Treatment Plan for Psychopharmacology

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS REPORT 2

SAMPLE

Assignment: Decision Tree

For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources, consider how you might assess and treat pediatric clients presenting symptoms of a mental health disorder.

The Assignment:

Examine Case 2 You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and treatment for this client. Be sure to consider co-morbid physical as well as mental factors that might impact the client’s diagnosis and treatment.

At each Decision Point, stop to complete the following:

· Decision #1: Differential Diagnosis

· Which Decision did you select?

· Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

· What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

· Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1 and the results of the Decision. Why were they different?

· Decision #2: Treatment Plan for Psychotherapy

· Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

· What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

· Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2 and the results of the Decision. Why were they different?

· Decision #3: Treatment Plan for Psychopharmacology

· Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

· What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

· Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3 and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

· Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and communication with clients and their families.

Note: Support your rationale with a minimum of three academic resources. While you may use the course text to support your rationale, it will not count toward the resource requirement.

Case #2 Anxiety disorder, OCD, or something else?

8-year-old black male

 

BACKGROUND

Tyrel is an 8-year-old black male who is brought in by his mother for a variety of psychiatric complaints. Shaquana, Tyrel’s mother, reports that Tyrel has been exhibiting a lot of worry and “nervousness” over the past 2 months. She states that she notices that he has been quite “keyed up” and spends a great deal of time worrying about “germs.” She states that he is constantly washing his hands because he feels as though he is going to get sick like he did a few weeks ago, which kept him both out of school and off the playground. He was also not able to see his father for two weekends because of being sick. Shaquana explains that although she and her ex-husband Desmond divorced about 2 years ago, their divorce was amicable and they both endeavor to see that Tyrel is well cared for.

Shaquana reports that Tyrel is irritable at times and has also had some sleep disturbances (which she reports as “trouble staying asleep”). She reports that he has been more and more difficult to get to school as he has become nervous around his classmates. He has missed about 8 days over the course of the last 3 weeks. He has also stopped playing with his best friend from across the street.

His mother reports that she feels “responsible” for his current symptoms. She explains that after he was sick with strep throat a few weeks ago, she encouraged him to be more careful about washing his hands after playing with other children, handling things that did not belong to him, and especially before eating. She continues by saying “maybe if I didn’t make such a big deal about it, he would not be obsessed with germs.”

Per Shaquana, her pregnancy with Tyrel was uncomplicated, and Tyrel has met all developmental milestones on time. He has had an uneventful medical history and is current on all immunizations.

 

OBJECTIVE

During your assessment of Tyrel, he seems cautious being around you. He warms a bit as you discuss school, his friends at school, and what he likes to do. He admits that he has been feeling “nervous” lately, but when you question him as to why, he simply shrugs his shoulders.

When you discuss his handwashing with him, he tells you that “handwashing is the best way to keep from getting sick.” When you question him how many times a day he washes his hands, he again shrugs his shoulders. You can see that his bilateral hands are dry. Throughout your assessment, Tyrel reveals that he has been thinking of how dirty his hands are; and no matter how hard he tries to stop thinking about his “dirty” hands, he is unable to do so. He reports that he gets “really nervous” and “scared” that he will get sick, and that the only way to make himself feel better is to wash his hands. He reports that it does work for a while and that he feels “better” after he washes his hands, but then a little while later, he will begin thinking “did I wash my hands well enough? What if I missed an area?” He reports that he can feel himself getting more and more “scared” until he washes his hands again.

 

MENTAL STATUS EXAM

Tyrel is alert and oriented to all spheres. Eye contact varies throughout the clinical interview. He reports his mood as “good,” admits to anxiety. Affect consistent to self-reported mood. He denies visual/auditory hallucinations. No overt delusional or paranoid thought processes were apparent. He denies suicidal ideation.

Lab studies obtained from Tyrel’s pediatric nurse practitioner were all within normal parameters. An antistreptolysin O antibody titer was obtained for reasons you are unclear of, and this titer was shown to be above normal parameters.

 

 

Decision Point One

BASED ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THE SCENARIO ABOVE, WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING DIAGNOSES WOULD THE PMHNP GIVE TO TYREL?

In your write-up of this case, be certain to link specific symptoms presented in the case to DSM–5 criteria to support your diagnosis.

 

 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

 Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (“PANDAS”)

ANSWER CHOOSEN Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

 

 

 

Decision Point Two

BASED ON THE ABOVE INFORMATION, SELECT YOUR NEXT ACTION. BE CERTAIN TO DISCUSS THE RATIONALE FOR YOUR DECISION.

 

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-red.pngBegin Zoloft 50 mg orally daily

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-blue.pngBegin Fluvoxamine immediate release 25 mg orally at bedtime

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-yellow.pngBegin Fluvoxamine controlled release 100 mg orally in the morning

 

 

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-red.pngDiscontinue Zoloft and begin Fluvoxamine controlled release 100 mg orally every morning In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this. Zoloft is FDA-approved to treat OCD in children. However, between ages 6 and 12, it should be started at 25 mg orally daily. If starting doses are too high, the child may experience side effects that he associates with the medication and as such, may refuse to take the medication. Starting at too high a dose can result in unfavorable side effects (gastrointestinal side effects are notable in this drug), and we can see that Tyrel is experiencing nausea and decreased appetite. In this case, it is recommended to wait to see if the side effects dissipate. Decreasing the dose to 12.5 mg orally daily for about 3 or 4 days, then going back to 25 mg orally daily may help to overcome the unfavorable side effects. If side effects persist, the PMHNP may need to consider switching to a different medication.Fluvoxamine controlled release is not FDA-approved for use in children with OCD (see “Special Populations: Children and Adolescents” in the Fluvoxamine monograph of Stahl’s Prescriber’s Guide for further details). Fluvoxamine 100 mg orally daily may not be tolerated in the morning secondary to the drug’s sigma-1 antagonist properties, which can cause sedation. Dosing of Fluvoxamine should be such that the larger dose is given in the evening to minimize daytime sedation. It is also worth noting that nothing in the scenario tells us that the Zoloft will not be effective.

 

ANSWER CHOOSEN: https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-blue.pngBegin Fluvoxamine immediate release 25

mg orally at bedtime

 

 

· Client returns to clinic in four weeks

· Upon return to the clinic, Tyrel’s mother reported that he has had some decrease in his symptoms. She states that the frequency of the handwashing has decreased, and Tyrel seems a bit more “relaxed” overall.

· She also reports that Tyrel has not fully embraced returning to school, but that his attendance has improved. She reported that over this past weekend, Tyrel went outside to play with his friend from across the street, which he has not done in a while.

RESULTS OF DECISION POINT TWO

·  Client returns to clinic in four weeks

· Upon return to the clinic, Tyrel’s mother reported that he has had some decrease in his symptoms. She states that the frequency of the handwashing has decreased, and Tyrel seems a bit more “relaxed” overall.

·  She also reports that Tyrel has not fully embraced returning to school, but that his attendance has improved. She reported that over this past weekend, Tyrel went outside to play with his friend from across the street, which he has not done in a while.

 

 

Decision Point Three

BASED ON THE ABOVE INFORMATION, SELECT YOUR NEXT ACTION. BE CERTAIN TO DISCUSS THE RATIONALE FOR YOUR DECISION.

 

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-red.pngIncrease Fluvoxamine to 50 mg orally at bedtime

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-blue.pngAugment with an atypical antipsychotic such as Abilify

https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-yellow.pngAugment treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy

 

 

ANSWER CHOOSEN: https://mym.cdn.laureate-media.com/2dett4d/Walden/NURS/6660/05/mm/decision_tree/img/pill-red.png Increase Fluvoxamine to 50 mg orally at

bedtime

Guidance to Student

In terms of an actual diagnosis, the child’s main symptoms are most consistent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. There may also be an element of social phobia developing, but at this point, the PMHNP has not assessed the nature of the school avoidance—that is, why is the child avoiding school. Notice that nothing in the scenario tells us that the PMHNP has assessed this.

Fluvoxamine immediate release is FDA-approved for the treatment of OCD in children aged 8 years and older. Fluvoxamine’s sigma-1 antagonist properties may cause sedation and as such, it should be dosed in the evening/bedtime.

At this point, it would be appropriate to consider increasing the bedtime dose, especially since the child is responding to the medication and there are no negative side effects.

Atypical antipsychotics are typically not used in the treatment of OCD. There is also nothing to tell us that an atypical antipsychotic would be necessary (e.g., no psychotic symptoms). Additionally, the child seems to be responding to the medication, so there is no rationale as to why an atypical antipsychotic would be added to the current regimen.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is the psychotherapy of choice for treating OCD. The PMHNP should augment medication therapy with CBT. If further assessment determines that Tyrel has social anxiety disorder, CBT is effective in treating this condition as well.

 

Learning Resources

Required Readings

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

· Chapter 31, “Child Psychiatry” (pp. 1253–1268)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

· “Anxiety Disorders”

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). (2012a). Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry51(1), 98–113. Retrieved from http://www.jaacap.com/article/S0890-8567(11)00882-3/pdf

 

McClelland, M., Crombez, M-M., Crombez, C., Wenz, C., Lisius, M., Mattia, A., & Marku, S. (2015). Implications for advanced practice nurses when pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is suspected: A qualitative study. Journal of Pediatric Health Care29(5), 442–452. doi:10.1016/j.pedhc.2015.03.005

Stahl, S. M. (2014). Prescriber’s Guide: Stahl’s Essential Psychopharmacology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

  

To access information on the following medications, click on The Prescriber’s Guide, 5th Ed. tab on the Stahl Online website and select the appropriate medication.

 

SEE BELOW THE ANSWER TO THE ABOVE DECISION TREE EXAMPLE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Decision Tree: Personality Disorders

Frank Jones Sam’s University

Nurs 3333: PMHNP Role IV

Dr. Joe Mark

October 20 , 2010

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Running head: DECISION TREE 1

DECISION TREE 2

 

 

Decision Tree: Personality Disorders

As described by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2013), ‘‘personality disorder is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment’’. There are different types of personality disorders classified into three clusters. Cluster A individuals are described as the odd or eccentric, cluster B as the dramatic, emotional, or erratic and cluster C as the anxious or fearful. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the case study of a young woman with personality disorder. This paper will explore threes decisions relating to differential diagnosis, psychotherapy and psychopharmacology based on the presented clinical manifestations.

Decision One

The clinical manifestation presented in the case study are indicative of more than one personality disorder, specifically borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Patients exhibits a fear of abandonment which aligns with BPD. The patient mentioned an interpersonal relationship involvement which she exhibited idolization for the man of her interest, and now is devaluing the man. This is also evident in BPD as outlined by diagnostic criteria set forth by the APA (2013).

My diagnosis for this patient is ASPD, because the client exhibits clinical manifestations of ASPD than BPD. One of the reasons that led me to the diagnosis of ASPD is the client’s lack of remorse. The client stole from a friend, instead of being sorry, client’s blames friend instead. Client exhibits lack of respect for social norm and failure to comply with the law as evidenced by more than one record of arrest. The client fails to upholding financial obligation and is deceitful. Client shows irresponsibility evidenced by inability to keep a job. These presentations are evident in clients with ASPD as outlined in the DSM-5.

The two personality disorders which are classified as cluster B personality disorders by the APA (2013) have clinical manifestations which overlap, thus needs to be ruled out as differential diagnoses for each other. As described on the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, BPD and ASD have similar features of impulsivity, aggression and manipulative behaviors, which client exhibits in the case study. The differing manifestation between the two is that in BPD, clients seek out interpersonal relationship, while ASPD client is unable to form any attachment to relationship. Clients with BPD exhibit self-mutilating behaviors and self-aggression, while in ASPD, aggression is directed on others. In ASPD clients are egocentric (also seen in narcisstic personality disorder), while BPD clients have a poor image of self.

Decision Two

Since the client exhibits symptoms which are synonymous with one more than personality disorder, specifically borderline and antisocial; the best decision is to opt to conduct a psychological testing. This will to further help the practitioner to decipher between the two diagnoses or conclude that patient indeed has the two personality disorders which is a possible occurrence. Psychological testing can be in the form of rating scales which includes questionnaires, checklists e.t c. According to Sadock, Sadock and Ruiz (2014), these scales are useful for monitoring patient overtime or to provide a comprehensive assessment information that was not obtained during a routine clinical interview.

There is limited evidence from existing literatures on the effectiveness of medications to target the core symptoms of ASPD. Khalifa et al. (2010) mentions that pharmacological interventions are not to be considered as monotherapy but as adjunctive intervention to target associated symptoms of ASPD such as depression, aggression etc. The option of Haldol, an antipsychotic medication can be used to address aggression but does not treat the core features of the disorder such as lack of remorse, deceitfulness. Furthermore, the plethora of side effects known to be caused by the medication can increase noncompliance. Psychotherapy can be beneficial, but psychodynamic is not appropriate for this patient because it may require patient to address emotional states. According to Hesse (2010), probing about ‘feeling states’ is unhelpful because the ASPD client may have difficulty accessing such state and may become aggressive when made to confront personal shortcoming.

Decision Three

In decision three, the recommendation is for a group-based cognitive therapy. Latuda an antipsychotic can be used to treat aggression but not the core symptoms of ASPD. Dialectical behavioral therapy will be more appropriate in the client with BPD than in ASPD. The most cited effective psychotherapeutic approach used in ASPD is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This approach helps the client address distorted beliefs about self, others and the world. CBT can be used to enhance social and intrapersonal functioning.

A group setting may be beneficial for these clients as they may be able to learn from others experience or information shared about self. Psychotherapy for ASPD should be met with skepticism, but Hesse (2010) suggested that approaches that includes employing moral reasoning, cognitive behavioral approach, applying a social information processing approach, and planning for relapse prevention should be used. Additionally, the clients need a high level of external structure that includes supervision of the patient and reinforcement of positive social behaviors to yield increased outcomes for ASPD clients (Hesse, 2010).

 

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Due to the clinical manifestation of ASPD, some clinicians believe that it is hopeless to treat ASPD clients due to their clinical manifestation of aggression, deceitfulness and manipulation. Clients tends to be noncompliant, fueling the clinician’s pessimism. Existence of pessimism can hinder practitioners from upholding the ethical principles to do no harm and to do the best for the patient to full capacity. Hatchet (2015), implores clinicians to turn to published studies to become more aware of treatment options and to avoid expert opinions or clinical myths in regards to treating clients with ASPD. For these clients, autonomy may be purposely compromised to prevent harm to the patient and to others. This is seen in cases where patient refuse to comply with treatment plan or ordered into treatment and remain in treatment until deemed fit to come out of treatment.

Conclusion

It is essential for the practitioner to be knowledgeable about personality s disorder to effectively care for the patient. The practitioner should explore various options of medication, used to target accompanied symptoms. Psychotherapy, even though some might argue of its effectiveness, should not be ruled out. Assessment tools should be used to guide the clinicians, in diagnosing, especially with disorders that have overlapping symptoms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Khalifa, N., Duggan, C., Stoffers, J., Huband, N., Völlm, B. A., Ferriter, M., & Lieb, K. (2010). Pharmacological interventions for antisocial personality disorder. The cochrane database of systematic Reviews, (8). Doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007667.pub2

Hatchett, G. T. (2015). Treatment guidelines for clients with antisocial personality disorder. Journal of mental health counseling, 37(1). Retrieved from Walden University Database

Hesse, M. (2010). What should be done with antisocial personality disorder in the new edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-V)? Biomed central medicine8(66). DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-8-66

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

 

R

unning

head:

 

DECISION TREE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

SAMPLE

 

Assignment: Decision Tree

 

For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources,

consider how you might

 

assess and treat pediatric clients presenting symptoms of a mental health

disorder.

 

The Assignment:

 

Examine

Case 2

:

You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and

treatment for this client. Be sure to consider co

morbid physical as

 

well as mental factors that

might impact the client’s diagnosis and treatment.

 

At each Decision Point, stop to complete the following:

 

·

 

Decision #1: Differential Diagnosis

 

o

 

Which Decision did you select?

 

o

 

Why did you select this Decision? Support your respon

se with evidence and

references to the Learning Resources.

 

o

 

What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your

response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

 

o

 

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve w

ith Decision #1

and the results of the Decision. Why were they different?

 

·

 

Decision #2: Treatment Plan for Psychotherapy

 

o

 

Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and

references to the Learning Resources.

 

o

 

What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your

response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

 

o

 

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2

and the results of the Decision. Why were t

hey different?

 

·

 

Decision #3: Treatment Plan for Psychopharmacology

 

o

 

Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and

references to the Learning Resources.

 

o

 

What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your

response

 

with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

 

o

 

Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3

and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

 

·

 

Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treat

ment plan and

communication with clients and their families.

 

Note:

 

Support your rationale with a minimum of three academic resources. While you may use

Running head: DECISION TREE 1

SAMPLE

Assignment: Decision Tree

For this Assignment, as you examine the client case study in this week’s Learning Resources,

consider how you might assess and treat pediatric clients presenting symptoms of a mental health

disorder.

The Assignment:

Examine Case 2: You will be asked to make three decisions concerning the diagnosis and

treatment for this client. Be sure to consider co-morbid physical as well as mental factors that

might impact the client’s diagnosis and treatment.

At each Decision Point, stop to complete the following:

 Decision #1: Differential Diagnosis

o Which Decision did you select?

o Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and

references to the Learning Resources.

o What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your

response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

o Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #1

and the results of the Decision. Why were they different?

 Decision #2: Treatment Plan for Psychotherapy

o Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and

references to the Learning Resources.

o What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your

response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

o Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #2

and the results of the Decision. Why were they different?

 Decision #3: Treatment Plan for Psychopharmacology

o Why did you select this Decision? Support your response with evidence and

references to the Learning Resources.

o What were you hoping to achieve by making this Decision? Support your

response with evidence and references to the Learning Resources.

o Explain any difference between what you expected to achieve with Decision #3

and the results of the decision. Why were they different?

 Also include how ethical considerations might impact your treatment plan and

communication with clients and their families.

Note: Support your rationale with a minimum of three academic resources. While you may use

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