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Business & Society Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management

NINTH EDITION

A R C H I E B . C A R R O L L University of Georgia

A N N K . B U C H H O L T Z Rutgers University

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

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Business & Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management, Ninth Edition

Archie B. Carroll Ann K. Buchholtz

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WCN: 02-200-203

 

 

Brief Contents

Preface xvii About the Authors xxiv

PART 1 Business, Society, and Stakeholders 1 CHAPTER 1 The Business and Society Relationship 2

CHAPTER 2 Corporate Citizenship: Social Responsibility, Performance, Sustainability 27

CHAPTER 3 The Stakeholder Approach to Business, Society, and Ethics 64

PART 2 Corporate Governance and Strategic Management Issues 95 CHAPTER 4 Corporate Governance: Foundational Issues 96

CHAPTER 5 Strategic Management and Corporate Public Policy 127

CHAPTER 6 Issue, Risk, and Crisis Management 147

PART 3 Business Ethics and Management 175 CHAPTER 7 Business Ethics Fundamentals 176

CHAPTER 8 Personal and Organizational Ethics 216

CHAPTER 9 Business Ethics and Technology 262

CHAPTER 10 Ethical Issues in the Global Arena 292

PART 4 External Stakeholder Issues 325 CHAPTER 11 Business, Government, and Regulation 326

CHAPTER 12 Business Influence on Government and Public Policy 354

CHAPTER 13 Consumer Stakeholders: Information Issues and Responses 377

CHAPTER 14 Consumer Stakeholders: Product and Service Issues 409

CHAPTER 15 Sustainability and the Natural Environment 432

CHAPTER 16 Business and Community Stakeholders 462

PART 5 Internal Stakeholder Issues 489 CHAPTER 17 Employee Stakeholders and Workplace Issues 490

CHAPTER 18 Employee Stakeholders: Privacy, Safety, and Health 516

CHAPTER 19 Employment Discrimination and Affirmative Action 540

Cases 567 Subject Index 675 Name Index 691

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Contents

Preface xvii About the Authors xxiv

PART 1 Business, Society, and Stakeholders 1

C H A P T E R 1

The Business and Society Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Business and Society 5

Business Defined 5 Society Defined 6

Society as the Macroenvironment 6 A Pluralistic Society 7

Pluralism and Its Strengths and Weaknesses 8 Multiple Publics, Systems, and Stakeholders 8

A Special-Interest Society 9 Business Criticism and Corporate Response 10

Factors in the Social Environment 10 General Criticism of Business: Use and Abuse of Power 15 Balance of Power and Responsibility 19 Business Response: Concern and Changing Social Contract 19

Focus of the Book 21 Managerial Approach 21 Business Ethics Theme 21 Sustainability Theme 21 Stakeholder Management Theme 22

Structure of the Book 22 Summary 24 Key Terms 25 Discussion Questions 25 Endnotes 25

C H A P T E R 2

Corporate Citizenship: Social Responsibility, Performance, Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a Concept 28 Historical Perspective on CSR 29 Modifications of the Economic Model 30 Evolving Meanings of CSR 31 A Four-Part Definition of CSR 32 The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility 34 CSR in Practice in Business 37

Traditional Arguments Against and For CSR 39 Arguments Against CSR 39 Arguments for CSR 40 The Business Case for CSR 41

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Corporate Social Responsiveness 42 Corporate Social Performance 43

Carroll’S CSP Model 44 Corporate Citizenship 46

Broad Views 47 Narrow Views 47 Drivers of Corporate Citizenship 47 Benefits of Corporate Citizenship to Business Itself 48 Stages of Corporate Citizenship 48 Global Corporate Citizenship 50 Corporate Citizenship Awards by Business Press 51

Social Performance and Financial Performance Relationship 52 Three Perspectives on the Social-Financial-Reputation Relationship 52

Sustainability—Profits, People, Planet 55 The Triple Bottom Line 55

Socially Responsible, Sustainable, Ethical Investing 57 Summary 58 Key Terms 59 Discussion Questions 59 Endnotes 59

C H A P T E R 3

The Stakeholder Approach to Business, Society, and Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Origins of the Stakeholder Concept 65

What Is the Stake in Stakeholder? 65 What Is a Stakeholder? 66

Who Are Business’s Stakeholders? 66 Three Views of the Firm: Production, Managerial, and Stakeholder 67 Primary and Secondary Stakeholders 67 A Typology of Stakeholder Attributes: Legitimacy, Power, Urgency 69

Stakeholder Approaches 72 Strategic, Multifiduciary, and Synthesis Approaches 72

Three Values of the Stakeholder Model 72 Descriptive Value 73 Instrumental Value 73 Normative Value 73

Key Questions in Stakeholder Management 73 Who Are the Organization’s Stakeholders? 74 What Are Our Stakeholders’ Stakes? 77 What Opportunities and Challenges Do Our Stakeholders Present? 78 What Responsibilities Does a Firm Have toward Its Stakeholders? 79 What Strategies or Actions Should Management Take? 80

Effective Stakeholder Management 82 Stakeholder Thinking 83

Developing a Stakeholder Culture 84 Stakeholder Management Capability 85

Level 1: Rational Level 85 Level 2: Process Level 85 Level 3: Transactional Level 85 Stakeholder Engagement 86

Contents v

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The Stakeholder Corporation 88 Principles of Stakeholder Management 88 Strategic Steps toward Global Stakeholder Management 88

Implementation 89 Summary 90 Key Terms 90 Discussion Questions 91 Endnotes 91

PART 2 Corporate Governance and Strategic Management Issues 95

C H A P T E R 4

Corporate Governance: Foundational Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Legitimacy and Corporate Governance 96

The Purpose of Corporate Governance 98 Components of Corporate Governance 98

Problems in Corporate Governance 100 The Need for Board Independence 101 Issues Surrounding Compensation 101 The Governance Impact of the Market for Corporate Control 105 Insider Trading 105

Improving Corporate Governance 108 Legislative Efforts 108 Changes in Boards of Directors 109 Board Diversity 109 Outside Directors 110 Use of Board Committees 110 The Board’s Relationship with the CEO 111 Board Member Liability 112

The Role of Shareholders 114 Shareholder Democracy 114

The Role of the SEC 115 Shareholder Activism 116

The History of Shareholder Activism 116 Shareholder Resolutions 117 Shareholder Lawsuits 117

Investor Relations 118 An Alternative Model of Corporate Governance 119 Summary 120 Key Terms 121 Discussion Questions 121 Endnotes 122

C H A P T E R 5

Strategic Management and Corporate Public Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 The Concept of Corporate Public Policy 127

Corporate Public Policy Defined 127 Corporate Public Policy and Strategic Management 128 Relationship of Ethics to Strategic Management 128

vi Contents

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Four Key Strategy Levels 129 Four Strategy Levels Described 129 Emphasis on Enterprise-Level Strategy 130

The Strategic Management Process 135 Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility 135 Measuring Sustainable Corporate Performance 137

Public Affairs As a Part of Strategic Management 140 The Corporate Public Affairs Function Today 141

Public Affairs Activities and Functions 142 PA’s Place at the Table 142 Future of Corporate PA in the 21st Century 143

Summary 143 Key Terms 144 Discussion Questions 144 Endnotes 144

C H A P T E R 6

Issue, Risk, and Crisis Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 The Relationships Between Issue, Risk, and Crisis Management 148 Issue Management 149

Two Approaches to Issues Management 149 The Changing Issue Mix 150 Issue Definition and the Issue Management Process 152 Issue Development Process 157 Issue Management in Practice 158

Risk Management 159 Risk Management and Sustainability 160

Crisis Management 160 The Nature of Crises 161 Managing Business Crises 165 Crisis Communications 166 Successful Crisis Management 168

Summary 170 Key Terms 171 Discussion Questions 171 Endnotes 171

PART 3 Business Ethics and Management 175

C H A P T E R 7

Business Ethics Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 The Public’s Opinion of Business Ethics 179

Are the Media Reporting Business Ethics More Vigorously? 180 Is Society Changing? 181

Business Ethics: Meaning, Types, Approaches 181 Descriptive versus Normative Ethics 182 Three Major Approaches to Business Ethics 183 The Conventional Approach to Business Ethics 183 Ethics and the Law 185 Making Ethical Judgments 186

Contents vii

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Ethics, Economics, and Law—A Venn Model 187 Three Models of Management Ethics 189

Immoral Management 190 Moral Management 193 Amoral Management 196 Two Hypotheses Regarding the Models of Management Morality 199

Making Moral Management Actionable 201 Developing Moral Judgment 201

Levels of Moral Development 202 Different Sources of a Person’s Values 205

Elements of Moral Judgment 209 Moral Imagination 209 Moral Identification and Ordering 209 Moral Evaluation 209 Tolerance of Moral Disagreement and Ambiguity 210 Integration of Managerial and Moral Competence 210 A Sense of Moral Obligation 210

Summary 212 Key Terms 212 Discussion Questions 213 Endnotes 213

C H A P T E R 8

Personal and Organizational Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Ethics Issues Arise at Different Levels 217

Personal Level 217 Organizational Level 218 Industry or Profession Level 219 Societal and Global Levels 219

Personal and Managerial Ethics 219 Principles Approach to Ethics 220 Ethical Tests Approach 228

Managing Organizational Ethics 231 Factors Affecting the Organization’s Moral Climate 233 Improving the Organization’s Ethical Culture 235

Best Practices for Improving an Organization’s Ethical Culture 236 Top Management Leadership (Moral Management) 237 Effective Communication of Ethical Messages 240 Ethics Programs and Ethics Officers 240 Setting Realistic Objectives 243 Ethical Decision-Making Processes 243 Codes of Conduct 245 Disciplining Violators of Ethics Standards 246 Ethics “Hotlines” and Whistle-Blowing Mechanisms 248 Business Ethics Training 249 Ethics Audits and Risk Assessments 251 Corporate Transparency 252 Board of Director Leadership and Oversight 253

Behavioral Ethics—Striving Toward a Deeper Understanding 253 Moral Decisions, Moral Managers, and Moral Organizations 255 Summary 256 Key Terms 256

viii Contents

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Discussion Questions 257 Endnotes 257

C H A P T E R 9

Business Ethics and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Technology and the Technological Environment 264 Characteristics of Technology 264

Benefits of Technology 264 Side Effects of Technology 265 Challenges of Technology 265

Technology and Ethics 265 Two Key Ethical Issues 266 Society’s Intoxication with Technology 266

Information Technology 268 E-Commerce as a Pervasive Technology 268 Ongoing Issues in E-Commerce Ethics 268 Invasion of Consumer Privacy via Electronic Commerce 269 The Workplace and Computer Technology 275 Other Technology Issues in the Workplace 276

Biotechnology 279 Bioethics 280 Genetic Engineering 281 Genetically Modified Foods 284

Summary 287 Key Terms 287 Discussion Questions 288 Endnotes 288

C H A P T E R 1 0

Ethical Issues in the Global Arena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Business Challenges in a Multinational Environment 293 Ethical Issues in the Global Business Environment 295

Questionable Marketing and Plant Safety Practices 295 Sweatshops, Labor Abuses, and Human Rights 299 Corruption, Bribery, and Questionable Payments 304

Improving Global Business Ethics 310 Balancing and Reconciling the Ethics Traditions of Home and Host Countries 311 Strategies for Improving Global Business Ethics 313 Corporate Action Against Corruption 318

Summary 319 Key Terms 319 Discussion Questions 320 Endnotes 320

PART 4 External Stakeholder Issues 325

C H A P T E R 1 1

Business, Government, and Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 The Pendulum of Government’s Role in Business 327 The Roles of Government and Business 329

A Clash of Ethical Belief Systems 329

Contents ix

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Interaction of Business, Government, and the Public 330 Government–Business Relationship 331 Public–Government Relationship 331 Business–Public Relationship 331

Government’s Nonregulatory Influence on Business 332 Industrial Policy 332 Privatization 335 Other Nonregulatory Governmental Influences on Business 337

Government’s Regulatory Influences on Business 338 Regulation: What Does It Mean? 339 Reasons for Regulation 339 Types of Regulation 341 Issues Related to Regulation 344

Deregulation 346 Purpose of Deregulation 347 The Changing World of Deregulation 348

Summary 349 Key Terms 349 Discussion Questions 350 Endnotes 350

C H A P T E R 1 2

Business Influence on Government and Public Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 Corporate Political Participation 355

Business Lobbying 355 Organizational Levels of Lobbying 357

Corporate Political Spending 364 Arguments for Corporate Political Spending 365 Arguments Against Corporate Political Spending 365

Political Action Committees 366 The Impact of Super PACs 367

Agency Issues 367 Political Accountability and Transparency 368 Strategies for Corporate Political Activity 370

Financial Performance Outcomes 371 Summary 371 Key Terms 372 Discussion Questions 372 Endnotes 373

C H A P T E R 1 3

Consumer Stakeholders: Information Issues and Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 The Consumer Movement 378

Ralph Nader’s Consumerism 379 Consumerism in the 21st Century 380

Product Information Issues 381 Advertising Issues 382 Specific Controversial Advertising Issues 386 Warranties 397 Packaging and Labeling 398 Other Product Information Issues 399

x Contents

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The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 399 The FTC in the 21st Century 399

Recent Consumer Legislation 400 Credit Card Act of 2009 400 Consumer Financial Protection Bureau 401

Self-Regulation in Advertising 402 Types of Self-Regulation of Advertising 402 The National Advertising Division’s Program 403

Moral Models and Consumer Stakeholders 403 Summary 404 Key Terms 404 Discussion Questions 405 Endnotes 405

C H A P T E R 1 4

Consumer Stakeholders: Product and Service Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Two Central Issues: Quality and Safety 410

The Issue of Quality 410 The Issue of Safety 413 Product Liability 416

Consumer Product Safety Commission 420 Food and Drug Administration 422 Business’s Response to Consumer Stakeholders 424 Customer Service Programs 424 Total Quality Management Programs 425 Six Sigma Strategy and Process 427 Summary 428 Key Terms 428 Discussion Questions 429 Endnotes 429

C H A P T E R 1 5

Sustainability and the Natural Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 The Sustainability Imperative 433 The Natural Environment 435 A Brief Introduction to the Natural Environment 435 The Impact of Business on the Natural Environment 436

Climate Change 437 Energy 437 Water 438 Biodiversity and Land Use 439 Chemicals, Toxics, and Heavy Metals 439 Air Pollution 440 Waste Management 441 Ozone Depletion 442 Oceans and Fisheries 442 Deforestation 444

Responsibility for Environmental Issues 444 Environmental Ethics 445 The NIMBY Problem 446

Contents xi

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The Role of Governments in Environmental Issues 447 Responses of Governments in the United States 447 International Government Environmental Responses 449

Other Environmental Stakeholders 450 Environmental Interest Groups 450

Business Environmentalism 455 Patagonia 455 3M Company 456 Business and Environmental Activist Partnerships 456 Systematic Business Responses to the Environmental Challenge 457

The Future of Business: Greening and/or Growing? 457 Summary 458 Key Terms 458 Discussion Questions 459 Endnotes 459

C H A P T E R 1 6

Business and Community Stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 Community Involvement 463

Volunteer Programs 464 Managing Community Involvement 465

Corporate Philanthropy or Business Giving 468 A Brief History of Corporate Philanthropy 468 A Call for Transparency in Corporate Philanthropy 469 Giving to the “Third Sector”: The Nonprofits 470 Managing Corporate Philanthropy 473

The Loss of Jobs 478 From Offshoring to Reshoring 478 Business and Plant Closings 479

Summary 485 Key Terms 485 Discussion Questions 486 Endnotes 486

PART 5 Internal Stakeholder Issues 489

C H A P T E R 1 7

Employee Stakeholders and Workplace Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490 The New Social Contract 491 The Employee Rights Movement 493

The Meaning of Employee Rights 493 The Right Not to Be Fired without Cause 495

Employment-at-Will Doctrine 495 Dismissing an Employee with Care 498

The Right to Due Process and Fair Treatment 499 Due Process 499 Alternative Dispute Resolution 500

Freedom of Speech in the Workplace 502 Whistle-Blowing 503 Consequences of Whistle-Blowing 504 Government’s Protection of Whistle-Blowers 506

xii Contents

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False Claims Act 508 Management Responsiveness to Potential Whistle-Blowing Situations 510

Summary 511 Key Terms 512 Discussion Questions 512 Endnotes 512

C H A P T E R 1 8

Employee Stakeholders: Privacy, Safety, and Health 516 Right to Privacy in the Workplace 517

Collection and Use of Employee Information by Employers 518 Integrity Tests 521 Drug Testing 523 Monitoring Employees on the Job 526 Policy Guidelines on the Issue of Privacy 528

Workplace Safety 528 The Workplace Safety Problem 529 Right-to-Know Laws 531 Workplace Violence 531

The Right to Health in the Workplace 534 Smoking in the Workplace 534 The Family-Friendly Workplace 534

Summary 536 Key Terms 536 Discussion Questions 536 Endnotes 537

C H A P T E R 1 9

Employment Discrimination and Affirmative Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 The Civil Rights Movement 541 Federal Laws Prohibiting Discrimination 542

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 542 Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 543 Equal Pay Act of 1963 544 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 503 544 Americans with Disabilities Act 545 Civil Rights Act of 1991 548 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 549

Expanded Meanings of Employment Discrimination 549 Disparate Treatment 550 Disparate Impact 550

Issues in Employment Discrimination 551 Inequality Persists Despite Diversity Efforts 552 Race and Ethnicity 552 Color 553 Gender 553 Other Forms of Employment Discrimination 556

Affirmative Action in the Workplace 559 The Future of Affirmative Action 561

Summary 562 Key Terms 562 Discussion Questions 563 Endnotes 563

Contents xiii

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Subject Index 675 Name Index 691

ETHICS IN PRACTICE CASES

WORKING FOR MY CUP OR THE HOUSE? 16 DOES BUSINESS HAVE TOO MUCH POWER? 18 THE SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE SHOE COMPANY 43 BURGERS WITH A SOUL: FRESH, LOCAL, SUSTAINABLE 53 ARE PLANTS AND FLOWERS STAKEHOLDERS? DO THEY HAVE RIGHTS? 71 WHERE DID THE CORN GO? 83 OVERBOOKED 86 PLAYING WITH PRESETS 107 MONITORING THE MONITORS 113 REPORTING BAD NEWS—WHOSE INTERESTS MATTER? 141 CRISIS MANAGEMENT: WHEN TO REPENT AND WHEN TO DEFEND 168 TO HUNT OR NOT TO HUNT—THAT IS THE QUESTION 188 IS RÉSUMÉ INFLATION AND DECEPTION OKAY? 190 ARE PEOPLE MORE ETHICAL WHEN BEING “WATCHED?” 206 MORE SALES, LOWER ETHICS? 235 THE ANONYMOUS CEO: STRONG OR WEAK ETHICAL LEADER? 239 SIGN THE NEW ETHICS CODE OR QUIT 247 WHEN ETHICS HOTLINES DON’T WORK 249 PERSONAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE WORKPLACE 276 WHOLE FOODS AND GMO LABELING 286 CHEATING CONSULTANTS: HELPING FACTORIES TO PASS AUDITS 303 THE BEAST OF BENTONVILLE BOWS TO LOCAL CUSTOMS 311 THE VOIP REGULATORY DILEMMA 335 BANNING THE BIG GULP 344 THE NRA AND THE CDC 356 DOUBLE IRISH WITH A DUTCH SANDWICH 364 WHAT DO WE TELL THE CUSTOMER? 383 THE COMPARATIVE ADVERTISING WARS 388 SHOULD FOOD ADVERTISING TO CHILDREN BE BANNED? 391 THE PIRATED POPCORN 412 HAS “PINK SLIME” GOTTEN A BAD RAP? 415 HAZARDOUS WASTE 440 A LITTLE GREEN LIE 446 SLOW FASHION 452

xiv Contents

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MATTERS OF GOOD INTENTIONS 468 COMPETITION IN THE WORKPLACE 477 SHOULD I SAY SOMETHING? 494 THE POCKETED PURSE 497 A WHISTLE-BLOWER’S WINDFALL 502 CO-WORKERS VS. FRIENDSHIP 523 SICK DAY SNOOPS 527 WHEN EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS ATTACK 532 GENTLEMAN’S CLUB? 556 BIGOTRY IN THE BAKERY 558

CASES

CASE 1 WALMART: THE MAIN STREET MERCHANT OF DOOM 569 CASE 2 THE BODY SHOP (A) 579 CASE 3 THE BODY SHOP (B) 583 CASE 4 THE BODY SHOP (C) 588 CASE 5 ENGINEERED BILLING 592 CASE 6 THE WAITER RULE:WHAT MAKES FOR A GOOD CEO? 592 CASE 7 USING EX-CONS TO TEACH BUSINESS ETHICS 594 CASE 8 TO HIRE OR NOT TO HIRE 596 CASE 9 YOU PUNCH MINE AND I’LL PUNCH YOURS 597 CASE 10 PHANTOM EXPENSES 597 CASE 11 FAMILY BUSINESS 598 CASE 12 BANNED IF YOU DO, BANNED IF YOU DON’T 599 CASE 13 LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION 599 CASE 14 SOMETHING’S ROTTEN IN HONDO 600 CASE 15 NIKE, INC. AND SWEATSHOPS 601 CASE 16 COKE AND PEPSI IN INDIA: ISSUES, ETHICS, AND CRISIS

MANAGEMENT 609 CASE 17 CHIQUITA: AN EXCRUCIATING DILEMMA BETWEEN

LIFE AND LAW 615 CASE 18 DOLE’S DBCP LEGACY 618 CASE 19 SHOULD DIRECTORS SHINE LIGHT ON DARK MONEY? 624 CASE 20 DTCA: THE PILL-PUSHING DEBATE 625 CASE 21 BIG PHARMA’S MARKETING TACTICS 627 CASE 22 SMOKE-FREE IN TASMANIA 633 CASE 23 MCDONALD’S—THE COFFEE SPILL HEARD

‘ROUND THE WORLD 634 CASE 24 THE BETASERON® DECISION (A) 638

Contents xv

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CASE 25 THE HUDSON RIVER CLEANUP AND GE 640 CASE 26 CLOUD COMPUTING: EARTH’S FRIEND OR FOE? 645 CASE 27 NEW BELGIUM BREWING: DEFINING A BUSINESS

ON SUSTAINABILITY 646 CASE 28 SAFETY? WHAT SAFETY? 650 CASE 29 FELONY FRANKS: HOME OF THE MISDEMEANOR

WIENER 651 CASE 30 TARGETING CONSUMERS (AND USING THEIR SECRETS) 652 CASE 31 A MORAL DILEMMA: HEAD VERSUS HEART 654 CASE 32 WALMART’S LABOR PRACTICES 655 CASE 33 THE CASE OF THE FIRED WAITRESS 662 CASE 34 THE HIDDEN PRICE OF FAST FASHION 664 CASE 35 LOOKSISM AT A&F 665 CASE 36 TWO VETS, TWO DOGS, AND A DEADLOCK 667 CASE 37 ARE CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECKS

DISCRIMINATORY? 668 CASE 38 A CANDY CONFESSION 669 CASE 39 TO TAKE OR NOT TO TAKE 669 CASE 40 TRAGEDY IN BANGLADESH 670 CASE 41 SOFTWARE SOJOURN 673

xvi Contents

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Preface

Business & Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management, Ninth Edition, provides a conceptual framework, analysis, and discussion of the issues surrounding the business and society relationship. The book’s structure, chapters, and cases identify and engage the major topics involved in developing a strong understanding of business and society, or business in society. The latest research, examples, and cases provide you with a broad, yet detailed analysis of the subject matter; they also offer a solid basis for thoughtful reflection and analysis of the domestic and global issues facing busi- nesses today.

The book employs a managerial perspective that identifies and integrates current and relevant thought and practice. The managerial perspective is embedded within the book’s major themes of business ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Each of these themes is crucial today. Each theme takes its own perspective but is consistent with and overlaps with the others. Taken together, they capture the challenges of the past and provide frameworks for thinking about the current and future role of business in society.

The business ethics dimension is central because it has become clear that value con- siderations are woven into the fabric of the public issues that organizations face today. An emphasis is placed on business ethics fundamentals and how ethics integrates into personal and organizational decision making. Special spheres of business ethics discussed include the realms of technology and global capitalism, where ethical questions increas- ingly have arisen for the past 20 years. The subject of each chapter, moreover, is imbued with ethics considerations that are vital to their full treatment.

Sustainability has become one of business’s most recent and pressing mandates. This dimension has been developed further since the eighth edition of this book because it has become more evident in the business world today that a concern for the natural, social, and financial environments are interrelated and that all three must be maintained in bal- ance for both current and future generations.

The stakeholder management perspective is crucial and enduring because it requires managers to (1) identify the various groups or individuals who have stakes in the firm or its actions, decisions, policies, and practices and (2) incorporate the stakeholders’ con- cerns into the firm’s daily operations and strategic plans. Stakeholder management is an approach that increases the likelihood decision makers will integrate ethical wisdom with management wisdom with respect to all salient parties to the business and society relationship.

As this edition goes to press, the country and world economies have been striving to recover from one of the most perilous financial periods since the Great Depression. The world stock market collapse beginning in the fall of 2008 had devastating repercussions for economies, governments, businesses, and individuals, and still we have not resolved the uncertainty associated with what began as financial turmoil and bankruptcies on Wall Street. This major event and its consequences will be with us for many years, and we urge readers to keep in mind the extent to which our world has now changed as they read through the book and consider its content and application. Major events have the power to change the business and society relationship in significant ways—and instantaneously—so it is essential that the book’s topics be read with an ever present eye on the events breaking in the news each day.

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

 

 

Applicable Courses for Text This text is appropriate for college and university courses that carry such titles as Business and Society; Business in Society; Business and Its Environment; Business Ethics; Business and Public Policy; Social Issues in Management; Business, Government, and Society; Social Responsibility of Business; and Stakeholder Management. The book is appropriate for either a required or an elective course seeking to meet the most recent accrediting standards of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International). The book has been used successfully in both undergraduate and graduate courses.

Though the AACSB does not require any specific courses in this subject matter, its recently adopted (April 8, 2013) standards specify that a business school’s curriculum should include the topics covered throughout this textbook in both undergraduate and graduate degree programs. For undergraduate and graduate degree programs, learning experiences should be addressed and are addressed in General Skill Areas such as ethical understanding and reasoning and diverse and multicultural work environments. In terms of General Business and Management Knowledge Areas, the following topics should be addressed and are addressed in this textbook: Economic, political, regulatory, legal, technological, and social contexts of organizations in a globalized society; and Social responsibility, including sustainability, and ethical behavior and approaches to management.

This book is ideal for coverage of perspectives that form the context for business: ethical and global issues; the influence of political, social, legal, environmental, techno- logical and regulatory issues; and the impact of diversity on organizations. The book pro- vides perspectives on business, society, and ethics in the United States, along with examples from Europe, Asia, and other parts of the world. As the world has grown closer due to technology, communications, and transportation, there has been more conver- gence than divergence in applicability of the ideas presented herein. The book has proved suitable in a number of different countries outside of the United States. In previ- ous editions, versions were published in Canada and China. Publication in Japan is under consideration. Though written from the perspective of American society, a special effort has been made to include some examples from different parts of the world to illus- trate major points. Most of the book applies in developed economies around the world.

Objectives in Relevant Courses Depending on the placement of a course in the curriculum or the individual instructor’s philosophy or strategy, this book could be used for a variety of objectives. The courses for which it is intended typically include several essential goals, including the following:

1. Students should be made aware of the expectations and demands that emanate from stakeholders and are placed on business firms.

2. As prospective managers, students need to understand appropriate business responses and management approaches for dealing with social, political, environ- mental, technological, and global issues and stakeholders.

3. An appreciation of ethical and sustainability issues and the influence these have on society, management decision-making, behavior, policies, and practices is important.

4. The broad question of business’s legitimacy as an institution in a global society is at stake and must be addressed from both business and societal perspectives. These topics are essential to business building trust with society and all stakeholders.

5. The increasing extent to which social, ethical, public, environmental, and global issues must be considered from a strategic perspective is critical in such courses.

xviii Preface

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New to the Ninth Edition This ninth edition has been updated and revised to reflect recent research, laws, cases, and examples. Material in this new edition includes

• New research, surveys, and examples throughout all the chapters • Coverage throughout the text on the most recent ethics scandals and their influence

on business, society, organizations, and people • New concepts and examples on the developing theme of “behavioral ethics” • Discussion of recent developments with the Sarbanes–Oxley Act and Alien Tort

Claims Act, and other laws with significant importance to managers today • Expanded coverage of insider trading • Coverage of competing corporate governance perspectives • Incorporation of the issue of risk management and its relation to business in society • New coverage of social entrepreneurship and Bottom of the Pyramid • Expanded coverage of sustainability reporting and integrated reports • Extended coverage of Citizens United, Super PACs and Dark Money, and the

importance of Corporate Political Accountability and Transparency • Consideration of recent legislation such as the Credit Card Act, which was imple-

mented in 2010, and the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010

• “Spotlight on Sustainability” features in each chapter, which demonstrate how sustainability is relevant and applicable to each chapter’s topics

• Forty-four “Ethics in Practice Cases” embedded in chapters throughout the book, 37 of which are brand new to this edition.

• Forty-one end-of-text cases that may be assigned with any of the book’s chapter topics, 16 of which are brand new to this edition.

• A revised and updated Instructor’s Manual. • A brand new set of writing prompts incorporated into the powerful Write Experi-

ence platform, providing both students and instructors with instant feedback and robust tools to assess and improve writing skills.

“Ethics in Practice Cases” Continuing in this ninth edition are in-chapter features titled “Ethics in Practice Cases.” Interspersed throughout the chapters, these short cases present (1) actual ethical situa- tions faced by companies, managers, or employees (2) topics currently being discussed in the news, or (3) dilemmas faced personally in the work experiences of our former stu- dents in university or executive education classes. These latter types of cases are real-life situations actually encountered in their full- and part-time work experiences. Students and managers wrote some of these cases and we are pleased they gave us permission to use them. They provide ready examples of the types of ethical issues people face today. We would like to acknowledge them for their contributions to the book. Instructors may wish to use these as mini-cases for class discussion when a lengthier case is not assigned. They can be read quickly, but they contain considerable substance for class discussion and analysis.

“Spotlight on Sustainability” Features The “Spotlight on Sustainability” features in each chapter highlight an important and relevant linkage of sustainability concepts that augment each chapter’s text material. The feature sometimes highlights a pertinent organization covered in the chapter and further discusses its activities or issues. Other features highlight a sustainability challenge

Preface xix

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that a range of organizations face or a sustainability success that organizations or indivi- duals can emulate. These features permit students to quickly and easily discover how the sustainability theme applies to each topic covered in the text. The concept of sustainabil- ity extends to virtually all business, society, and ethics topics, and embraces people and profits, as well as the planet.

Structure of the Book Part 1. Business, Society, and Stakeholders Part 1 of the book provides introductory coverage of pertinent business, society, and stakeholder topics and issues. Because most courses that will use this book relate to the issue of corporate social responsibility, this concept is discussed at the outset. Part 1 documents and discusses how corporate social responsiveness evolved from social responsibility and how these two matured into a concern for corporate social perfor- mance, sustainability and corporate citizenship. Also given early coverage is the stake- holder management concept, because it provides a way of thinking and analyzing all topics in the book, as well as a helpful perspective for thinking about organizations.

Part 2. Corporate Governance and Strategic Management Issues The second part of the text addresses corporate governance and strategic management for stakeholder responsiveness. The purpose of this part is to discuss management con- siderations and implications for dealing with the issues discussed throughout the text. Corporate governance is covered early because in the past decade this topic has been identified as critical to effective strategic management. The strategic management per- spective is useful because these issues have impacts on the total organization and have become intense ones for many upper-level managers. Special treatment is given to cor- porate public policy; issue, risk, and crisis management; and public affairs management.

Some instructors may elect to cover Part 2 later in their courses. It could easily be covered after Part 4 or 5. This option would be most appropriate for those who use the book for a business ethics course or who desire to spend less time on the governance, strategy, and management perspectives.

Part 3. Business Ethics and Management Four chapters dedicated to business ethics topics are presented in Part 3. In actuality, business ethics cannot be separated from the full range of external and internal stake- holder concerns, but the topic’s importance merits the more detailed treatment presented here. Part 3 focuses on business ethics fundamentals, personal and organizational ethics, business ethics and technology, and ethical issues in the global arena. Taken together, they cover business and society issues that require ethical thinking.

Part 4. External Stakeholder Issues Vital topics here include business’s relations with government, consumers, the natural environment, and the community. In each of these topic areas we encounter social and ethical issues that dominate business today. The business-government relationship is divided into the regulatory initiatives to monitor business practices and business’s attempts to influence government. Consumers, environment, and community stake- holders are then treated in separate chapters.

Part 5. Internal Stakeholder Issues The primary internal stakeholders addressed in this part are employees. Here, we consider workplace issues and the key themes of employee rights, employment discrimination, and affirmative action. Two chapters address the changing social contract between business and

xx Preface

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employees and the urgent subjects of employee rights. A final chapter treats the vital topic of employment discrimination and affirmative action. Owner stakeholders may be seen as internal stakeholders, but we cover them in Part 2, where the subject of corporate gover- nance has been placed.

Case Studies Throughout each of the chapters, there are “Ethics in Practice Cases,” 44 in total, that pertain to the chapter in which they are located, but also can be used with other chapters as needed. The 41 cases at the end of the book address a broad range of topics and deci- sion situations. The cases are of varying length. They include classic cases (involving such corporate giants as Walmart, The Body Shop, Nike, McDonald’s) with ongoing deliberations, as well as new cases touching upon issues that have arisen in the past several years, such as political accountability in a post-Citizens United world and the environmental and worker-safety issues related to fast fashion. All the cases are intended to provide instructors and students with real-life situations within which to further ana- lyze course issues, concepts, and topics covered throughout the book. These cases have intentionally been placed at the end of the text material so that instructors will feel freer to use them with any text material they desire. Many of the cases in the book carry ramifications that spill over into several subject areas or issues. Almost all of them may be used for different chapters. Immediately preceding the cases is a set of guidelines for case analysis that the instructor may wish to use in place of or in addition to the ques- tions that appear at the end of each case. A case matrix, located inside the front cover of the instructor edition of the textbook and in the instructor’s manual, provides guidance as to which of the cases in the book, both Ethics in Practice and End of Text, work best with each chapter.

Support for the Student CourseMate Student Resources The CourseMate site, accessible at www.cengagebrain.com, includes many student sup- port resources to enhance and assess learning, including chapter quizzes, PowerPoint slides, key terms, learning objectives, and BBC video clips.

Write Experience New to this edition is a robust set of engaging writing prompts, correlated to each part of the text and covering such topics as the environment, personal integrity, and employ- ment law. These prompts allow students to write and submit their open-ended responses for immediate autoscoring and feedback on their writing skills, while providing instruc- tors with powerful, time-saving tools for evaluating those results.

Support for the Instructor Instructor’s Manual The Instructor’s Manual includes learning objectives, teaching suggestions, complete chapter outlines, highlighted key terms, answers to discussion questions, case notes, and group exercises. The Instructor’s Manual is available on the Web site.

Test Bank Cengage Learning Testing Powered by Cognero is a flexible, online system that allows you to author, edit, and manage test-bank content from multiple Cengage Learning solutions; create multiple test versions in an instant; and deliver tests from your LMS, your classroom, or wherever you want. The test bank for each chapter includes true/false,

Preface xxi

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multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions, all correlated to AACSB guidelines and learning standards, and questions are identified by the level of difficulty.

PowerPoint Slides The PowerPoint presentations are colorful and varied, designed to hold students’ interest and reinforce each chapter’s main points. The PowerPoint presentations are available on the Web site.

Videos with Instructor Guide Available within CourseMate, a new set of BBC videos chosen for this edition emphasize textual concepts within real-world scenarios. Through the Instructor Companion site, instructors can also access a guide that includes chapter correlation suggestions, topic overviews, and discussion questions.

Online Instructor Resources To access the online course materials, please visit www.cengage.com, and log in with your credentials.

Acknowledgments First, we would like to express gratitude to our professional colleagues in the Social Issues in Management (SIM) Division of the Academy of Management, the International Association for Business and Society (IABS), and the Society for Business Ethics (SBE). Over the years members of these organizations have meant a great deal to us and have helped provide a stimulating environment in which we could intellectually pursue these topics in which we have a common interest. Many of these individuals are cited in this book and their work is sincerely appreciated.

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