THE ENDOCRINE OR GLANDULAR OR HORMONAL SYSTEM

THE ENDOCRINE OR GLANDULAR OR HORMONAL SYSTEM

HLTAAP001

RECOGNISE HEALTHY BODY SYSTEMS

 

 

 

LEARNER RESOURCE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2

COURSE INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

ABOUT THIS GUIDE ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. ABOUT ASSESSMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………… ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.

ELEMENTS AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

PERFORMANCE EVIDENCE AND KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE ……………………………………………………………………… 8

PERFORMANCE EVIDENCE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

ASSESSMENT CONDITIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

PRE-REQUISITES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

TOPIC 1 – WORK WITH INFORMATION ABOUT THE HUMAN BODY ……………………………………………………… 11

CORRECTLY USE AND INTERPRET HEALTH TERMINOLOGY THAT DESCRIBES THE NORMAL STRUCTURE,

FUNCTION AND LOCATION OF THE MAJOR BODY SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………… 11

ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11 ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS AND APPROPRIATE TERMINOLOGIES …………………………………………………………………………….. 14 THE HUMAN BODY CAVITIES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16 STANDARD ANATOMICAL POSITION: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17 PRINCIPLE BODY REGIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18

MAJOR BODY SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

THE HEART ANATOMY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22 BLOOD VESSELS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

THE DERMAL OR INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

THE DIGESTIVE OR GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………….. 26

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26

THE ENDOCRINE OR GLANDULAR OR HORMONAL SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………… 27

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

MUSCLE TYPES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

NERVOUS SYSTEM ANATOMY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29 FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (MEN AND WOMEN). …………………………………………………………………………… 30

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30 THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

THE RESPIRATORY OR PULMONARY SYSTEM ……………………………………………………………………………………. 31

 

 

 

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THE SKELETAL SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31

THE SENSORY SYSTEM ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32

APPLY A BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MAINTAINING A HEALTHY BODY

AND ENHANCE QUALITY OF WORK ACTIVITIES BY USING AND SHARING INFORMATION ABOUT HEALTHY

FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

PHYSICAL HEALTH ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34 THE PHYSICAL DECLINE OF OLDER AGE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35 DIET ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 HOW DO YOU DEFINE HEALTHY EATING? …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 36 WATER …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38 WHAT IS HOLISTIC HEALTH? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 EFFECTIVE HYGIENE AND CLEANLINESS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39 PERSONAL HYGIENE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40 BODY ODOUR ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40 HAND WASHING ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40 BAD BREATH …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41 FOOD HYGIENE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42 ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42 IMMUNISATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42 PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44 REST/ SLEEP ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 46 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS …………………………………………………………………….. 46

CORRECTLY USE AND INTERPRET INFORMATION THAT RELATES TO THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF EACH BODY SYSTEM AND OTHER STRUCTURES ……………………………………………. 48

REGIONAL GROUPS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49 INTERNAL ORGANS (BY REGION) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49 MAJOR ORGAN SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51 SUPERFICIAL ANATOMY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 52 CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53 ENDOCRINE AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 53 INTEGUMENTARY AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53 SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 54 HEALTH ISSUES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54

TOPIC 2 – RECOGNISE AND PROMOTE WAYS TO SUPPORT HEALTHY FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY …………… 56

REVIEW FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MAINTENANCE OF A HEALTHY BODY …………………………………….. 56

PERSONAL HEALTH ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57 HOW TO KEEP HEALTHY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

EVALUATE HOW THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DIFFERENT BODY SYSTEMS AFFECT AND SUPPORT HEALTHY

FUNCTIONING ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66

GLOSSARY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 69

 

 

 

 

 

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U N I T I N T R O D U C T I O N

This resource covers the unit HLTAAP001 – Recognise healthy body systems.

 

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to work with basic information about the human body and to recognise and promote ways to maintain healthy functioning of the body.

 

This unit applies to any worker who needs to use and interpret information that includes references to client anatomy and physiology.

 

The skills in this unit must be applied in accordance with Commonwealth and State/Territory legislation, Australian/New Zealand standards and industry codes of practice.

 

ABOUT THIS RESOURCE

This resource brings together information to develop your knowledge about this unit. The information is designed to reflect the requirements of the unit and uses headings to makes it easier to follow.

 

Read through this resource to develop your knowledge in preparation for your assessment. You will be required to complete the assessment tools that are included in your program. At the back of the resource are a list of references you may find useful to review.

 

As a student it is important to extend your learning and to search out text books, internet sites, talk to people at work and read newspaper articles and journals which can provide additional learning material.

 

Your trainer may include additional information and provide activities. slide presentations and assessments in class to support your learning.

 

 

 

 

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ABOUT ASSESSMENT

Throughout your training we are committed to your learning by providing a training and assessment framework that ensures the knowledge gained through training is translated into practical on the job improvements.

 

You are going to be assessed for:

 Your skills and knowledge using written and observation activities that apply

to your workplace.

 Your ability to apply your learning.

 Your ability to recognise common principles and actively use these on the job.

 

You will receive an overall result of Competent or Not Yet Competent for the assessment of this unit. The assessment is a competency based assessment, which has no pass or fail. You are either competent or not yet competent. Not Yet Competent means that you still are in the process of understanding and acquiring the skills and knowledge required to be marked competent. The assessment process is made up of a number of assessment methods. You are required to achieve a satisfactory result in each of these to be deemed competent overall.

 

All of your assessment and training is provided as a positive learning tool. Your assessor will guide your learning and provide feedback on your responses to the assessment. For valid and reliable assessment of this unit, a range of assessment methods will be used to assess practical skills and knowledge.

 

Your assessment may be conducted through a combination of the following methods:

 Written Activity

 Case Study

 Observation

 Questions

 Third Party Report

 

The assessment tool for this unit should be completed within the specified time period following the delivery of the unit. If you feel you are not yet ready for assessment, discuss this with your trainer and assessor.

 

 

 

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To be successful in this unit you will need to relate your learning to your workplace. You may be required to demonstrate your skills and be observed by your assessor in your workplace environment. Some units provide for a simulated work environment and your trainer and assessor will outline the requirements in these instances.

 

 

 

 

 

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E L E M E N T S A N D P E R F O R M A NC E C R I T E R I A

1. Work with information about the human body

 

1.1 Correctly use and interpret health terminology that describes the normal structure, function and location of the major body systems

1.2 Correctly use and interpret information that relates to the interrelationships between major components of each body system and other structures

2. Recognise and promote ways to support healthy functioning of the body

2.1 Review factors that contribute to maintenance of a healthy body

2.2 Evaluate how the relationships between different body systems affect and support healthy functioning

2.3 Enhance quality of work activities by using and sharing information about healthy functioning of the body

 

 

 

 

 

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P E R F O R M A N C E E V I D E N C E A N D K N O W L E D G E E V I D E N C E

This describes the essential knowledge and skills and their level required for this unit.

 

PERFORMANCE EVIDENCE

The candidate must show evidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the job role. There must be evidence that the candidate has:

 Worked effectively with information about the human body and its healthy

functioning in at least 3 different situations

 

KNOWLEDGE EVIDENCE

The candidate must be able to demonstrate essential knowledge required to effectively complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the work role. This includes knowledge of:

 Basic structure and functions of the body systems and associated

components, including:

o Cells, tissues and organs

o Cardiovascular system

o Respiratory system

o Musculo-skeletal system

o Endocrine system

o Digestive system

o Urinary system

o Reproductive system

o Integumentary system

o Lymphatic system

o Nervous system, including sensory systems – eye and ear

o The special senses – smell, taste, vision, equilibrium and hearing

o Immune system

 

 

 

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 Processes, conditions and resources required by the body to support healthy

functioning:

o Body regulation including:

 Maintenance of body temperature

 Fluid and electrolyte (including PH) balance

 Elimination of wastes from the body

 Maintenance of blood pressure

o Protection from infection

o Physical activity – active and passive

 

 

 

 

 

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A S S E S S M E N T C O N D I T I O N S

Skills must have been demonstrated in the workplace or in a simulated environment that reflects workplace conditions. The following conditions must be met for this unit:

 Use of suitable facilities, equipment and resources, including client health

information

 Modelling of industry operating conditions, including integration of problem-

solving activities

 

Assessors must satisfy the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015/AQTF mandatory competency requirements for assessors

 

P R E – R E Q U I S I T E S

This unit must be assessed after the following pre-requisite unit:

There are no pre-requisites for this unit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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T O P I C 1 – W O R K W I T H I N F O R M A T I O N A B O U T T H E H U M A N B O D Y

CORRECTLY USE AND INTERPRET HEALTH TERMINOLOGY THAT DESCRIBES THE NORMAL STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND

LOCATION OF THE MAJOR BODY SYSTEMS

ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY

Anatomy is the study of the body’s internal and external structures and the physical relationships between them. In the study of Anatomy, it is essential that you are able to express yourself correctly and without confusion. Anatomy uses an international language of terms which enables you to correctly convey information to health care professionals around the world, as well as scholars in basic and applied health sciences.

 

As health workers you need to be able to use accepted terminology for several reasons:

 Nurses, doctors, and pharmacists went to different schools and need to be

able to effectively communicate with each other without ambiguity and

confusion

 Imprecise terminology can lead to confusion or incorrect assumptions. Many

specialists and members of the health care team will process the paperwork

of a single patient during a single hospital stay. It is imperative that they all

understand what the true situation is.

 Some terms are simply not acceptable anymore. For example, it is not correct

to refer to someone as “mentally retarded” anymore. It is not acceptable to

refer to homosexuality as a “disease” anymore. This has important

implications for patient perceptions and treatment options.1

 

As health care workers, you work to improve, support or benefit the physical and psychological well-being of the clients you work for and meet their needs.

 

 

1 http://www.answers.com/Q/Why_is_it_necessary_that_health_workers_have_a_basic_un…

 

 

 

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Health care workers can, therefore, be:

 Nurses

 Nutritionists or dietitians

 Community service workers

 Medical practitioners/ advisers

 Leisure and recreational activity providers

 Councilors

 Psychologists

 Therapists

 Physical trainers

They might work in the following fields:

 Disability

 Ageing

 Alcohol and other drugs

 Education

 Palliative care

 Fitness

 Leisure and recreation

 Therapy service areas, e.g., physiotherapy, podiatry, etc.

 Children’s services

 Youth services

In most roles it is necessary for the health care worker to have at least a rudimentary understanding of a range of medical and health terminology and an understanding of the problems or issues that can impact on people’s physical and psychological health. They should understand anatomy and physiology so they can recognise body systems and their components. This will aid in identifying healthy body systems and those systems that are not functioning well.

 

It is necessary that health workers have a basic understanding of the fundamental principles of maintaining a healthy body, because by knowing that, they will be able to

 

 

 

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continue working and at same time keep a healthy body throughout their lives. But that basic information is valid not only to workers but also to everyone, from teens to elderly people.2

Health care workers will need to have basic knowledge of the human body systems:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is important that health care workers also have an understanding of the human bodies special senses, these are – smell, taste, vision, equilibrium and hearing.

 

 

 

2 http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_is_it_necessary_that_health_workers_have_a_basic_understanding_of_th e_fundamental_principles_of_maintaining_a_healthy_body?#slide=1

 

 

 

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It is important that the Healthcare worker knows the processes, conditions and resources required by the body to support healthy functioning and they will need to know what to do and who to report to if they believe that a client requires extra diagnosis and/or treatment, or if they believe that their clients health has deteriorated.

 

Understanding of the human anatomy starts with knowing the various sections and divisions of the body, their use and the descriptions applicable to their healthy function.

 

This must be done in conjunction with the use of the correct terminology for the parts and functions of the human body.

 

ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS AND APPROPRIATE TERMINOLOGIES

Divisions of Anatomy: Anatomy is a broad field of study consisting of several divisions or sub- disciplines. Each division of anatomy specializes on a specific aspect of the body’s arrangement.

 

Body Divisions: On a very basic level, the body can be divided into three main divisions;

 Body Wall: The structures forming the framework of the body, supporting and

enclosing vital organs. The skin, skeleton, and skeletal muscles are all

components of the body wall. The head, arms, and legs will be considered

specialized modifications of the body wall.

 Body Cavities: The internal spaces within the body wall are filled with the

body’s organs. The largest body cavity is the Ventral (abdominal side) Cavity.

This cavity is further divided into the Thoracic Cavity, housing the heart and

lungs, and the Abdominopelvic Cavity, housing the abdominal and pelvic

organs (stomach, liver, intestines, bladder, and reproductive structures). Body

cavities are significant because they function to protect and house the internal

organs while still allowing them the freedom of movement. The heart would be

very ineffective in pumping blood if it were housed in a solid tissue unable to

move and beat.

 Organs: Structures within the body capable of specific functions. Organs can be

found 1) contained within the body cavities (heart, liver), 2) as a component of

 

 

 

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the body wall (skeletal muscle, bone), or 3) transiting between the two (blood

vessels, nerves).

 

The human body can be divided into sections which are bilaterally symmetric:

 The head, which consists of the bony framework of the skull and contains the

cranial, nasal, and oral and orbital cavities. The head is the rostral part (from

anatomical positioning) comprising the brain, eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, all

of which aid in various sensory functions, such as sight, hearing, smell, and

taste.

 The neck is the upper section of the spinal column that distinguishes the head

from the torso or trunk. The neck supports the weight of the head and

protects the nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain

down to the rest of the body. The neck is highly flexible and allows the head

to turn and flex. It contains part of the spinal cavity and the upper parts of the

trachea and oesophagus, the thyroid gland and the parathyroid glands, the

hyoid bone, the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple), cricoid cartilage, parotid

glands and the external carotid arteries.

 The trunk or torso is the body of a human, excluding the head and limbs. The

trunk is divided into the thorax, the abdomen and the pelvis. Most critical

organs are housed within the torso and the upper chest, the heart and lungs

are protected by the rib cage. The abdomen contains the majority of organs

responsible for digestion – the liver, which produces bile necessary for

digestion; the large and small intestines, which extract nutrients from food;

the gallbladder, which stores and concentrates bile and produces chyme; the

anus, through which faecal wastes are excreted; the rectum, which stores

faeces; the ureters, which pass urine to the bladder; the bladder, which stores

urine; and the urethra, which excretes urine and passes sperm through the

seminal vesicles of the male. Finally, the pelvic region houses both the male

and female reproductive organs.

 The limbs, which attach to the trunk, consist of the upper limbs, shoulders,

arms and hands, and lower limbs, hips, legs and feet. Lower limbs are used for

locomotion, walking, running, jumping or climbing. Human legs and feet are

 

 

 

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specialised for two- legged locomotion. Upper limbs are used to carry and

manipulate objects. Human arms end in specialised hands capable of grasping

and fine manipulation of objects.

 

THE HUMAN BODY CAVITIES

The human body contains cavities – hollow spaces in the body that serve to confine organs and systems with similar functions.

 Dorsal Body Cavity: Cushions & protects the Central Nervous System (Brain &

Spinal Cord)

o Cranial Cavity: Cavity formed by the bones of the Skull; Houses the

Brain

o Spinal (Vertebral) Cavity: Cavity formed by the vertebral column;

Houses the Spinal Cord

 Ventral Body Cavity (Coelom): Enclosed by the ribs, abdominal and lumbar

musculature. Surrounds organs of the Respiratory, Digestive, Cardiovascular,

Urinary, & Reproductive systems

o Ventral Cavity is further divided into 2 cavities by the transversely

oriented Diaphragm

o Thoracic Cavity: Enclosed by the rib cage & separated from the

abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm.

 Right & Left Pleural Cavities: House the right & left lungs

 Pericardial Cavity: Houses the heart

o Abdominopelvic Cavity: Enclosed by the abdominal and lumbar

muscles, inferior to the diaphragm. Houses abdominal Viscera

(Organs)

 Abdominal Cavity: Separated from the inferior Pelvic cavity by

an imaginary line at the pelvic brim. Houses Digestive Organs

and Glands

 Pelvic Cavity: Separated from the superior Abdominopelvic

cavity by an imaginary line at the pelvic brim. Houses Urinary,

Reproductive, & distal portions of Digestive Systems.

 

 

 

 

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There is no definitive structure which separates Abdominal & Pelvic Cavities

 

Your successful study of the body’s structure will rely on your ability to not only communicate using the correct terminology and spelling but to also understand the language of directionality and organization.

 

STANDARD ANATOMICAL POSITION:

All descriptions of the human body are based on the assumption that the individual is standing what is known as the Standard Anatomical Position (SAP).

 

 

Standard Anatomical Position: An individual in SAP will adhere to the following positions: (see figure below)

 Stand erect

 Upper limbs are at one’s side

 Lower limbs are together

 Face, palms, and feet are directed forward

 

 

 

 

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PRINCIPLE BODY REGIONS

In your study and use of the following regional terminology, it is important to be able to communicate correctly to your colleagues and other health professionals as well as to the lay person. It is, therefore, important to learn both the anatomical term in conjunction with the common names.

 

Anatomical directional terms are like the directions on a compass rose of a map. Like the directions, North, South, East and West, they can be used to describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures or locations in the body. This is particularly useful when studying anatomy as it provides a common method of communication that helps to avoid confusion when identifying structures.

 

Terms that are used to describe the position of one body part in relation to another and which might be useful to health care workers include:

 Superior – upper or above; e.g. the lungs are superior to the diaphragm

 

 

 

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 Inferior – lower or below; e.g. The diaphragm is inferior to the lungs

 Anterior (ventral) – at or towards the front of the body; includes the face,

chest and abdomen

 Posterior (dorsal) – at or towards the back of the body or body part; e.g.

includes the back and buttocks

 Medial – towards the mid-line of the body – an imaginary line drawn down

the centre of the body is referred to as the median sagittal plane

 Lateral – relating to, or located at, the side of the body or body part; e.g. the

arms are lateral to the trunk

 Superficial – on or near the body surface; e.g. The skin is superficial to the

body’s internal organs

 Deep – inward or away from the body surface; e.g. the stomach is a deep

organ

 External – pertaining to the outside or outer; e.g. The epidermis is the

external layer of the skin

 Internal – pertaining to the inside or inner; e.g. The proximal interphalangeal

joints are those closest to the hand

 Distal – farthest from the centre or midline of the body, or farthest away from

any point of reference; e.g. The distal phalanges are those at the ends of the

fingers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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MAJOR BODY SYSTEMS

There are 10 systems of the human body.

1. The Circulatory or Cardiovascular System includes the heart, the blood,

and the blood vessels.

2. The Dermal or Integumentary System includes the skin, hair, and nails.

3. The Digestive or Gastrointestinal System includes the mouth, the pharynx,

the oesophagus, the stomach, the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the

small intestine, the large intestine, the rectum, and the anus.

4. The Endocrine or Glandular or Hormonal System includes all of the glands

in the body.

5. The Excretory System includes the skin, the lungs, the liver, the kidneys, and

the large intestine.

6. The Muscular System includes all of the muscles and tendons of the body.

7. The Nervous System includes the brain, the spinal cord, and all of the nerves

of the body.

8. The Reproductive System is different in men and women. The Male

Reproductive System mainly includes the testes and the penis. The Female

Reproductive System mainly includes the ovaries and the uterus.

9. The Respiratory or Pulmonary System includes the nose, the mouth, the

pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchial tubes, and the lungs.

10. The Skeletal System includes all of the bones, joints, ligaments, and tendons

of the body. 3

 

There are 3 sub-systems of the Circulatory or Cardiovascular System.

 The Immune System includes all of the lymphocytes and antibodies of the

body.

 The Lymphatic System includes the tonsils, the thymus gland, the liver, the

spleen, and all of the lymph nodes of the body.

 

3 http://www.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_four_major_systems_of_the_body

 

 

 

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 The Urinary System includes the kidneys, the ureters, the bladder, and the

urethra.

 

There is 1 sub-system of the Nervous System.

 The Sensory System includes the eyes, the ears, the nose, the tongue, and the

skin.

We are going to look at each of those systems more closely.

 

 

 

 

 

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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and the approximately 5 litres of blood that the blood vessels transport. Responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body, the cardiovascular system is powered by the body’s hardest-working organ — the heart, which is only about the size of a closed fist. Even at rest, the average heart easily pumps over 5 litres of blood throughout the body every minute.4

 

THE HEART ANATOMY

The heart is a muscular pumping organ located medial to the lungs along the body’s midline in the thoracic region. The bottom tip of the heart, known as its apex, is turned to the left so that about 2/3 of the heart is located on the body’s left side with the other 1/3 on right. The top of the heart, known as the heart’s base, connects to the great blood vessels of the body: the aorta, vena cava, pulmonary trunk, and pulmonary veins.

 

Circulatory Loops There are 2 primary circulatory loops in the human body: the pulmonary circulation loop and the systemic circulation loop.

1. Pulmonary circulation transports deoxygenated blood from the right side of

the heart to the lungs, where the blood picks up oxygen and returns to the

left side of the heart. The pumping chambers of the heart that support the

pulmonary circulation loop are the right atrium and right ventricle.

2. Systemic circulation carries highly oxygenated blood from the left side of

the heart to all of the tissues of the body (with the exception of the heart and

lungs). Systemic circulation removes wastes from body tissues, and returns

deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart. The left atrium and left

ventricle of the heart are the pumping chambers for the systemic circulation

loop.5

 

 

 

4 http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html 5 http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html

 

 

 

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BLOOD VESSELS

Blood vessels are the body’s highways that allow blood to flow quickly and efficiently from the heart to every region of the body and back again. The size of blood vessels corresponds with the amount of blood that passes through the vessel. All blood vessels contain a hollow area called the lumen through which blood is able to flow. Around the lumen is the wall of the vessel, which may be thin in the case of capillaries or very thick in the case of arteries.

 

All blood vessels are lined with a thin layer of simple squamous epithelium known as the endothelium that keeps blood cells inside of the blood vessels and prevents clots from forming. The endothelium lines the entire circulatory system, all the way to the interior of the heart, where it is called the endocardium.

 

There are three major types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins. Blood vessels are often named after either the region of the body through which they carry blood or for nearby structures. For example, the brachiocephalic artery carries blood into the brachial (arm) and cephalic (head) regions. One of its branches, the subclavian artery, runs under the clavicle; hence the name subclavian. The subclavian artery runs into the axillary region where it becomes known as the axillary artery.

 Arteries and Arterioles: Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from

the heart. Blood carried by arteries is usually highly oxygenated, having just left

the lungs on its way to the body’s tissues. The pulmonary trunk and arteries of

the pulmonary circulation loop provide an exception to this rule – these arteries

carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated.

 Capillaries: Capillaries are the smallest and thinnest of the blood vessels in the

body and also the most common. They can be found running throughout almost

every tissue of the body and border the edges of the body’s vascular tissues.

Capillaries connect to arterioles on one end and venules on the other.

 Capillaries carry blood very close to the cells of the tissues of the body in order

to exchange gases, nutrients, and waste products. The walls of capillaries

consist of only a thin layer of endothelium so that there is the minimum amount

of structure possible between the blood and the tissues. The endothelium acts as

a filter to keep blood cells inside of the vessels while allowing liquids, dissolved

gases, and other chemicals to diffuse along their concentration gradients into or

out of tissues.

 

 

 

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 Veins and Venules: Veins are the large return vessels of the body and act as the

blood return counterparts of arteries. Because the arteries, arterioles, and

capillaries absorb most of the force of the heart’s contractions, veins and

venules are subjected to very low blood pressures. This lack of pressure allows

the walls of veins to be much thinner, less elastic, and less muscular than the

walls of arteries.

 

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY

The cardiovascular system has three major functions: transportation of materials, protection from pathogens, and regulation of the body’s homeostasis.

 Transportation: The cardiovascular system transports blood to almost all of

the body’s tissues. The blood delivers essential nutrients and oxygen and

removes wastes and carbon dioxide to be processed or removed from the body.

Hormones are transported throughout the body via the blood’s liquid plasma.

 Protection: The cardiovascular system protects the body through its white

blood cells. White blood cells clean up cellular debris and fight pathogens that

have entered the body. Platelets and red blood cells form scabs to seal wounds

and prevent pathogens from entering the body and liquids from leaking out.

Blood also carries antibodies that provide specific immunity to pathogens that

the body has previously been exposed to or has been vaccinated against.

 Regulation: The cardiovascular system is instrumental in the body’s ability to

maintain homeostatic control of several internal conditions. Blood vessels help

maintain a stable body temperature by controlling the blood flow to the surface

of the skin. Blood vessels near the skin’s surface open during times of

overheating to allow hot blood to dump its heat into the body’s surroundings. In

the case of hypothermia, these blood vessels constrict to keep blood flowing only

to vital organs in the body’s core. Blood also helps balance the body’s pH due to

the presence of bicarbonate ions, which act as a buffer solution. Finally, the

 

 

 

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albumins in blood plasma help to balance the osmotic concentration of the

body’s cells by maintaining an isotonic environment.6

 

THE DERMAL OR INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

The integumentary system is an organ system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. The skin is only a few millimetres thick yet is by far the largest organ in the body. The average person’s skin weighs 10 pounds and has a surface area of almost 20 square feet. The skin forms the body’s outer covering and forms a barrier to protect the body from chemicals, disease, UV light, and physical damage. Hair and nails extend from the skin to reinforce the skin and protect it from environmental damage. The exocrine glands of the integumentary system produce sweat, oil, and wax to cool, protect, and moisturize the skin’s surface.7

 

The purpose of the Integumentary System is:

 Temperature Homeostasis

 Vitamin D Synthesis

 Protection

 Skin Colour

 Cutaneous Sensation

 Excretion

 

 

 

6 http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html 7 http://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/integumentary

 

 

 

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THE DIGESTIVE OR GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. In addition to the alimentary canal, there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food but do not have food pass through them. Accessory organs of the digestive system include the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. To achieve the goal of providing energy and nutrients to the body, six major functions take place in the digestive system:

 Ingestion

 Secretion

 Mixing and movement

 Digestion

 Absorption

 Excretion8

 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM PHYSIOLOGY

The digestive system is responsible for taking whole foods and turning them into energy and nutrients to allow the body to function, grow, and repair itself. The six primary processes of the digestive system include:

 Ingestion of food

 Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes

 Mixing and movement of food and wastes through the body

 Digestion of food into smaller pieces

 Absorption of nutrients

 Excretion of wastes

 

 

 

8 http://www.innerbody.com/image/digeov.html

 

 

 

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THE ENDOCRINE OR GLANDULAR OR HORMONAL SYSTEM

The endocrine system includes all of the glands of the body and the hormones produced by those glands. The glands are controlled directly by stimulation from the nervous system as well as by chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands. By regulating the functions of organs in the body, these glands help to maintain the body’s homeostasis. Cellular metabolism, reproduction, sexual development, sugar and mineral homeostasis, heart rate, and digestion are among the many processes regulated by the actions of hormones.9

 

PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

The endocrine system works alongside the nervous system to form the control systems of the body. The nervous system provides a very fast and narrowly targeted system to turn on specific glands and muscles throughout the body. The endocrine system, on the other hand, is much slower acting but has very widespread, long-lasting, and powerful effects. Hormones are distributed by glands through the bloodstream to the entire body, affecting any cell with a receptor for a particular hormone. Most hormones affect cells in several organs or throughout the entire body, leading to many diverse and powerful responses. 10

 

 

9 http://www.innerbody.com/image/endoov.html 10 http://www.innerbody.com/image/endoov.html

 

 

 

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THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM

The excretory system is a passive biological system that removes excess, unnecessary materials from an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the body. It is responsible for the elimination of the waste products of metabolism as well as other liquid and gaseous wastes, as urine and as a component of sweat and exhalation. As most healthy functioning organs produce metabolic and other wastes, the entire organism depends on the function of the system; however, only the organs specifically for the excretion process are considered a part of the excretory system.

 

As it involves several functions that are only superficially related, it is not usually used in more formal classifications of anatomy or function. 11

 

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. Attached to the bones of the skeletal system are about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half of a person’s body weight. Each of these muscles is a discrete organ constructed of skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, tendons, and nerves. Muscle tissue is also found inside of the heart, digestive organs, and blood vessels. In these organs, muscles serve to move substances throughout the body.12

 

MUSCLE TYPES

There are three types of muscle tissue: Visceral, cardiac, and skeletal.

 Visceral Muscle. Visceral muscle is found inside of organs like the stomach,

intestines, and blood vessels.

Cardiac Muscle. Found only in the heart, cardiac muscle is responsible for

pumping blood throughout the body.

 Skeletal Muscle. Skeletal muscle is the only voluntary muscle tissue in the

human body—it is controlled consciously.

 

11 http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Excretory_system.html 12 http://www.innerbody.com/image/musfov.html

 

 

 

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THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control centre known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control centre to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions.13

 

NERVOUS SYSTEM ANATOMY

The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia.

 Neurons. Neurons, also known as nerve cells, communicate within the body

by transmitting electrochemical signals.

 Neuroglia. Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, act as the “helper” cells of the

nervous system.

 

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The nervous system has 3 main functions: sensory, integration, and motor.

 SENSORY. The sensory function of the nervous system involves collecting

information from sensory receptors that monitor the body’s internal and

external conditions. These signals are then passed on to the central nervous

system (CNS) for further processing by afferent neurons (and nerves).

INTEGRATION. The process of integration is the processing of the many

sensory signals that are passed into the CNS at any given time. These signals

are evaluated, compared, used for decision making, discarded or committed

to memory as deemed appropriate. Integration takes place in the gray matter

of the brain and spinal cord and is performed by interneurons. Many

 

13 http://www.innerbody.com/image/nervov.html

 

 

 

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interneurons work together to form complex networks that provide this

processing power.

MOTOR. Once the networks of interneurons in the CNS evaluate sensory

information and decide on an action, they stimulate efferent neurons. Efferent

neurons (also called motor neurons) carry signals from the gray matter of the

CNS through the nerves of the peripheral nervous system to effector cells. The

effector may be smooth, cardiac, or skeletal muscle tissue or glandular tissue.

The effector then releases a hormone or moves a part of the body to respond

to the stimulus.14

 

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (MEN AND WOMEN).

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands and breasts. These organs are involved in the production and transportation of gametes and the production of sex hormones. The female reproductive system also facilitates the fertilization of ova by sperm and supports the development of offspring during pregnancy and infancy.15

 

THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testes, spermatic ducts, sex glands, and penis. These organs work together to produce sperm, the male gamete, and the other components of semen. These organs also work together to deliver semen out of the body and into the vagina where it can fertilize egg cells to produce offspring.

 

 

 

14 http://www.innerbody.com/image/nervov.html 15 http://www.innerbody.com/image/repfov.html

 

 

 

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THE RESPIRATORY OR PULMONARY SYSTEM

The cells of the human body require a constant stream of oxygen to stay alive. The respiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s cells while removing carbon dioxide, a waste product that can be lethal if allowed to accumulate. There are 3 major parts of the respiratory system: the airway, the lungs, and the muscles of respiration. The airway, which includes the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, carries air between the lungs and the body’s exterior. The lungs act as the functional units of the respiratory system by passing oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. Finally: the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, work together to act as a pump, pushing air into and out of the lungs during breathing.16

 

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

The skeletal system includes all of the bones and joints in the body. Each bone is a complex living organ that is made up of many cells, protein fibres, and minerals. The skeleton acts as a scaffold by providing support and protection for the soft tissues that make up the rest of the body. The skeletal system also provides attachment points for muscles to allow movements at the joints. New blood cells are produced by the red bone marrow inside of our bones. Bones act as the body’s warehouse for calcium, iron, and energy in the form of fat. Finally, the skeleton grows throughout childhood and provides a framework for the rest of the body to grow along with it.17

 

SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY

The skeletal system in an adult body is made up of 206 individual bones. These bones are arranged into two major divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton runs along the body’s midline axis and is made up of 80 bones in the following regions:

 Skull

 Hyoid

 Auditory ossicles

 

16 http://www.innerbody.com/anatomy/respiratory 17 http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCgQFjAA&url=http% 3A%2F%2Fscscpe.weebly.com%2Fuploads%2F1%2F7%2F1%2F9%2F17199118%2Fskeletal_system_w orksheet.docx&ei=- iHwUoTvFOmSiQem_IGQBQ&usg=AFQjCNHCu3n0JM0vcQmxwupSIb3ZadLJEQ&bvm=bv.60444564,d.aGc

 

 

 

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 Ribs

 Sternum

 Vertebral column

 

The appendicular skeleton is made up of 126 bones in the following regions:

 Upper limbs

 Lower limbs

 Pelvic girdle

 Pectoral (shoulder) girdle

 

THE SENSORY SYSTEM

The sensory system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. Commonly recognized sensory systems are those for vision, auditory (hearing), somatic sensation (touch), gustatory (taste), olfaction (smell) and vestibular (balance/movement). In short, senses are transducers from the physical world to the realm of the mind where we interpret the information, creating our perception of the world around us.

 

The receptive field is the specific part of the world to which a receptor organ and receptor cells respond. For instance, the part of the world an eye can see is its receptive field; the light that each rod or cone can see is its receptive field. Receptive fields have been identified for the visual system, auditory system and somatosensory system, so far.18

 

.

 

 

18 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensory_system

 

 

 

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APPLY A BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MAINTAINING A HEALTHY BODY AND ENHANCE

QUALITY OF WORK ACTIVITIES BY USING AND SHARING INFORMATION ABOUT HEALTHY FUNCTIONING OF THE BODY

Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans, it is the general condition of a person’s mind and body, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain (as in “good health” or “healthy”). The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Although this definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word “complete,” it remains the most enduring. Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health.

Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences. The term “healthy” is also widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person’s surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background, lifestyle, and economic and social conditions; these are referred to as “determinants of health.”19

The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. The human body consists of a head, neck, torso, 2 arms and 2 legs. The average height of an adult human is about 1.7 m (5 to 6 feet) tall. This size is firstly determined by diet and secondly by genes. Body type and body composition are influenced by postnatal factors such as diet and exercise. By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillion cells. Each is part of an organ system designed to perform essential life functions.20

 

 

Health workers who provide advice and care for clients/ patients must have a clear understanding of what comprises a healthy body and of the measures that need to be taken to ensure that the body remains healthy. In essence, good health can be maintained through healthy eating, reasonable amounts and types of exercise, a good balance between work and recreation activities, moderation with regard to drinking alcohol, not smoking cigarettes or consuming illicit drugs, participation in appropriate leisure activities, maintaining good psychological health, managing effective hygiene and cleanliness.

 

19 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health 20 http://vanndeth53010410161.wordpress.com/category/human-body-anatomy/

 

 

 

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Health workers need awareness and understanding of the behaviours of individual clients/ patients that can contribute to ill-health.

 

The term holistic emphasises the organic or functional relation between the parts and the whole. In other words, it encompasses the whole of a client’s well-being requirements, not just the individual parts. When assessing and accommodating client needs, the most effective programs will be holistic programs that cater for a client’s life and lifestyle needs.

 

Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of great importance for his health status and quality of life. It is increasingly recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society. According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment, and the person’s individual characteristics and behaviours.

 

More specifically, key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include:

 Income and social status  Social support networks  Education and literacy  Employment/working conditions  Social environments  Physical environments

 Personal health practices and coping skills

 Healthy child development  Biology and genetics  Health care services  Gender  Culture

 

All of these things will contribute to health and well-being. They should be considered in conjunction with the medical (physical and psychological) and therapeutic requirements of clients.

 

PHYSICAL HEALTH

Physical health is the overall condition of a living organism at a given time, the soundness of the body, freedom from diseases or abnormality and the condition of optimal well-being. People want to function as designed but environmental forces can attack the body, or the person may have genetic malfunctions.

 

 

 

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Physical health is how your body is treated and what condition it is in. Important aspects of maintaining physical health is a beneficial diet and exercise.

 

Only around one in 10 Australians over the age of 50 exercises enough to gain any cardiovascular benefit. Some estimates suggest that about half of the physical decline associated with old age may be due to a lack of physical activity. It has been suggested that people over the age of 65, more than any other age group, require adequate fitness levels to help them maintain independence, recover from illness and reduce their high risk of disease.

Various studies show that it is never too late to get fit. The human body responds to exercise, no matter what its age and there are many health benefits. If you are over 40 years, obese, suffering from a chronic illness or have been sedentary for some time, it is a good idea to check with your doctor before embarking on any new exercise routine.

 

THE PHYSICAL DECLINE OF OLDER AGE

About half of the physical decline associated with ageing may be due to a lack of physical activity. Without regular exercise, people over the age of 50 years can experience a range of health problems including:

 Reduced muscle mass, strength and physical endurance

 Reduced coordination and balance

 Reduced joint flexibility and mobility

 Reduced cardiovascular and respiratory function

 Reduced bone strength

 Increased body fat levels

 Increased blood pressure

 Increased susceptibility to mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression

 Increased risk of various diseases including cardiovascular disease and

stroke21

 

21 http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Healthy_ageing_stay_physically_active? open

 

 

 

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DIET

People have a number of basic life needs that must be fulfilled. These include food, water, shelter, safety, belonging, and self-actualization. Whilst food is a necessity, the type and amount of food consumed will have very definite effects on health.

 

Without food and water, we cannot live at all. However, the foods we eat must also meet our nutritional requirements. A healthy diet is one that is arrived at with the intent of improving or maintaining optimal health by consuming sufficient nutrients by eating appropriate amounts from a range of food groups. This includes consuming an adequate amount of water. Since human nutrition is complex, a healthy diet can vary widely, and be subject to an individual’s genetic makeup, the environment in which they live and interact, and specific health needs. For around 20% of the human population, lack of food and malnutrition are the main impediments to healthy eating. Increasing numbers of people in developed countries have the opposite problem, obesity.22

 

Healthy eating means consuming the right quantities of foods from all food groups in order to lead a healthy life.

 

Diet is often referred to as some dietary regimen for losing weight. However, diet simply means what food we eat in the course of a 24-hour, one week, or one month, etc. period.

A good diet is a nutritional lifestyle that promotes good health. A good diet must include several food groups because one single group cannot provide everything a human needs for good health.

A large breakfast helps control body weight – a team of researchers from Tel Aviv University, Israel, explained in the journal Obesity that a big breakfast – one containing about 700 calories – is better for losing weight and lowering one’s risk of developing heart disease, high cholesterol and diabetes.

 

HOW DO YOU DEFINE HEALTHY EATING?

The crucial part of healthy eating is a balanced diet. A balanced diet – or a good diet – means consuming from all the different food groups in the right quantities. Nutritionists

 

22 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/153998.php

 

 

 

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say there are five main food groups – whole grains, fruit and vegetables, protein, dairy, and fat & sugar.23

 

The Healthy Eating Pyramid is a food selection guide that can aid in determining what to eat and how much to eat. It can help health workers who are involved in the preparation of client meals, or who might advise clients about eating habits, to organise foods into groups according to the energy and the nutrients that they supply, so that meals are balanced and nutritious.

 

It illustrates the way that individual food choices in the ways that foods can be mixed and indicates the foods that should be eaten mostly (at the base of the pyramid – foods that are low in fat, rich in dietary fibre and provide complex carbohydrate [starch], vitamins, minerals and water), moderately (centre) and in small amounts (at the top of the pyramid).

 

 

 

 

 

23 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/153998.php

 

 

 

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The foods that are at the top of the pyramid should be limited in the amount of intake into the human body because they lack a good supply of the nutrients for growth, good health and quick energy. Large amounts of these foods will cause an imbalance.

 

The foods that are in the middle of the pyramid are rich in protein, essential for growth and repair of all tissues, a good source of vitamins and minerals (calcium and iron). They contain some fat; hence these need to be eaten in moderation.24

 

If you eat a variety of the foods from the base of the pyramid daily, this should provide the human body with energy from carbohydrates, as well as protein, vitamins (B- complex vitamins and vitamin C) and dietary fiber. These foods are dense with nutrients.

 

There have been studies that have shown that people who eat a wide variety of food are healthier, live longer and have reduced the risk of developing lifestyle illness.

 

WATER

It is important to drink clean, hygienic water – As this is necessary for the body to function properly. Body cells are largely comprised of water which needs to be replenished (re-hydration).

 

Water is also passed through the body to help get rid of waste products (sweat, urine). Sweat/ perspiration also aids in cooling the body.25

 

WHAT IS HOLISTIC HEALTH?

Holistic medicine, or “holistic health”, is a belief that both the physical and mental aspects of life are closely connected and factor into the overall health and wellness of a person. Holistic health is usually associated with the topic of alternative medicine, but it is becoming more mainstream in this day and age.

 

 

24 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/153998.php 25 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/153998.php

 

 

 

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The concept of holistic health is not new. Holism has been around for ages, but it has only been integrated into mainstream health care recently. There is a certain element of stubbornness in the medical field, and sometimes it is slow to accept new ways of treatment or thinking.

 

Holistic medicine is more an approach to how individuals should be treated, as opposed to a treatment method in and of itself. Those who practice it believe that maintaining good health is more than simply taking care of the different parts of our physical bodies, and it incorporates emotional and spiritual aspects as well. The overall goal of holistic medicine is entire wellness, not simply a lack of disease or physical pain.26

 

EFFECTIVE HYGIENE AND CLEANLINESS

Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. Such practices vary widely and what is considered acceptable in one culture might be unacceptable in another. In medical contexts, however, the term hygiene refers to the maintenance of health and healthy living. The term appears in phrases such as personal hygiene, domestic hygiene, dental hygiene, and occupational hygiene and is frequently used in connection with public health. Hygiene is a science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health.27

 

Water pipes, toilets and soap do not, in and of themselves, improve health; it is the way they are put to use that reduces the risk of disease. Broadly speaking, hygiene can be defined as the set of human behaviours related to cleanliness and health. In this Guide, hygiene refers specifically to those behaviours related to the safe management of human excreta, such as hand washing with soap or the safe disposal of children’s faeces. Hygiene thus determines how much impact water and sanitation infrastructure can have upon health because it reflects not the construction, but the use, of such facilities.

 

Hygiene is a very personal subject, and encouraging changes in hygiene requires skill and care. These challenges are the subject of hygiene promotion. Hygiene promotion is a planned approach which encourages people to adopt safe hygiene practices and behaviours to prevent diarrhoea and a number of other infectious diseases.28

 

 

26 http://allhealthcare.monster.com/training/articles/1930-what-is-holistic-health 27 http://www2.organizedwisdom.com/medical/terminology/Domestic-Hygiene 28 http://water.worldbank.org/shw-resource-guide/promotion/basics-hygiene-promotion

 

 

 

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PERSONAL HYGIENE

Good personal hygiene one of the most effective ways we have to protect ourselves and others from illness is good personal hygiene. This means washing your hands, especially, but also your body. It means being careful not to cough or sneeze on others, cleaning things that you touch if you are unwell, putting items such as tissues (that may have germs) into a bin and using protection (like gloves or condoms) when you might be at risk of catching an infection.

 

Personal hygiene, such as bathing, is very much dependent on the culture in which you live. In some cultures, it is expected that you will wash your body at least every day and use deodorants to stop body smells. Other cultures have different expectations.29

 

BODY ODOUR

Body smells are caused by a number of factors working in combination, including:

 Chemicals in sweat, including pheromones, which are made by the body and

sexually attract (or repel) other people.

 Wastes excreted through the skin, such as metabolized alcohol.

 The actions of bacteria that live on the skin and feed on dead skin cells and

sweat.

 Unwashed clothes, such as underwear and socks.

HAND WASHING

Most infections, especially colds and gastroenteritis, are caught when we put our unwashed hands, which have germs on them, to our mouth. Some infections are caught when other people’s dirty hands touch the food we eat. Hands and wrists should be washed with clean soap and water, using a brush if your fingernails are dirty. Dry your hands with something clean, such as paper towels or hot air dryers. You should always wash your hands:

 After using the toilet

 Before making or eating food

 After handling dogs or other animals

 If you have been around someone who is coughing or has a cold.

 

29 http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/personal_hygiene

 

 

 

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Personal hygiene for women

The vagina is able to clean itself no special care is needed, other than washing the external genitals. Do not put anything like douches into the vagina, as the delicate skin can be damaged. Here are some personal hygiene suggestions for women:

 Menstruation – wash your body, including your genital area, in the same way

as you always do. Change tampons and sanitary napkins regularly, at least

four to five times a day. Always wash your hands before and after handling a

tampon or pad.

 Cystitis – is an infection of the bladder. This is a common condition for

sexually active young women. Urinating after sexual intercourse can help to

flush out any bacteria that may be in the urethra and bladder.

 Thrush – some soaps and detergents can irritate the skin of the vagina, and

make thrush infections more likely. Some people find that they often get

thrush when they use antibiotics. Use mild soap and unperfumed toilet paper.

Avoid tight, synthetic underwear. Try cotton underwear, and change

regularly. There is a medical treatment for thrush, so talk to your doctor or

pharmacist.

 

Personal hygiene for men

A build-up of secretions called smegma can form under the foreskin of uncircumcised men. If you are uncircumcised, gently pull back the foreskin when you have a shower and clean with water. You can use soap if you like, but make sure you rinse it off well.

 

BAD BREATH

Good dental hygiene includes regular brushing and flossing. Bad breath can be caused by diseases of the teeth, gums and mouth, such as infections. Most people have a bad breath first thing in the morning because saliva is not made while you’re asleep. Some foods that can cause bad breath include garlic and onion. Mouthwashes, mouth sprays and flavoured chewing gum can make your breath smell better for a while, but if you have a health problem in your mouth, you need to see your dentist.

 

 

 

 

 

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FOOD HYGIENE

Food-borne illness (food poisoning) can be debilitating and can, in extreme cases, cause death. Clients whose immune systems are compromised (the young, aged and those who are frail or already ill) are particularly vulnerable to food-borne infections. Food and beverages can be contaminated by a number of different illness causing organisms (viruses, bacteria, moulds and yeasts) and they can be contaminated by chemicals or by physical contaminants (glass, metal pieces, etc.).

 

Health workers must know how to handle foods and beverages in a safe, hygienic manner and how to advise clients/ patients appropriately with regard to the manner in which they handle, store, prepare, cook and serve foods and beverages. Health workers should be able to recognise the foods and beverages that are considered perishable (most susceptible to food poisoning) and be able to accurately advise clients/ patients on the hygiene procedures that should be followed.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE

A clean living environment will contribute positively to the health and well-being of clients/ patients. A living environment which is not clean and hygienic is likely to promote ill health and can be a cause of infection and the spread of disease. In the case where, for instance, health workers have responsibility for very young, older, disabled, frail or ill clients/ patients, they need to be acutely aware of the need for these people to live in a clean environment with adequate access to fresh air and natural light/ sunlight.

 

They might have to make arrangements for the provision of cleaning services for clients, or they might need to advise clients and their family/ significant others regarding the need for cleanliness and the contribution cleanliness will make to the maintenance of a healthy body.

 

IMMUNISATION

Immunisation protects babies, children and adults against many diseases. It stimulates the body’s natural defence mechanisms -immune responses – to build resistance to specific infections. Immunisations are available for many diseases including chickenpox, hepatitis B, meningococcal disease, polio, rubella, whooping cough and tetanus. Overseas travel might require special immunisations. A regular influenza or pneumonia vaccination can be particularly important for the elderly or for those at high risk of complications associated with flu or pneumonia.

 

 

 

 

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When a person is vaccinated, the body produces an immune response to the vaccine in the same way it would after exposure to a disease. However, with a vaccination the person does not actually suffer from the disease. Yet when the person comes into contact with that disease in the future, their immune system will respond quickly to prevent the person developing the disease.

 

Vaccines contain either:

 A very small dose of a live, but weakened form of a virus

 A very small dose of killed bacteria or virus or small parts of bacteria

 A small dose of a modified toxin produced by bacteria

 

Vaccines might also contain either a small amount of preservative or a small amount of an antibiotic to preserve the vaccine.

 

In general, the normal immune response takes approximately 2 weeks to work. Most immunisations need to be given several times to build long-lasting protection. For example, a child who has been given only 1or 2 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTPa) is only partially protected against diphtheria, whooping cough (pertussis) and tetanus, and could become sick if exposed to these diseases.

 

The protective effect of immunisations is not always for a lifetime. Some, like tetanus vaccine, can last up to 30 years, after which a booster dose might be given. Some immunisations, such as whooping cough (pertussis), give protection for about 5 years after a full course. Booster doses might be required because immunity decreases over time. Due to having lower levels of immunity, children and elderly populations are regularly immunised.

 

Immunisation is the safest and most effective way of giving protection against many diseases. Health workers should know what vaccinations are available, which vaccinations might benefit their clients and should be able to give sound advice to clients/ patients. In some cases, the worker might be responsible for administering a vaccination. Where vaccinations are likely to make positive contributions to the health and well-being of a client (in terms of prevention of illness) – they will be recommended.30

 

 

30 http://www.dhhs.tas.gov.au/peh/immunisation

 

 

 

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PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS

Mental health describes a level of psychological well-being or an absence of a mental disorder. From the perspective of ‘positive psychology’ or ‘holism’, mental health may include an individual’s ability to enjoy life, and create a balance between life activities and efforts to achieve psychological resilience. Mental health can also be defined as an expression of emotions, and as signifying a successful adaptation to a range of demands.

 

The World Health Organization defines mental health as “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”. It was previously stated that there was no “official” definition of mental health. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how “mental health” is defined. There are different types of mental health problems, some of which are common, such as depression and anxiety disorders, and some not so common, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. 31

 

Most recently, the field of global mental health has emerged, which has been defined as ‘the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving mental health and achieving Psychological wellness also contributes to a healthy body. Effective stress management, for instance, will help to ensure ongoing good health. 32Stress and other emotional issues can have an impact on physical health and well-being. It is, therefore, necessary for health workers to understand the connection between psychological and physical health. Stress is, in medical terms, the consequence of the disruption of homeostasis through physical or psychological stimuli – the condition that results when person-environment interaction leads someone to perceive a painful discrepancy, real or imagined, between the demands of a situation on the one hand and their social, biological, or psychological resources on the other. Stressful stimuli can be mental, physiological, anatomical or physical.

 

Stressors (causes or triggers) can lead to distress within the human body, giving the person the feelings that they are unable to cope.

 

Some common categories and examples of stressors that are thought to contribute to deficits in an individual’s stress response systems include:

 Sensory: pain, illness

 Life events: birth and death, marriage, and divorce

 

31 http://www.awarenessdepot.com/bycausetype-meheaw.html 32 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_health

 

 

 

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 Responsibilities: lack of money, unemployment

 Work/ study: exams, project deadlines, and group projects, pressure

 Personal relationships: conflict, deception

 Lifestyle: heavy drinking, insufficient sleep

 Environmental: lack of control over environmental circumstances, such as

food, housing, health, freedom, or mobility

 Social: struggles with specific individuals and social defeat can be potent

sources of chronic stress

 

Stress can cause psychological or physical illness; for instance, headaches, weight loss/ weight gain, sleeplessness, depression, anxiety and irritability, high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer.

 

Everyone reacts to stress differently and has a different tolerance level. The way that stress manifests in a person’s body depends on their genetic make-up, diet and exercise routine and physical surroundings.

 

The body is less likely to be affected by stress when it is in good health. Clients/ patients should stop smoking, commence a regular exercise program and maintain a balanced diet. If they can do this, they are less likely to be adversely affected by stress.

 

Health workers should be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with stress and must be in a position to provide advice or to aid clients/ patients in utilising appropriate stress management techniques. If they are not qualified to do this, they should be able to make appropriate referrals.

 

Allied with psychological health is spiritual and cultural issues. Health workers need to be aware of the fact that the people with whom they interact will come from a wide range of backgrounds. This means that they will have specific cultural and spiritual needs that might be quite different from their own.

 

Health workers will, however, need to make allowance and accommodation for these needs. If the spiritual and cultural needs of people are not met, then, because these needs can be very deep and strongly ingrained, the physical and psychological health of clients/ patients can be adversely affected.

 

 

 

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REST/ SLEEP

Sleep is a natural state of bodily rest. Regular and sufficient sleep is essential for survival and for the maintenance of a healthy body. It appears that the human body requires between 6 and 8 hours of sleep per night – not everyone is the same. Sufficient sleep benefits alertness, memory and problem-solving, and overall health. It helps the body’s metabolic processes and contributes to psychological health.

 

Short sleep has been shown to be a risk factor for weight gain, hypertension and Type 2 diabetes. There is also some evidence to suggest that sleeping for too long can have adverse effects on health. Findings generally indicate that consistently sleeping around 7 hours per night is optimal for health and a sustained reduction might predispose to ill- health equity in mental health for all people worldwide.

 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLNESS

Health workers should have a clear understanding of the ways in which all of these things contribute to the general health and well-being of people. This understanding will enable them to provide advice and services that aid clients/ patients in maintaining a healthy body.

 

They must, therefore, understand how the various systems in the body operate and how they are interconnected and dependent on each other. For instance, without the ability to take in oxygen (respiratory system) and to process and filter air intake and expel carbon dioxide, the other systems of the body simply cannot survive.

 

Without food and water and the ability to process food (digestive system), the cells of the body and the various organs will not receive the nutrients they need in order to operate and survive.

 

Without a method of circulating oxygen (circulatory system) and nutrients and of carrying hormones (endocrine system) and lymph (lymph system) then these things would not reach the systems that require them.

 

Skin protects the body, helps to hold it together and helps regulate temperature – so too does the skeleton which contributes, along with muscles and ligaments, to movement and to the manufacture of the blood cells essential for life. The senses let the body know what is going on internally and externally.

 

 

 

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The nervous system – sympathetic and parasympathetic – is the driver of most of these functions. The brain also receives information from many organs of the body and adjusts signals to these organs to maintain proper functioning.

 

So it can be seen that all the systems are interrelated and rely on each other. They interact with one another to keep the human organism healthy.

 

Thus, it is necessary to consider health in terms of the whole body. A holistic approach to health also takes into consideration psychological, emotional, cultural, and spiritual health and well-being, all of these aspects work together to determine the overall health of a person.

 

 

 

 

 

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CORRECTLY USE AND INTERPRET INFORMATION THAT RELATES TO THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MAJOR COMPONENTS

OF EACH BODY SYSTEM AND OTHER STRUCTURES

Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthroponomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells). Anatomy, human physiology (the study of function), and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences that are generally together (or in tandem) to students studying medical sciences. In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and can be traced from very early embryos. The human body consists of biological systems, that consist of organs, that consist of tissues, that consist of cells and connective tissue. The history of anatomy has been characterized, over a long period of time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of fresh and preserved cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.33

 

Because the structure of living organism is complex, anatomy is organized by levels, from the smallest components of cells to the largest organs and their relationship to other organs.

 

The human body has several levels of structural complexity. The human body consists of biological systems which consist of organs that consist of tissues which consist of cells and connective tissue.

 

In the human body, there are 4 organisational levels. The smallest living units are the cells, some 75 to 100 trillion of them falling into more than 100 different types. Similar cells, along with the non-living material, called matrix, in which they are embedded, are grouped to form tissues, each kind designed to carry out specific functions. Related tissues are joined together into organs which are adapted to perform particular tasks.

 

33 http://www.dr-bond.com/healthcareinfo-body.aspx

 

 

 

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These tissues form the body’s systems, groups of organs responsible for a series of interrelated functions.

 

The human body is a community of billions of living organisms called cells. Each cell requires a constant supply of oxygen, nutrients, pure water, and just the right temperature. Waste removal ensures the proper functioning of the system.34

 

REGIONAL GROUPS

 Head and neck – includes everything above the thoracic inlet

 Upper limb – includes the hand, wrist, forearm, elbow, arm, and shoulder

 Thorax – the region of the chest from the thoracic inlet to the thoracic

diaphragm

 Human abdomen to the pelvic brim or to the pelvic inlet

 The back – the spine and its components, the vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, and

intervertebral disks

 Pelvis and Perineum – the pelvis consists of everything from the pelvic inlet

to the pelvic diaphragm; the perineum is the region between the sex organs

and the anus

 Lower limb – everything below the inguinal ligament, including the hip, the

thigh, the knee, the leg, the ankle, and the foot

 

INTERNAL ORGANS (BY REGION)

Head and neck

 Brain

o Basal ganglia

o Brain stem

 Medulla

 Midbrain

 Pons

 

34 http://www.dr-bond.com/healthcareinfo-body.aspx

 

 

 

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o Cerebellum

o Cerebrum

o Cerebral cortex

o Hypothalamus

o Limbic system

 Amygdala

 Eyes (2)

 Pineal gland

 Pituitary gland

 Thyroid gland

 Parathyroid glands (4 or more)

Thorax

 Heart

 Lungs (2)

 Esophagus

 Thymus gland

 Pleura

 

Abdomen and pelvis (both sexes)

 Adrenal glands (2)

 Appendix

 Bladder

 Gallbladder

 Large intestine

 Small intestine

 Kidneys (2)

 Liver

 Pancreas – gland

 Spleen

 Stomach

 

 

 

 

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Male pelvis

 Prostate gland

 Testes – glands (2)

 

Female pelvis

 Ovaries – glands (2)

 Uterus

 

MAJOR ORGAN SYSTEMS

Biological system

 Circulatory system: pumping and channelling blood to and from the body and

lungs with heart, blood, and blood vessels

 Digestive System: digestion and processing food with salivary glands,

esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus

 Endocannabinoid system: neuromodulatory lipids and receptors involved in a

variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood,

motor learning, synaptic plasticity, and memory

 Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by

endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland,

pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, and adrenals or adrenal

glands

 Immune system: the system that fights off disease; composed of leukocytes,

tonsils, adenoids, thymus, and spleen

 Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails

 Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between

tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that

transport it

 Musculoskeletal system: muscles provide movement, and a skeleton provides

structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and

tendons.

 

 

 

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 Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with

brain, spinal cord and nerves

 Reproductive system: the sex organs; in the female; ovaries, fallopian tubes,

uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and in the male; testicles, vas deferens,

seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis

 Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx,

trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm

 Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid

balance, electrolyte balance, and excretion of urine

 Vestibular system contributes to our balance and our sense of spatial

orientation35

SUPERFICIAL ANATOMY

Superficial anatomy is the surface projections of the major organs of the trunk, using the vertebral column and rib cage as main reference points of superficial anatomy.

 

Superficial anatomy or surface anatomy is important in human anatomy being the study of anatomical landmarks that can be readily identified from the contours or other reference points on the surface of the body. With knowledge of superficial anatomy, physicians gauge the position and anatomy of deeper structures.

 

Common names of well-known parts of the human body, from top to bottom:

 Head – Forehead – Jaw – Cheek – Chin

 Neck – Shoulder

 Arm – Elbow – Wrist – Hand – Finger – Thumb

 Spine – Chest – Thorax

 Abdomen – Groin

 Hip – Buttocks – Leg – Thigh – Knee – Calf – Heel – Ankle – Foot – Toe

 Eye, ear, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, throat, adam’s apple, breast, penis,

scrotum, clitoris, vulva, navel are also superficial structures.

 

 

35 http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/a/aa031706a.htm

 

 

 

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Your body works similarly to a machine, with different systems that make up your body and allow it to run effectively. Like a machine, if one system is not running properly, your whole body will be affected. These systems perform different tasks in the body and encompass different organs.

 

CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS

The cardiovascular system’s central organ is the heart, which pumps blood to the different parts of your body. The blood travels from the heart to the lungs, where the respiratory system supplies the blood with oxygen. You inhale air through your nose or mouth; it passes through your pharynx, larynx, trachea and finally to the lungs, where it diffuses in the blood through the alveoli.36

 

DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS

The digestive system is responsible for transforming food into energy. The food enters the digestive system; absorption takes place, and the food is transformed into enzymes, glucose and nutrients that the body uses as energy. The excretory system includes the kidneys, which filter wastes and purify the blood. This waste is transformed into urine and flows down two tubes, called ureters, which deliver the urine to the bladder. The urinary bladder is a large structure, similar to a sack, which collects the urine and then releases when full. The urine travels out of the body through a hole called the urethra.

 

ENDOCRINE AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS

The endocrine system uses hormones, chemical compounds that regulate metabolic function of cells, to stimulate the metabolic activity of cells. The hormones are released into the bloodstream. The immune system is a network of cells, tissues and organs that work together to attack any pathogens that try to enter your body. The human body is a perfect host for bacteria, parasites and fungi, which cause infection. If any of these organisms gain entry to the body, the immune system works to destroy them and rid your body of illness.

INTEGUMENTARY AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS

Your skin is called the integumentary system, which is your body’s first line of defence. It regulates your body temperature, protects underlying layers of tissue from sun damage and prevents pathogens from freely entering your body. The integumentary

 

36 http://www.livestrong.com/article/179482-body-systems-how-they-work-together/

 

 

 

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system is also home to millions of nerves that respond to touch, pressure and pain. There are two interconnected nervous systems: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system includes the spinal cord and the brain, which gets the information from the body and sends out instructions. The peripheral nervous system includes all of the nerves and sends messages from the brain to the rest of the body.37

 

SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS

The system that provides your body’s shape is the skeletal system, and it is made up of cartilage and bone. There are 206 bones in the human skeleton that provide a hard framework able to support the body and protect the organs that they surround. Cartilage provides support with flexibility and resistance and acts as padding to soften the pressure that is exerted from the bones. Movement in the body is the result of muscle contraction; when muscles combine with the action of joints and bones, obvious movements are performed, such as jumping and walking. The contraction of muscles provides the body posture, joint stability and heat production.38

HEALTH ISSUES

Maintenance of good health is, as seen, dependent on a number of things: genetics, predisposition to illness, lifestyle, situational conditions and psychological outlook are all contributors.

 

For those who are concurred with the ongoing maintenance of a healthy body should also take into consideration the reported increase in the combining of drugs and alcohol in society and the effects of smoking cigarettes.

 

This can have harmful effects in the following ways:

 Suicide and self-harm are linked both to heavy drinking and to illicit drug use,

and drinking and drug use, together, pose a particular risk

 The combination of alcohol with other drugs (particularly cannabis) also

poses risks for driving and other complex tasks, with the potential to harm

others as well as the drinker

 

37 http://dglopa.com/body-systems-how-they-work-together/ 38 http://www.livestrong.com/article/179482-body-systems-how-they-work-together/

 

 

 

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 Many people who have used illicit drugs are at risk of contracting infectious

diseases; e.g. Chronic hepatitis c that, in some people, will lead to severe liver

disease and aids (HIV)

 Alcohol dramatically increases both the risk and the progression of severe

liver disease in these people, and the risk increases with the level of drinking

 The risk of cancers of the lips, mouth, throat, larynx and esophagus, is

dramatically increased in heavy drinkers who also smoke

 Recent studies suggest that alcohol can act as an important risk factor for

bowel cancer when combined with smoking

 

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a variety of adverse health consequences, including liver cirrhosis, mental illness, several types of cancer, pancreatitis, and foetal growth retardation. Adverse social effects related to alcohol use include aggressive behaviour, family disruption, and reduced productivity.

 

 

 

 

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T O P I C 2 – R E C O G N I SE A N D P R O M O T E W A Y S T O S U P P O R T H E A L T H Y F U N C T I O N I N G O F T H E B O D Y

REVIEW FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MAINTENANCE OF A HEALTHY BODY

Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process, shaped by both the evolution of health care knowledge and practices as well as personal strategies and organized interventions for staying healthy known as Lifestyle Management.39

 

PERSONAL HEALTH

Personal health depends partially on the active, passive, and assisted cues people observe and adopt about their own health. These include personal actions for preventing or minimizing the effects of a disease, usually a chronic condition, through integrative care. They also include personal hygiene practices to prevent infection and illness, such as bathing and washing hands with soap; brushing and flossing teeth; storing, preparing and handling food safely; and many others. The information gleaned from personal observations of daily living – such as about sleep patterns, exercise behaviour, nutritional intake, and environmental features – may be used to inform personal decisions and actions (e.g., “I feel tired in the morning so I am going to try sleeping on a different pillow”), as well as clinical decisions and treatment plans (e.g., a patient who notices his or her shoes are tighter than usual may be having exacerbation of left-sided heart failure, and may require diuretic medication to reduce fluid overload). Personal health also depends partially on the social structure of a person’s life. The maintenance of strong social relationships, volunteering, and other social activities have been linked to positive mental health and even increased longevity. One American study among seniors over age 70, found that frequent volunteering was associated with reduced risk of dying compared with older persons who did not volunteer, regardless of physical health status. Another study from Singapore reported that volunteering retirees had significantly better cognitive performance scores, fewer depressive symptoms, and better mental well-being and life satisfaction than non-volunteering retirees.

Prolonged psychological stress may negatively impact health, and has been cited as a factor in cognitive impairment with aging, depressive illness, and expression of disease. Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to stress. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress.

 

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Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation, and positive thinking, which work by reducing response to stress. Improving relevant skills, such as problem solving and time management skills, reduces uncertainty and builds confidence, which also reduces the reaction to stress-causing situations where those skills are applicable.40

 

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

In addition to safety risks, many jobs also present risks of disease, illness, and other long-term health problems. Among the most common occupational diseases are various forms of pneumoconiosis, including silicosis and coal worker’s pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Asthma is another respiratory illness that many workers are vulnerable to. Workers may also be vulnerable to skin diseases, including eczema, dermatitis, urticaria, sunburn, and skin cancer. Other occupational diseases of concern include carpal tunnel syndrome and lead poisoning. As the number of service sector jobs has risen in developed countries, more and more jobs have become sedentary, presenting a different array of health problems than those associated with manufacturing and the primary sector. Contemporary problems such as the growing rate of obesity and issues relating to stress and overwork in many countries have further complicated the interaction between work and health. Many governments view occupational health as a social challenge and have formed public organizations to ensure the health and safety of workers. Examples of these include the British Health and Safety Executive and in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which conducts research on occupational health and safety, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which handles regulation and policy relating to worker safety and health.41

HOW TO KEEP HEALTHY

Being healthy isn’t just about fitness: It’s about physical, mental, and emotional well- being. To stay healthy, follow these guidelines:

 Maintain healthy eating habits. Avoid fad diets like the plague. To get all the

nutrition the human body needs eat carbs, protein, and fat (yes, even fat!) at

every meal. By doing so, you’ll have a healthy heart, healthy brain, and a fully

functional immune system. Eating highly varied foods will also help ensure

you get all the vitamins, minerals, oils and enzymes your body craves.

o To lose weight, you must burn more calories than you consume. That’s

all there is to it. With the exception of sweets, eliminating one area of

 

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the food pyramid from your diet won’t replace the need to simply

consume fewer calories.

o Avoid skipping meals, which is hard on the body. Some people even

recommend eating up to 6 mini meals a day instead of 3 large ones,

which can sustain energy and steady blood-sugar levels; however,

many people end up turning their “mini meals” into junk food sessions

and end up consuming not just more calories, but emptier ones. Be

honest with yourself before making this choice.

o If you want to work on portion control, eat low energy-density foods

(i.e. more substance, fewer calories). Fruits and vegetables, for

example, are packed with not only vitamins and minerals, but also

water and fibre, making them take longer to digest and keeping you

full longer.

o Drink more water. This helps flush metabolic wastes to keep your

metabolism in top shape. Water can also help you feel fuller, so drink

at least a half-gallon (2 litres) of water every day (or more if you are

active or live in a hot climate).

 Sleep well every night. Adults should get 7 to 9 hours daily, whereas school-

aged children should get 10 to 11. One of the absolute most important ways of

improving the quality of your sleep is to do it in complete darkness, as even

small amounts of light interfere with the chemicals that tell your body to rest.

If you can’t eliminate the light in your room, wear an eye mask. Another one

of the best ways to improve your sleep is to exercise.

o Sleeping is also a good way to prevent overeating. A study by The

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition demonstrated that men who

only slept for 4 hours consumed, on average, 500 more calories than

they did after sleeping for 8.

 Stick to an exercise regimen. If you don’t want to pay for a gym

membership, try strength-training at home. The muscle you develop will help

increase your metabolism: the bodies of muscular people burn more calories

even while they’re at rest. To keep your heart in shape, do cardio. One

particularly effective way to improve your cardiovascular health is to do

interval training, which means alternating between low- and high-intensity

 

 

 

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activities. This has been shown to be a quick and extremely effective way to

improve heart health and endurance. (Anyone over the age of 60 or who has

heart disease, high blood pressure, or arthritis should consult a doctor before

attempting interval training.)

 Pursue your passions. No, not everyone can make a living playing sold-out

concerts, travelling around the world trying new foods, or churning out

bestselling fantasy novels, but that doesn’t mean you should give up on your

dreams. Set some time aside to practice an instrument, do art, take photos,

build models, weld, bake gourmet cakes, or whatever else enriches your free

time. If you want to learn something new, take an evening or weekend class. If

you can’t think of anything interesting off the top of your head, take the time

to find a hobby.

 Limit your vices. Quit smoking, beat drug addiction, and, if necessary, stop

drinking. Avoid other risky behaviours like speeding, fighting, unsafe sex, and

excessive thrill-seeking.

 Improve your psychological health. Prioritize developing meaningful

relationships above simply being social. Practice self-disclosure, which means

sharing things that are unique to you (your thoughts, fears, favourite movies

and music, pet peeves, etc.) with those you trust. This has been shown to be of

immense importance to not only forging deeper interpersonal connections

but also feeling validated emotionally.

o Learn how to have a healthy relationship. If you think you’re in a

manipulative or controlling relationship, get out of it. It’s better to

stand strong on your own than be held back by a so-called companion.

o Learn how to understand your emotions so that you can truly know

yourself.

o Learn how to cope with emotional pain and, if necessary, deal with

emotional abuse.

o Enrich your sex life. In addition to the psychological benefits of a

healthy sex life such as reduced depression, this has been shown to

have a wide variety of health advantages including increased

immunity, decreased pain, and better fitness.[14] Better still, it’s

 

 

 

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something you can do with or without a partner. If you do have a

partner or partners, be sure to practice safe sex.

 Keep your mind limber. Read more, solve puzzles, play games of strategy,

learn to play an instrument, improve your memory, and never stop learning,

even if you feel like you’re “past your prime.” In addition to the fact that

staying mentally active is emotionally rewarding, studies have shown that

there is a correlation between mentally challenging activities and a decreased

risk of Alzheimer’s

 Be hygienic. Wash your hands thoroughly after coming into contact with a

sick person, using the bathroom, or anything else that could make you sick. (If

you’re not sure what “thoroughly” entails, sing Happy Birthday to You in your

head as you scrub.) In addition to flossing regularly, brush your teeth and

tongue at least twice daily to limit plaque and harmful bacteria.

 Make little lifestyle changes. Don’t tire yourself out by making large

gestures toward health without addressing the small stuff. Instead of running

yourself ragged at the gym three days a week, park farther away from the

store, walk the dog more often, take the stairs instead of the elevator, or weed

your garden; instead of attacking your veggies and dip distractedly in front of

the computer or TV, set time aside to slowly enjoy each meal and prevent

mindless overeating. Get your new habits to stick by tackling them at the

grass-roots level

 Remember to do everything in moderation – including moderation.

Turning each aspect of your life into something you need to check off a list

can not only make you feel trapped, but also make you more likely fall (or

possibly even throw yourself) off the wagon. Allowing yourself the occasional

indulgence to blow off steam will make you much more satisfied with your

new lifestyle choices

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