel Shays and Job Shattuck [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Daniel_Shays_and_Job_Shattuck.jpg Mys 721tx. (2019). Exterior of the Independence Hall [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Exterior_of_the_Independence_Hall,_Aug_2019.jpg Map of the U.S. showing the breakdown of how each state voted in the 1796 election. (U. S. Geological Survey, n.d.) HIS 1301, American History I 12 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Publius. (1788). The Federalist [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Federalist_(1st_ed,_1788,_vol_I,_title_page).jpg U.S. Geological Survey. (n.d.). Electoral College 1796 [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ElectoralCollege1796-Large.png U.S. National Archives. (2009). Articles of Confederation [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Articles_of_Confederation_(3695598804).jpg

 

 

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