The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer

The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer

Patricia Benner: Novice to Expert Skills Acquisition Model

11/27/2018

Jenna Cook, Roshani Patel, Sherley Thervil, Brandie Turner, Lissette Valcarcel

NSG5002

Week 4 Group project

Patricia Benner

Born in Hampton, Virginia

 

BSN 1964 Pasadena College

 

MSN 1970 University of California, San Francisco

 

PhD 1982 University of California, Berkeley

 

Dissertation published in 1984

Born in Hampton, Virginia

Lived in California during childhood

Graduated from Pasadena College in 1964 with Bachelors in Nursing

Master degree in nursing with significance in medical surgical nursing from University of California, San Francisco 1970.

PhD in stress, coping, and health–1982 at the University of California, Berkeley

Her dissertation published in 1984

 

Reference

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (8th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live

 

 

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Career

 

Charge nurse in the CCU

ICU Nurse

Research Associate

Research Assistant

Project Director

Research and teaching

Charge nurse in the Coronary Care Unit at the Kansas City General Hospital.

Intensive Care Nurse at Stanford University Hospital and Medical Center

Research Associate at the University of California.

Research Assistant to Richard S. Lazarus at the University of California at Berkeley.

Project Director at the San Francisco Consortium/University of San Francisco.

Since 1982, Benner has been working in research and teaching at the University of California at San Francisco School of Nursing.

 

Reference

Petiprin, A. (2016). Patricia Benner Novice to Expert – Nursing Theorist Biography and Career of Patricia Benner. Retrieved from http://www.nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Patricia-Benner.php

 

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Awards & Recognition

American Journal of Nursing Book of the Year

1985 American Academy of Nursing.

1990 Excellence in Nursing Research and Nursing Education

1994 Royal College of Nursing, United Kingdom.

2004 Pioneering Spirit Award

2010 NLN Excellence in Leadership Award

NLN President’s Award for Creativity and Innovation

2011 American Academy of Nursing: Living Legend

 

American Journal of Nursing Book of the Year in 1984, 1989, 1996 and 1999 for From Novice to Expert.

 

1985 Inducted into the American Academy of Nursing.

 

1990 Excellence in Nursing Research and Excellence in Nursing Education.

 

1994 Honorary Fellow in the Royal College of Nursing, United Kingdom.

 

2004 American Association of Critical Care Nurses Pioneering Spirit Award.

 

2010: NLN Excellence in Leadership Award for Nursing Education & NLN President’s Award for Creativity and Innovation in Nursing Education.

 

2011, the American Academy of Nursing honored Patricia Benner as a Living Legend.

 

Reference

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (8th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live. Accessed November 09, 2018

 

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Novice to Expert Theory

Useful framework for assessing professional growth.

Nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time

Does not focus on how to be a nurses

Focuses how nurses acquire knowledge

Dr. Patricia Benner’s model is one of the most useful frameworks for assessing nurses’ needs at different stages of professional growth.

 

The Novice to Expert Nursing Theory proposes that expert nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time through a proper educational background as well as a multitude of experiences.

 

Benner’s theory does not focus on how to be a nurses, rather on how nurses acquire knowledge – one could gain knowledge and skills of ‘knowing how’, without ever learning the theory of ‘knowing that’ (Petiprin, 2016).

 

The framework for nursing theory development begins with four metaparadigms concepts.

 

Reference

 

Petiprin, A. (2016). Patricia Benner Novice to Expert – Nursing Theorist Biography and Career of Patricia Benner. Retrieved from http://www.nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Patricia-Benner.php

 

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Four Metaparadigms

Person

A self interpreting being

Environment

Situation conveying a social environment

Health

A concept that can be assessed

Nursing

Formal education base coupled with experience

 

 

 

Person: Benner and Wrubel (1989) view the human being as the person who is influenced with four major role aspects including 1) situation, 2) body, 3) personal concerns, and 4) temporality (as cited by Alligood, 2014). The summation of these four role aspects signifies the make up the person. Benner and Wrubel (1989) characterize the person as a self-interpreting being and in the role of living life becomes a much more defined being (as cited by Alligood, 2014).

 

Environment: Benner and Wrubel (1989) prefer the term situation rather than environment, because situation conveys a social environment with social definition and meaningfulness (as cited by Alligood, 2014). This is defined further upon the person’s perception and responsiveness of the situation including all interactions and interpretations.

 

Health: Benner and Wrubel (1989) characterize health as a computation of what can be assessed (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Health is not just viewed as the mere absence of an ailment but rather the entire human experience of wholeness. Furthermore, there is a clear distinction of disease in that a person may not actually experience the actual illness or symptoms resulting from the disease.

 

Nursing: Benner and Wrubel (1989) defines nursing as a caring relationship promoting a sense of connection and interest (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Nurses are given the authority of improving their skills on patient care as they continue through their practice by means of a formal education base coupled with experience. Nurses are guided by ethics and responsibility to deliver a caring relationship.

 

References

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (Vol. 8 edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live.

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

Additional Concept: Skill Acquisition

Stage 1 Novice

Stage 2 Advanced Beginner

Stage 3 Competent

Stage 4 Proficient

Stage 5 Expert

 

Figure 1

Detailed Description of Acquisitions Model

The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition was used as a theoretical framework for the stages of clinical competence, described by Patricia Benner. This model focuses on wisdom gained through a variety of experiences and exposure to distinct situations (Benner, 1984). This model illustrates the journey from novice to expert in a trajectory fashion the highest level is exhibits flexibility and adaptable performance (Lyon, 2015). The stages of skill level include novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient and expert. As performance base skills increases with education and experience, Patricia Benner’s application of the Dreyfus Model becomes very practical to nursing practice (Benner, 1982). This model considers the learner regarding their engagement in the situation and commitment level (Dreyfus, 1986). The objective of the Skill Acquisition Model is to distinguish the levels from novice to expert (Benner, 1982).

 

Skill Acquisition: Five stages are outlined in Benner’s Model as she uses the Dreyfus Model as a foundation of her work. The Dreyfus model, described by brothers Stuart and Hubert Dreyfus, is based on the observations of chess players, air force pilots, army commanders and tank drivers. The Dreyfus brothers believed that learning through experience as well as situation-based was comparable to that of a student going through the learning processes (Petiprin, 2016).

 

Stage 1: Novice: In this stage there is no background experience of the situation in which the person is involved. This level generally applies to students of nursing. However, Benner has suggested that nurses with an expertise in one area of practice may be classified at a novice level in another practice (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Additionally, novices have an undeveloped ability to forecast what may occur in a particular patient situation (Petiprin, 2016).

 

Stage 2: Advanced Beginner: New graduates entering their first jobs would be classified in this stage. They have an understanding of textbook knowledge but may lack in the in-depth experience bringing knowledge (Petiprin, 2016). Benner states that there is a measure of acceptable performance however certain situations may need the involvement of a supervisor or mentor for clarification (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Benner adds that advanced beginners need assistance in establishing priorities because they are just learning to understand their clinical practice (Benner, 1982). Benner (1992) further adds that the advanced beginner continues to rely on preceptors or mentors as they feel highly accountable for managing patient care (as cited by Alligood, 2014).

 

Stage 3: Competent: In this stage, there is some level of accomplishment in organizing task skills and advanced planning however there is a lack of the speed and flexibility. Competent nurses are able to react to clinical situations more quickly and accurately and have the ability to recognize patterns in clinical practice (Petiprin, 2016). Competence is achieved when the nurse begins to foresee actions and establish long term goal planning (Benner, 1982).

 

Stage 4 Proficient: There is a demonstration of skilled responses to clinical situations and based on those situations the nurse has the ability to recognize and implement (Alligood, 2014). At this level, nurses have the ability to view the situation as a whole rather than pieces. Benner characterizes that nurses in this stage learn from given experiences and are able to amend the course of action depending upon the situation (Petiprin, 2016). Benner uses the term maxim to lead the proficient nurse. Maxim is a description of experienced and skilled performances (Alligood, 2014).

 

Stage 5 Expert: Benner (1984) describes the expert who no longer requires guided rules or maxims and are able to have full connection and understanding of the situation at hand (as cited by Alligood, 2014). Benner views this stage as the ability to perceive the clinical demands and goal achievement (Petiprin, 2016). Furthermore, in the expert stage, experience is viewed as direct contact of practical situations versus just the passage of time (Benner, 1982).

 

Reference:

 

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (Vol. 8 edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live

 

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. American Journal of Nursing, 84(12), 1479.

 

Benner, P. (1982, March). From novice to expert. The American Journal of Nursing. 82(3).

 

Dreyfus, H. (1985). Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. Basil Blackwell.

 

Lyon, L. J. (2015). Development of teaching expertise viewed through the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning,15(1), 88. doi:10.14434/josotl.v15i1.12866

 

Petiprin, A. (2016). From novice to expert. Nursing Theory. Retrieved from http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Betty-Neuman.php.

 

Figure 1 reference:

Coble, R. (2015). Center for Teaching. Retrieved from https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/pedagogy-for-professional-schools-and-students/

 

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Additional Concept: The Seven Domains

The helping role

The teaching – coaching function

The diagnostic and patient monitoring function

Effective management of rapidly changing situations

Administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions and regimens

Monitoring and ensuring the quality of health care practices

Organizational work role competencies

Benner (1984) defines a domain as an area of practice having a number of competencies with similar intents, functions, and meanings (Alligood, 2014).

 

Reference

 

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (Vol. 8 edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live.

 

8

Theoretical assumptions & propositions

Lifelong learning

Research

Education

Nursing practice

Relates practical and theoretical knowledge

Clinical knowledge

Places importance of nurses providing exquisite care

 

Novice to Expert theory is well-written, coherent and has strong theoretical grounding. The theory provides a framework for supporting lifelong learning for nursing and hence it applies to research, education and nursing practice. Novice to Experts relates to use of both practical and theoretical knowledge and is useful as a philosophy. Benner’s model provides a nursing philosophy (Benner, 1984). The theory is seminal qualitative research laying a foundation for understanding expertise in nursing and skill acquisition.

 

According to Benner, there is always more to any situation or circumstance compared to her theory predicts. The skilled nursing practice beyond bounds of the theory. The concrete experience simplifies learning concerning shades as well as exceptions of meaning in any situation (Alligood, 2017). The knowledge that is integrated in nursing practice may result in discovering as well as interpretation of the theory, precedes and extends the theory as well as synthesize and adapt the theory into nursing practice. She included some relationship statements in her work, “discovering assumptions, sets and expectations can unearth unexamined areas of the practical knowledge which can be studied systematically and extended or refuted (Benner, 1984).”

 

Clinical knowledge is usually integrated in perceptions and not the precepts. Perceptual awareness is vital to better nursing judgment as well as for experts, starts with global assessments and vague hunches which initially bypass significant analysis and clarity often follows compared to it precedes (Benner, 1984). Formal rules become limited as well as discretionary judgment is required in the actual clinical situations. With time, clinical knowledge develop and every nurse/clinician expands personal repertoire of nursing practice knowledge which might be shared using dialogue with other nurses. Expertise develops in case a nurse/clinician tests and refine hypotheses, propositions as well as principle-based expectations in the actual nursing practice situations.

 

The five stages of this theory demonstrate movement from depending on the past abstract principles to using past concrete experience a change in perception and paradigms of nursing situations where particular parts are important (Benner, 1984). Each stage in this theory is established on the preceding one as abstract principles are refined as well as expanded through knowledge and experience and nurse achieve nursing expertise (Smith, 2014). Novice to Expert theory changed the nursing understanding of being an expert, placing designation on nurses providing exquisite nursing care and not those with most prestigious positions or highly paid nurses.

 

Reference

 

Alligood, M. R. (2017). Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

 

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. American Journal of Nursing, 84(12), 1479.

 

Smith, S. F. (2014). Clinical nursing skills. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

 

 

9

Strengths & Weaknesses of the Model

Strengths

Basic outline for nursing experiences

Clinical curriculum is based around the theory

Gives acknowledgement to thought process of nurses

Emphasizes the importance of the clinical experiences

Weakness

Expected progression of levels

Variety in fields of nursing

Unexperienced situations

Work-place social ladder

 

 

The novice nurse has no experience and must solely rely on rules and are unable to evaluate importance of task definitions.

 

Advanced beginner nurse has been introduced to a moderate amount of experiences and is able to place experience into practice although they may not be able to project outcomes.

 

Competent nurse is able to see the bigger picture-they know that when x is happening that the outcome will usually be y and z. They are able to take steps towards prevention of pqrst.

 

Proficient nurse evaluates the facts and relays them to expected treatment.

 

Expert nurse is proficient and can assess, evaluate, prevent and expect treatment..

 

Acknowledgement: Nurses ideally are placed within patient situations that they are comfortable with-can function independently

 

Clinical experience is the key to becoming proficient in patient situations.

 

Reference

Benner, P. (1982). From Novice to Expert. The American Journal of Nursing, 82, 402-407. Retrieved from https://www.medicalcenter.virginia.edu/therapy-services/3%20-%20Benner%20-%20Novice%20to%20Expert-1.pdf

 

If the novice nurse is limited to the patients they are comfortable with they may never expand their experience in fear of failure and may remain at the novice level?

If a nurse remains in hospice the level will grow to expert, however if nurse seeks other opportunity the nurse will again be at novice level?

Does not define when the levels should be reached

Often the level the nurse is at depends on the field of nursing the nurse is in

As an expert nurse there may be situations that happen that have not yet been experienced. If one does not experience the situation, does that place nurse back at a novice level?

Other questions that arise from the theory…if a nurse is not well liked, the nurse may be at expert level however may not be viewed as such due to politics and must turn to fact and theory (novice) to provide a point to situation. (Higham & Arrowsmith, 2013).

 

Reference

 

Higham, S., & Arrowsmith, V. (2013). A response to: Gardner (2012) From Novice to Expert: Benner’s legacy for nurse education Nurse Education Today 32 (4) 339–340. Nurse Education Today, 33(1), 8-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2012.08.003

 

10

Implications in Nursing practice

 

 

 

 

 

 

Application of knowledge in nursing practice.

Nursing practice – Articulating thinking.

Relationship between theory and practice.

Implementation of skill acquisition.

Use of phenomenological approach.

Application of Benner’s work

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Benner describes knowledge that is incorporated in nursing practice.  She believes that knowledge accumulates overtime in practice and is based on experience, situation and reflection.  She refers to this part as articulating thinking describing illustrating and giving language to be taken for granted areas of practical wisdom, skilled know-how and notions of good practice (Benner, 2000).

 

Benner also believes that theory derived from the documentation of clinical practice that will describe the knowledge included in expert clinical practice.  Therefore theory derived from practice and practice is extended by theory (Benner, 2000).  Benner theory focuses also on implementation of skilled nursing interventions and clinical judgment skills in actual clinical practice.

 

Her approach consists of supporting preceptor, providing orientation programs for clinical reasoning in actual practice. Preceptors will provide knowledge that blend practice and theory to the beginners.  Benner provides paradigm case that aids nurses in understanding future clinical experience, new perspectives and alternatives (Alligood, 2014).

 

Reference:

 

Alligood, M. R. (2014) (Benner, 1995). Nursing theorists and their work 8th edition. St. Louis,

Missouri, 2014. E-book collection.   Retrieved from: https://eds-b-ebscohost  southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu

 

Benner, P. (2000).  Links between philosophy, theory, practice, and research. Canadian Journal

of Nursing Research, 2000 Vol.32, No. 2,7-13.

 

 

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Implications in Nursing Education

Use of empirical evidence, narrative and simulation

Instruction on intuitive skills.

Teaching of analytic and abstract

Developing of holistic understandings.

Development of critical thinking, competency and testing

Benner’s guide to teaching

 

 

Benner describes aspects of nursing practice from observational narratives for interpretations. She develops competencies from transcriptions of interviews about patient care. She created domains from the competencies to be used as framework to understand the knowledge in nursing practice. The domains have been used in many situations teaching in many hospitals around the world (Alligood, 2014).

 

She believes that instructions should be focused on developing intuitive skills through direct interaction with real patients. She also thinks that analytical abstract should be taught to beginners (Benner, 2000). Domains should be taught at a later stage of learning at all levels.  She emphasizes that teaching should be based on holistic understandings.

 

The use of patient narratives, the use of simulation as educational techniques provide positive learning experience for students to manage their skills.  Her theory also focuses on teaching skills incorporating critical thinking.  It allows students to learn nursing assessments, nursing interventions using critical thinking skills. It is presented as guide to teaching. Her work led to the development of intensive and orientation programs for newly graduate nurses and to clinical development program for more experienced nurses (Alligood, 2014).

 

Reference

 

Alligood, M. R. (2014) (Benner, 1995). Nursing theorists and their work 8th edition. St. Louis,

Missouri, 2014. E-book collection.   Retrieved from: https://eds-b-ebscohost  southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu

 

Benner, P. (2000).  Links between philosophy, theory, practice, and research. Canadian Journal

of Nursing Research, 2000 Vol.32, No. 2,7-13.

 

 

12

Implications in Nursing Research

Development of clinical reasoning skills.

Application to address staffing issues.

Training performance for novice nurses

Support for experienced nurses

Collaboration between novice and experienced nurse

Skilled nursing interventions and clinical judgment

Development of paradigm case.

 

Benner research approach is based on the belief that clinical practice is effective when it is based on articulation research, clinical narratives (Alligood, 2014). Data is collected from dialogue and observation of actual situation. Identification and meanings of the situations are incorporated in the clinical practice. Benner studies and projects provide an interpretive phenomenology for quality research. Her research involves a large scale collaborative study.  Several states have implemented her research for nursing education and hospitals have instituted nurse residency programs (Alligood, 2014).

 

Two websites are created to facilitate the dissemination and implementation of her study recommendations: 1). Educating Nurses.com-which is a combination of videos on teachings resources, curriculum development. 2). Novice to expert.com for teacher training resources. This provides online evidence-based learning and applies the recommendations of nursing study. Also, educational newsletters were initiated to share study recommendations and create ongoing dialog with nurse educators (Benner, 2000).

 

Reference:

 

Alligood, M. R. (2014) (Benner, 1995). Nursing theorists and their work 8th edition. St. Louis,

Missouri, 2014. E-book collection.   Retrieved from: https://eds-b-ebscohost  southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu

 

Benner, P. (2000).  Links between philosophy, theory, practice, and research. Canadian Journal

of Nursing Research, 2000 Vol.32, No. 2,7-13.

 

 

13

Application in Nursing Practice

Recognizing the silent patient as a person

“Knowing a patient”

“Following the body’s lead”

“Preserving personhood”

“Describing to the patient what happened”

Patient’s preference.

Grooming

Positioning

The application of Patricia Benner’s theory is noted in critical care units where the challenges are vast. Expert clinicians must learn how to ‘meet’ and come to know patients who are often sedated and paralyzed or less than alert (Benner, 2002). Two studies of nursing practice in critical care found that nurses have many practical strategies for getting to know the ‘silent patient’. Recognizing the silent patient as a person and not just as an objectified body with a disease condition is eminent. For instance, requesting for more personal information about patients and pictures in their usual circumstances from families and friends brings a sense of connection for the nurse and patient relationship. “Knowing a patient,” “following the body’s lead,” “preserving personhood,” and “describing to the patient what happened during the period of sedation or unconsciousness” were some of the strategies used by nurses (Benner, 2002). Some nurses expressed how they were particular in the observance of the patient’s preference such as grooming them according to their usual habits or even preferences for positioning. These strategies help preserve the silent patient’s dignity and personhood during a critical illness. In an environment with many advances in technology, computers will be beeping, monitors flickering, and bells will be chiming. These may pose underlining threats in that it is easy that the silent patient becomes objectified and becomes a body-machine. The skills of meeting the critically ill patient calls for extraordinary attentiveness, attunement, and respect (Benner, 2002).

 

Reference

 

Benner, P. (2002). Caring for the silent patient. American Journal of Critical Care, 11(5), 480-1. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/227852635?accountid=87314

 

14

Conclusion

Be as wise as the best of our practice

Extend the knowledge by examining what we know

Continue to renew and develop our caring practices

 

Patricia Benner has played a great role in changing the quality of nursing practice. Her work has greatly influenced clinical nursing practice and nursing ethics. Novice to Expert theory enables nurses to understand how they can grow their professional lives by paying attention and learning from various nursing situations they encounter in their day-to-day practice. It makes that understand that learning is a process and becoming a nurse expert takes time as they have to learn from the past concrete experience as opposed to past abstract principles.

 

The challenge of the new millennium is to become as wise as the best of nursing practice, and to extend the knowledge by examining what we know in practice and valuing practice as a source of knowledge in its own right. This is not a one-way street, because we must continue to renew and develop our caring practices through education and research (Benner, 2000).

 

Reference

 

Benner, P. (2000). Shaping the future of nursing. Nursing Management (through 2013), 7(1), 31-5. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/236935540?accountid=87314

 

 

 

 

15

References

Alligood, M. R. (2017). Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing Theorists and Their Work (Vol. 8 edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Retrieved from https://www.thecampuscommon.com/library/ezproxy/ticketdemocs.asp?sch=suo&turl=http://search.ebscohost.com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1105475&site=eds-live.

Benner, P. (2002). Caring for the silent patient. American Journal of Critical Care, 11(5), 480-1. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/227852635?accountid=87314

Benner, P. (2000). Shaping the future of nursing. Nursing Management (through 2013), 7(1), 31-5. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.southuniversity.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/236935540?accountid=87314

Benner, P. (1984). From novice to expert: Excellence and power in clinical nursing practice. American Journal of Nursing, 84(12), 1479.

Benner, P. (1982, March). From novice to expert. The American Journal of Nursing. 82(3).

 

 

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References (cont.)

Dreyfus, H. (1985). Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. Basil Blackwell.

Higham, S., & Arrowsmith, V. (2013). A response to: Gardner (2012) From Novice to Expert: Benner’s legacy for nurse education Nurse Education Today 32 (4) 339–340. Nurse Education Today, 33(1), 8-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2012.08.003

Lyon, L. J. (2015). Development of teaching expertise viewed through the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning,15(1), 88. doi:10.14434/josotl.v15i1.12866

Petiprin, A. (2016). From novice to expert. Nursing Theory. Retrieved from http://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Betty-Neuman.php.

Smith, S. F. (2014). Clinical nursing skills. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

 

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