TERM PROJECT- WEIGHS 40% OF FINAL GRADE Step-by-step1: Identify a Failed Collaboration with Significant Issues/Stakes Identify a specific case of collaboration failure for an in-depth analysis. The ca

Stuck with a difficult assignment? No time to get your paper done? Feeling confused? If you’re looking for reliable and timely help for assignments, you’ve come to the right place. We promise 100% original, plagiarism-free papers custom-written for you. Yes, we write every assignment from scratch and it’s solely custom-made for you.

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper


Step-by-step1: Identify a Failed Collaboration with Significant Issues/Stakes

Identify a specific case of collaboration failure for an in-depth analysis. The case may be from published materials (e.g., books, magazines, and newspapers) or from the company that you have worked for. This case should involve significant issues and important stakes for the company involved. For example, the case could be about:

  • failed mergers and acquisitions
  • failed joint venture
  • companies’ unsuccessful collaboration/interaction with external stakeholder groups (e.g., local community, consumers, media, government, or business partners) – NOT INDIVIDULE LEVEL COLLABORATION

Step 2: Analyze the Case of a Failed Collaboration

This case should be analyzed by the concepts, models, and theories presented in the textbook, assigned readings, and lectures. Like a literature review.

Step 3: Prepare a Report of the Case of a Failed Collaboration

The following format should be followed:

  • Briefly describe the background of the case.
  • Apply the relevant OB concepts and theories to identify and explain the issues/problems that 
triggered the failure of the collaboration. Provide a diagnosis of the causes of these 
  • Suggest how the issues/problems can be handled in a more effective way. Provide explanations 
and justifications for your recommendations.
  • The analysis should demonstrate a sound knowledge of OB-related concepts, theories, skills, and 
illustrate how that knowledge can be effectively applied to addressing real-world collaboration issues/problems.

Evaluation Criteria for Term Project

The project report will be assessed based on the following criteria:

  • Major problems identified effectively (20)
  • Correct usage of Organizational Behaviour concepts and theories (20)
  • Relationship of problems to recommendations demonstrated (20)
  • Quality/effectiveness of recommendations (Does this mean recommendations that demonstrate your sound application of the OB –related concepts, theories etc.?)(20)
  • Explanations and justifications for your recommendations (20)


  • Font: Twelve points, Times New Roman
  • Margin: One-inch margin on all four sides
  • Space: Double space
  • Reference: To cite course contents or textbook please mark (UMLearn) and (Textbook Chapter X) in the paper. Must provide sources of all other citations. Sources should be reported following NEW APA style.
  • Length: No more than seven pages, not including references and cover page.

TERM PROJECT- WEIGHS 40% OF FINAL GRADE Step-by-step1: Identify a Failed Collaboration with Significant Issues/Stakes Identify a specific case of collaboration failure for an in-depth analysis. The ca
CHAPTER 2: FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION Our perception can be influenced by a plethora of factors. In general, these factors can be grouped into three categories: The perceiver: Attitudes, motives, interests, experiences, and expectations The target: Novelty, motion, sounds, size, background, and proximity The situation: Time, working setting, and social setting PERCEPTUAL ERRORS Although we strive to be accurate in forming perceptions of others, our perception is notoriously susceptible to the influence of external and internal factors, as our discussion on the previous page demonstrates. Collectively, these influences give rise to a series of perceptual errors that lead to inaccurate perceptions, as the counting exercise at the beginning of this section demonstrates. Here we discuss several of these perceptual errors. Specifically, we focus on the following six: Fundamental attribution error Selective perception Halo effect Contrast effects Projection Stereotyping Attribution Theory When it comes to perceiving behaviors, individuals often seek to determine whether a given behavior is internally or externally caused. According to the attribution theory,  a theory formulated to describe how individuals SHOULD make such attributions, we should pay attention to distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency.  Distinctiveness To determine distinctiveness, one should ask the question “How often does the person do this in other situations?”. If the answer is NOT often, then the behavior is HIGH in distinctiveness, which results in the attribution that the situation is probably responsible for the behavior (also known as external attribution). If the answer is VERY often, then the behavior is LOW in distinctiveness, which results in the attribution that the person him- or herself is responsible for the behavior (also known as internal attribution). Consensus To determine consensus, one should ask the question “How often do other people do this in similar situations?”. If the answer is VERY often, then the behavior is HIGH in consensus, which results in the attribution that the situation is responsible for the behavior. If the answer is NOT often, then the behaviour is LOW in consensus, which results in the attribution that the person is responsible for the behavior. Consistency To determine consistency, one should ask the question “How often did the person do this in the past?”. If the answer is VERY often, then the behavior is HIGH in consensus, which results in the attribution that the person is responsible for the behavior. If the answer is NOT often, then the behavior is LOW in consensus, which results in the attribution that the situation is responsible for the behavior. Fundamental Attribution Error Attribution theory describes how people should make attributions for behaviors. However, research has repeatedly demonstrated that attributions of this kind are often biased in one or the other, depending on whether we make attributions of our own behaviors or the behaviors of others.  Attributions for the self – Self-serving bias When we make attributions of our own behaviors, we tend to exhibit the self-serving bias, defined as the tendency to attribute one’s successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. For example, if I scored an A+ in the final exam, I will attribute that to myself, such as my talent or hard work. In contrast, if I scored an F in the final exam, I will attribute that to external factors, such as the exam was too difficult or the professor did not do a good job explaining to me those complex concepts. Attributions for others – Fundamental attribution error When we make attributions of the behaviors of others, we tend to exhibit the fundamental attribution bias, defined as The tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about others’ behavior. Using the same example above, if Peter scored an A+ in his final exam, I will attribute that to some external factor, such as his luck. In contrast, if he scored an F in the final exam, I will attribute that to himself, such as his lack of talent. Selective Perception Selective perception refers to people’s tendency to selectively interpret what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Halo Effect Halo effect refers to people’s tendency to draw a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic, such as intelligence, likeability, or appearance. Contrast Effect Contrast effect refers to the phenomenon in which a person’s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered. PERCEPTUAL ERRORS Projection Projection refers to people’s tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people. For example, if I like spicy food I’d also expect other people to also like spicy food. Sometimes this expectation remains implicit (that is, we are not aware of it). But sometimes we are fully aware of this expectation but still choose to believe that others like spicy food because, for example, they are so delicious. Again, by defending our expectations with reasons such as spicy foods are delicious, we are projecting our preference onto others. Stereotyping Stereotyping refers to people’s tendency to judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which that person belongs. For example, people often make the assumption that bankers must be good at math and professors must have read a lot of books. While these assumptions are true in many cases, they are not universally true. By thinking every banker we meet as being good at math, we allow our perception of that particular banker that we meet to be distorted by our overall impression of most bankers. It may still be true that the banker you meet is good at math, but by focusing on our stereotype of bankers, we lose the motivation to get to know the individual banker that we meet, who may be good at math or something that’s entirely different. That being said, stereotyping also has its positive aspect: it allows us to quickly form impressions of others we meet based on their membership in different social groups. This can be particularly useful when we are under time pressure to get to know someone. Prejudice Prejudice refers to an unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group. People often treat stereotyping and prejudice as equals. While stereotyping and prejudice are related, they are not the same. They are related because prejudice is rooted in the perceiver’s negative feelings toward a stereotyped group. Therefore, without stereotyping, there will not be prejudice. However, this does not mean that all stereotypes are prejudiced. The key distinction between stereotype and prejudice is that prejudice is negative (remember “unfounded dislike”) and often leads to disastrous consequences, such as hatred and violence. In contrast, stereotypes can be neutral or even positive. WHAT DETERMINES PERSONALITY? In general, our personality is shaped by factors that can be subsumed into three broad categories: Heredity Environmental factors Situational factors  Heredity An approach that argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes. The most persuasive research on this comes from studying monozygotic twins who were separated at birth and raised in very different environments. Different research studies with these kinds of twins have determined that genetics accounts for about half of the personality differences in people. Environmental factors The culture in which we are raised, our early conditioning, the norms among our family, friends, and social groups, and other influences that we experience play a critical role in shaping our personalities. Situational factors The situation influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality. Personality can be subdued in some situations. A person will be different in a job interview as compared to being at dinner with friends. We cannot look at personality patterns in isolation. OTHER PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB The Big Five Personality Inventory and MBTI seek to assess personality globally, which explains that there are multiple aspects to both of those surveys. In addition to this global approach, researchers have also identified a host of personality traits that focus one or a few specific aspects of people’s self-concept. In this section, we examine the following six: Machiavellisnism Narcissism Psychopathy Proactive personality Core self-evaluation Self-monitoring Machiavellisnism Machiavellisnism captures the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that the ends justifies the means. People can be categorized as high Machs and low Machs. Compared to their low Mach counterparts, high Machs tend to manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and more likely to persuade others more. Narcissism Narcissism refers to the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement. Narcissists tend to think that they are better leaders than their colleagues; but, their supervisors tend to rate them as worse. Psychopathy In OB, psychopathy does NOT mean insanity, although they may share some common components. Psychopathy in the OB context refers to the lack of concern for others and a lack of guilt and remorse when one’s actions cause harm to others A person who identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. Core Self-Evaluations (CSE) Core self-evaluation refers to how people evaluate themselves, which consists of self-esteem and self-efficacy: Self-esteem: whether people like or dislike themselves  Self-efficacy: whether people see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment People with positive CSEs perform better because they: Set more ambitious goals Are more committed to their goals Persist longer at attempting to reach those goals Self-Monitoring Self-monitoring refers to an individual’s ability to adjust behaviour to external, situational factors. High self-monitors tend to: Pay closer attention to the behaviour of others Are more capable of conforming than low self-monitors Tend to be more mobile in their careers Receive more promotions More likely to occupy central positions in an organization
TERM PROJECT- WEIGHS 40% OF FINAL GRADE Step-by-step1: Identify a Failed Collaboration with Significant Issues/Stakes Identify a specific case of collaboration failure for an in-depth analysis. The ca
CHAPTER 3 HOW TO ASSESS VALUES? There are different types of values, some of which capture our entire value system while others focus one particular aspect of our value system, such as cultural values. As a result, depending on the type of value you are interested in measuring, the instrument that you should choose should also be different. For those who are interested in capturing the entire value system, your best choice would be Milton Rokeach’s value survey, which can be found here (Rokeach’s value survey).  Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) The RVS assesses values by categorizing them into one of two types. The first type, labeled terminal values, refers to goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime. The second type, labeled instrumental values, refers to the preferred modes of behaviors, or means for achieving the terminal values. Categorizing values into terminal and instrumental values reflects the assumption, and to some extent, the reality that people place value on both the ends and the means. Terminal values: A comfortable life An exciting life A sense of accomplishment Equality Inner harmony Happiness Instrumental values: Ambitious Broad-minded Capable Courageous Imaginative Honest  Hodgson’s General Moral Principles To the extent that we look up to our values for guidance and inspiration for how we can be good decent people, there is almost always a moral aspect to people’s value system. Therefore, values and morality are inherently intertwined, and sometimes instead of measuring the global value system, people choose to focus specifically on moral values, which can be measured by Hodgson’s general moral principles.  Kent Hodgson identified seven general moral principles that individuals should follow when making decisions about behaviour: Dignity of human life: people are to be respected Autonomy: all persons are intrinsically valuable and have the right to self-determination Honesty: the truth should be told to those who have a right to know it Loyalty: promises, contracts, and commitments should be honored Fairness: people should be treated justly Humaneness: our actions ought to accomplish good, and we should avoid doing evil The common good: actions should accomplish the greatest good for the greatest number of people Because morality is a topic of high subjectivity, you don’t necessarily have to accept Hodgson’s moral principles in its entirety. That being said, research has identified a few traits (such as honest, humaneness, fairness) that most people seem to perceive as definitive of one’s moral character.  Cultural values Values vary greatly across different cultures. To assess cultural values, Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultural values has been proven to be quite useful. Hofstede’s framework captures values from different cultures in the following five dimensions: Power distance Individualism vs. collectivism Masculinity vs. femininity Uncertainty avoidance Long term vs. short term orientation Indulgence vs. restraint Power distance: The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally Individualism vs. collectivism: The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups and believe in individual rights above all else. Collectivism emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. Masculinity vs. Femininity The degree to which the culture favors traditional masculine roles, such as achievement, power, and control, as opposed to viewing men and women as equals. Uncertainty Avoidance The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation This dimension refers to a society’s devotion to traditional values. Research has found that long-term orientation values thrift, persistence, and tradition, whereas short-term orientation values here and now. Indulgence vs. Restraint This dimension refers to a society’s devotion to indulgence. It has been shown that cultures that appreciate indulgence encourage relative free gratification of basic and natural needs, whereas cultures that appreciate restraint favor need for control and gratification of needs. Cultural intelligence Understanding cultural values is key to success in the modern business world, as businesses nowadays have no boundaries whatsoever. Given the large number of distinct cultures on this planet, it is certainly not easy to navigate the different values appreciated by different cultures. One way to assess if we are effective in this multicultural world is through the lens of cultural intelligence, defined as the ability to understand someone’s unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures in the same way as would people from his or her culture. Interested in your own cultural intelligence?  Proceed to EXHIBIT 3-8 of the e-textbook for quick cultural intelligence questionnaire. Interpretation: An average less than 3 would indicate an area calling for improvement, while an average of greater than 4.5 reflects a true CQ strength. Depending on the scores, people can be categorized into different profiles: Provincial: Work best with people of similar background, but have difficulties working with those from different backgrounds Analyst: Analyze a foreign culture’s rules and expectations to figure out how to interact with others Natural: They use intuition rather than systematic study to understand those from other cultural backgrounds Ambassador: Communicate convincingly that they fit in, even if they do not know much about the foreign culture Mimic: Control actions and behaviors to match others, even if they do not understand the significance of the culture cues observed. Chameleon: High levels of all three CQ components. Chameleon could be mistaken as being from the foreign culture. Only 5% of managers fit this profile. MANAGING DIVERSITY AT WORK At this point, I hope you have realized from our discussion on personality and values earlier that individuals differ significantly from one another, and it has become crucial for managers to be aware of the diverse nature of the modern workplace and to master the necessary skills and knowhow on managing diversity at the workplace. Before discussing how managers can manage diversity, let’s first clarify what diversity is. Diversity comes in different forms. In general, the following types of diversity are most commonly in in the workplace. Biographical characteristics: Differences in age, gender, race, disability, and tenure Differences in religion, sexual orientation, and gender identity Differences in ability Creating effective diversity programs Effective Diversity Programs should include: Legal framework for equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people How a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers and clients Personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers ATTITUDES IN THE WORKPLACE Attitudes are everywhere in our lives. We may have an attitude toward our family or friends. Three types of attitudes are particularly noteworthy in term of the workplace, and we will focus on them in this section: Job satisfaction Organizational commitment Job involvement/employee engagement Job satisfaction Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. Job satisfaction is perhaps the most important workplace attitude, as it has been associated with a host of workplace outcomes such as employee physical well-being and organizational performance. According to a recent survey, 36 percent of Canadians said they were thinking about leaving their employers and 20 percent were ambivalent about staying or going, which begs the question “what causes job satisfaction?” Research has provided us with the following three sources of job satisfaction: Work itself: whether the job is interesting and rewarding Pay advancement opportunities: whether there is room for sustainable increase in salary/wage  Supervision: how one is treated by his/her supervisors also plays an important role in shaping his/her job satisfaction Co-workers: how one is treated by his/her peers is also very important As shown above, money is important for job satisfaction, but it certainly has its limitations. Research has shown that  Enjoying the work itself is almost always most strongly correlated with high levels of job satisfaction Once a person reaches the level of comfortable living the relationship between pay and satisfaction virtually disappears. People who believe in their inner worth and basic competence, are more satisfied with their work. Workplaces that provide interdependence, feedback, social support, and ample opportunities to interact with colleagues are most likely to give rise to high job satisfaction Job satisfaction and job performance Job satisfaction is positively associated with the following: Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB), defined as discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s job requirements, and is not usually rewarded, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization Customer satisfaction and loyalty, because satisfied employees are more likely to be friendly, upbeat, responsiveand less likely to quit. Job DISSATISFACTION is positively associated with the following responses: Exit: Leave the organization Voice: Attempt to improve conditions Loyalty: Passively but optimistically wait for conditions to improve Neglect: Allow conditions to worsen Organizational commitment  A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. Three types of commitment Affective commitment: An individual’s emotional attachment to an organization and a belief in its values Normative commitment: The obligation an individual feels to stay with an organization for moral or ethical reasons. Continuance commitment: An individual’s perceived economic value of remaining with an organization. Benefits of organizational commitment Firms that have employees with a higher level of commitment tend to see positive results: Higher customer satisfaction More productive employees Higher profits Lower levels of turnover and accidents Job Involvement/Employee Engagement Job involvement/employee engagement measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth. Job involvement/employee engagement increase job performance through psychological empowerment, defined as employees’ beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job and their perceived autonomy.
TERM PROJECT- WEIGHS 40% OF FINAL GRADE Step-by-step1: Identify a Failed Collaboration with Significant Issues/Stakes Identify a specific case of collaboration failure for an in-depth analysis. The ca
CHAPTER 5: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE: THE ROLE OF MONEY Money is the most commonly used reward in organizations, as it helps needs get met. But managers often find it difficult to set the right pay levels. A 2010 survey of Canadian Employees found that 46% believed they were underpaid. Therefore, the first question that we seek to address in this section is how managers can set pay levels.  Setting pay levels (above, at, or below market rates) is a key strategic decision with important trade-offs: Paying below market cuts operating cost and increase profit, but morale may suffer. Paying above market helps to keep and attract motivated and qualified employees, but decreases company profit. Setting pay levels requires a balance between external and internal equity: Internal Equity: The worth of the job to the organization (job evaluation) External Equity: The competitiveness of an organization’s pay relative to industry standards In practice, different pay programs can be grouped into two categories:  Fixed pay programs: Employee’s level of pay is fixed at a certain level. Variable pay programs:  A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance. Keep in mind that in variable pay programs only a portion, rather than the full amount, of the pay is variable. Variable pay programs can be further categorized into: Individual-based programs Piece-rate wages Merit-based pay Bonuses Skill-based pay Group-based  Gainsharing Organization-based Profit sharing Employee stock ownership and stock options INDIVIDUAL-BASED VARIABLE PAY PROGRAMS Piece-rate pay plans Pay a fixed sum for each unit of production completed. It is unfortunately not feasible for all jobs (e.g., administrative positions), as not all jobs can be accurately quantified. Merit-based pay plans Pay is based on performance appraisal ratings Also influenced by the projected level of future performance Only as valid as performance ratings Raise can be influenced by economic or other conditions Prone to gender and racial discrimination Bonuses One-time rewards for defined work rather than ongoing entitlements. Reward for recent performance rather than historical performance Subject to economic condition Cuts to bonuses can be uneven within a firm The desire to gain bonuses may motivate employees to engage unethical practices Skill-based pay Pay based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do. Increases flexibility of the workforce, which facilitates staffing and communication Can be frustrating to certain employees, as there are only so many skills that one can master No consideration for performance, as not all skills are needed in some organizations GROUP BASED INCENTIVES Gainsharing Gainsharing focuses on productivity gains. Improvements in group productivity determine the rewards to be shared. May lead to change in group dynamics (e.g., higher performers pressure low performers to work harder) It is important to note that gainsharing is different from most other variable-pay program in that the fund comes from savings in production cost, rather than after those products have been sold. As an example of gainsharing, if your department can bring down the cost of manufacturing one unit of product from $10 to $6, members of your department get to receive a portion of that $4 saving as incentive from the gainsharing program. ORGANIZATIONAL-BASED INCENTIVES Profit sharing plans Profit sharing plans are organization-wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability Profit sharing plans often result in greater feeling of psychological ownership One downside of profit sharing plans is that they lack of focus on the future, as profit is calculated based on past, rather than future, performance The other downside is that they lack of consideration for programs that maintain long-term profitability, such as customer service and employee development, as these programs do not directly generate profits. Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) and Stock Options ESOPs are company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits Stock options give employees the right to buy stocks in the company at a later date for a guaranteed price Compared with other variable pay programs, ESOPs and stock options have the advantage of being future-oriented, as employees who receive these benefits have to hold onto the stocks they acquired from ESOPs or stock options for some time before selling or exercising them. As a consequence, these programs motivate employees by aligning employee self-interest with the best interest of their organizations.   CHALLENGES TO VARIABLE PAY PROGRAMS Variable pay programs are among the most popular pay programs in use today. However, adoption of these programs is not without obstacles. Generally speaking, these obstacles can be grouped into the following four categories: Teamwork Unions Public Sector Employees Ethical Considerations Teamwork When choosing variable pay programs, managers often forget that not all variable pay programs are created equal. While group-based programs are beneficial for teams, programs based on individual incentives can harm team performance. Unions Canada has more unionized workplaces than in the United States Unionized employees are paid on the basis of seniority and job category, rather than performance There is often little range within a category and few opportunities to receive performance-based pay Public Sector Employees Variable pay programs may also be difficult to implement in public sectors, as jobs in public sectors are mostly service in nature, which makes them difficult to quantify. Ethical considerations Performance-based pay programs lead to manipulation of performance. For example, managers may force staff to work without pay to keep his or her own bonus FLEXIBLE BENEFITS: DEVELOPING A BENEFITS PACKAGE Reward systems contain not only monetary compensation but also benefits packages that seek to enhance employee well-being indirectly. For a long time, benefits packages were designed following the one-benefit-plan-fits-all approach. Over time, organizations became increasingly aware that the one-benefit-fits-all approach is costly and ineffective, as individuals have different needs. For example, employees with families may prefer insurance coverage for their entire family while others without families may prefer coverages only for themselves at a lower cost. Therefore, almost all benefits packages are flexible in nature.  A flexible benefits plan permits each employee to create a package to suit their individual needs, defined by factors such as marital status, age, spouses’ benefits status, number of dependents, etc. Three most popular benefit plans: Modular Plans: predesigned packages of benefits, with each module put together to meet the needs of specific groups of employers Core-Plus Plans: plans that consist of essential benefits and a menu-like selection of other benefit options from which employees can select Flexible Spending Plans: plans that allow employees to set aside pretax dollars up to the dollar amount offered in the plan to pay for particular benefits, such as eye care and dental premiums  HOW TO REDESIGN JOBS THAT MOTIVATE There are several practices that organizations use to make jobs more motivating: Job rotation Job enrichment Relational job design Flexible work time Job sharing Telecommuting (teleworking or virtual office) Employee involvement Participative management Representative participation Job rotation  Periodic shifting of workers from one task to another. Often used to increase flexibility and avoid layoff Mostly for assembly line and manufacturing employees, job rotation is also used for new managers Reduces boredom, increases motivation, and helps employees understand how their work contributes to the organization Increases training cost, reduces productivity during training, and creates disruptions Job Enrichment The vertical expansion of jobs that allows employees to do a complete activity Employee controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work Expands the employee’s freedom and independence Increases responsibility Provides feedback so individuals can assess and correct their own performance Seeks to increase meaningfulness of work The frequency of feedback is key for job enrichment to be effective Relational Job Design How can managers design work so employees are motivated to promote the well-being of the organization’s beneficiaries, such as customers, clients, or other users of their services and products Relating employees with customers, which can be accomplished with: Stories from customers Direct interactions between employees and beneficiaries Why does relational job design motivate? Evidence of tangible consequences associated with work Make customers more accessible in the minds of employees Allow employees to take the perspective of customers Flextime (flexible work time) Employees work a specific number of hours a week, but they are free to vary the hours of work within certain limits (common core (e.g., 9am-3pm) + flexibility band (e.g., 6am-9am or 3pm-6pm) Reduces absenteeism and improves productivity and satisfaction Alignment between work and personal demands Work is done when people are most productive Work-life balance Works well with clerical tasks in which interaction with other departments is limited but not so well with professions in which people’s presence is required at predetermined times Job Sharing Two or more people splitting a 40 hour a week job Popular in Europe (14% Canadian employers offer this arrangement) Allows employers to draw upon the talents of more than one individual in a given job Accommodates skilled employees who are not available on a full-time basis Increases flexibility, motivation, and satisfaction for those who can’t work full-time Difficult to find compatible partners to share a job Telecommuting (teleworking or virtual office) Employees complete their work at home for at least two days a week on a computer linked to the employer’s office Best for routine information-handling tasks, mobile activities, professional and other knowledge-related tasks Writers, attorneys, analysts, and employees who spend the majority of their time on computers or the phone Employee Involvement Employee involvement programs are participative processes that use employees’ input to increase their commitment to the organization’s success The assumption behind employee involvement programs is that if employees are engaged in making the decisions that affect them and increase their autonomy and control, they will be more motivated, committed, productive, and satisfied (i.e., procedural justice) Employee involvement programs usually belong to one of the following two categories: Participative management Representative participation Participative management A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors (joint decision making) An effective solution for poor morale and low productivity Most effective when: employees have trust and confidence in their leaders leaders to avoid coercive techniques and stress organizational consequences of decision-making to employees Effect on performance is limited Representative participation A system in which employees participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees It represents redistribution of power within an organization by putting labor on a more equal footing with the interests of management and stockholders Representative participation often appears in organizations as councils and board representatives  Work councils involve groups of nominated or elected employees who must be consulted about decisions pertinent to employees Board representatives involve employees who sit on a company’s board of directors and represent employees’ interests Effect on motivation and performance is minimal: It may increase motivation and satisfaction for representatives, but there is little to no effect on individual employees. Therefore, its effect is more symbolic than functional.
TERM PROJECT- WEIGHS 40% OF FINAL GRADE Step-by-step1: Identify a Failed Collaboration with Significant Issues/Stakes Identify a specific case of collaboration failure for an in-depth analysis. The ca
CHAPTER 7: HOW TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY – CHANNEL Each and every component of the communication process is crucial to the successful delivery of messages. Among these components, two stand out as particularly noteworthy: Channels and noise. We focus on channels in this section. Channel Not all channels are created equal As we discussed earlier, channels refer to the medium through which a message travels. Research has shown repeatedly that channels are different in that rich channels: handle multiple cues simultaneously. facilitate rapid feedback. tend to be very personal. Therefore, your choice of channels should be made partially based on the type of the message you need to send. The textbook provides examples for channels of varying degree of richness, such as video conferencing and face-to-face communication as channels high in richness and formal reports and memos as channels low in richness. Based on the three characteristics of rich channels listed above, explain why, for example, video conferences are richer than live speech as channels of communication, and why formal reports are less rich than voice mail as channels of communication. When to choose rich channels? Ideally, we should always choose rich channels, as they are simply better for transmitting messages. However, rich channels also tend to be costly, making it practically impossible for us to use rich channels all the time. Instead, rich channels should be reserved for situations that require transmitting non-routine messages, which are likely to be complicated and have the potential for misunderstanding. Routine messages can be transmitted using less rich channels as they are straightforward and have a low level of ambiguity. HOW TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY – NOISE Each and every component of the communication process is crucial to the successful delivery of messages. Among these components, two stand out as particularly noteworthy: Channels and noise. We focus on noise in this section. Noise Noises are communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message, such as perceptual errors and information overload. Noises prevent messages from being transmitted clearly. However, it is also impossible for us to entirely get rid of noises as they are the byproducts of how we process information. Therefore, the best we can do is to be aware of them and also minimize the impact on communication effectiveness. Research has identified the several major types of noises, which we discuss below: Filtering The sender manipulates information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. The more vertical levels in the organizational hierarchy, the more opportunities there are for filtering. Selective Perception The receivers selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. Information Overload Occurs when the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity. With emails, phone calls, faxes, meetings, and the need to keep current in one’s field, more employees are suffering from too much information. People suffer from information overload tend to select, ignore, pass over, or forget Information overload may also lead to issues with work-life balance One way to avoid information overload is to connect to technology less frequently Emotions People interpret the same message differently when they are angry or distraught than when they are happy People in negative moods are more likely to scrutinize messages in greater detail People in positive moods tend to accept communication at face value Language Words mean different things to different people Age and context are the two biggest factors that influence such differences Silence Defined as an absence of speech or noise. While silence may appear to be inaction, it is not necessarily inaction. Instead, it can convey: Thinking or contemplating a response to a question. Anxiety about speaking. Agreement, dissent, frustration, or anger. Individuals should be aware of what silence might mean in any communication. Ignoring silence in the workplace may result in problems, as employees who are silent about important issues may also experience psychological stress. Nonverbal Communication Includes body movements, facial expressions, and the physical distance between sender and receiver. Two important messages body language conveys The extent to which an individual likes another and is interested in his or her views Relative perceived status between a sender and receiver (i.e. how emotionally close they are to each other), as the following brief video clip demonstrates Lying Outright misrepresentation of information People are more comfortable lying over the phone and in emails than face to face or write with pen and paper Most people are not good at detecting lies There are both verbal or nonverbal cues for lying, such as averting gaze, pausing, and shifting posture. Watch the following video clip for tips on how to spot a liar COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONS Communication in organizations follow either formal or informal networks. Formal networks are usually used for task-related communications that follow the authority chain, and are typically vertical, whereas informal networks (also known as the grapevine) are for communications that flow along social and relational lines. Finally, in terms of channels, thanks to the advancement of information technology, communications in organizations have become increasingly electronic over the past few decades. While communication through electronic channels has a tremendous cost and expediency advantage over traditional channels of communication, it also has its fair share of problems, which we will discuss below. Formal networks Given the structured nature of formal networks, the main types of formal networks are as follows: Chain: moderate speed, high accuracy, moderate emergence of a leader, and moderate member satisfaction Wheel: fast, high accuracy, high emergence of a leader, and low member satisfaction All-channel: fast, moderate accuracy, no emergence of a leader, and high member satisfaction There are pros and cons associated with each type of formal communication networks, which begs the question: under what conditions does each of these types would be most appropriate? Share your answers at Discussion: How to choose between different communication networks Informal networks 75 percent of employees hear about matters first through rumors – an example of informal networks, which has three main characteristics: Not controlled by management. Most employees perceive it as being more believable and reliable than formal communication. Largely used to serve the self-interests of those people within it. Electronic communication Email Problems with email: Emails are prone to misinterpretation. Emails are not suitable for communicating negative messages. Emails tend to be time-consuming, especially for communicating complex messages. Emotions cannot be transmitted efficiently through emails. Emails are prone to security breaches. Instant Messaging (IM) and Text Messaging (TM) IM and TM are rapidly gaining popularity in organizations because they are fast and inexpensive for managers to stay in touch with employees and peers with each other. However, they are better for short and simple messages. Despite exponential growth in usage, IM and TM are not likely to replace email because Email is still better for long messages that can be saved. There are additional security concerns for IM/TM 
TERM PROJECT- WEIGHS 40% OF FINAL GRADE Step-by-step1: Identify a Failed Collaboration with Significant Issues/Stakes Identify a specific case of collaboration failure for an in-depth analysis. The ca
CHAPTER 8: BASES OF POWER As the discussion at the beginning of this chapter illustrates, under certain circumstances, most people are powerful to a certain degree. CEOs and Managers are certainly powerful as they can determine whether you get to keep your job or receive that promotion or raise you have been waiting for. On the other hand, under certain circumstances, flight attendants and mailroom person can also be powerful. Flight attendants are powerful when you are on board because at that time you are under their supervision. Mailroom persons are powerful when they have the letters or parcels that you have been waiting for. Therefore, power comes in many different forms, and each form is associated with a unique power base. In this section, we compare and contrast the following five bases of power.  Coercive power Reward power Legitimate power Expert power Referent power Coercive power Power that is based on fear Coervice power can be exercised through the infliction of pain, restriction of movement, or deprivation of basic psychological or safety needs Example: Managers use coercive power when they discipline uncooperative employees by threatening them with write-ups, demotions, pay cuts, layoffs, and terminations Reward Power Power based on the ability to provide benefits or rewards to people. Rewards can be financial or non-financial Recipient must value the rewards Example: Managers use reward power when they try to motivate uncooperative employees with pay raise, promotion, and extra vacation time. Legitimate Power Power based on relative position in the organizational hierarchy, legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce or reward as it includes acceptance by members of an organization of the authority of a position Example: Managers have the power to reward the employees s/he likes and punish the employees s/he dislikes using organizational resources simply because as the manager, s/he is entitled to have access to those resources.  Expert Power Power based on a person’s experience and knowledge. Expert power often takes the form of expertise, special skills, and knowledge. Without invoking any sense of coercion, expert power is one of the most powerful sources of influence as the world is now more technologically oriented  Example: You think one of your colleagues is powerful because s/he has the technological know-how that everyone needs at work. That colleague is not a manager, neither does s/he have access to reward or punish anyone. But the fact s/he has the expertise that everyone else needs give him/her power because everyone is dependent on him/her. Referent Power Referent power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person Referent power explains why celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials Example: One need not be a movie star to have referent power. Referent power comes out of respect. If others genuinely respect you, then you have referent power over them. That being said, getting others to respect you is not easy, which explains why referent power is more difficult to obtain than power resulted from other bases. EVALUATING THE BASES OF POWER Power rooted in different bases elicits different reactions. For example, because people don’t like to be coerced, coercive power is more likely to elicit resistance than other bases of power. In this section, we compare and contrast the effects of different power bases on the recipients. Specifically, we assess each power base based on how likely they will result in the following three reactions: Commitment – The person is enthusiastic about the request and carries the task out. Compliance – The person goes along with the request grudgingly, putting in minimal effort. Resistance – The person is opposed to the request and tries to avoid it. As summarized in the figure above, coercive power is most likely to result in resistance. Because people in general do not like to be coerced, when coercive power is used, they will react by fighting back as part of their instinct. Although sometimes people give up fighting back out of fear, they will still be constantly on the lookout for the opportunities to resist.  In contrast, expert and referent power are two power bases that are most likely to result in commitment. This is because power rooted in expert and referent power is voluntarily given to the power holders by those who admire them or need their expertise and knowledge. Therefore, people will be more receptive to power of this kind.  Reward and legitimate power are trickier. People report that they will react to these power bases by going along with the request grudgingly, putting in minimal effort. From this perspective, reward and legitimate power are similar to coercive power in that people react to all three bases by unwillingly going along with the powerholder. Therefore, depending on how reward and legitimate power are used, they may very well be experienced as coercive power, resulting in undesirable consequences. One way to resolve this issue is to use reward and legitimate power together with expert and/or referent power. Ironically, research has found that less effective power bases, such as coercive, reward, and legitimate power, are the ones most likely to be used by managers, as they are easier to implement. HOW TO USE INFLUENCE TACTICS Rational persuation, inspirational appeals, and consultation tend to be the most effective Pressure tends to backfire and is usually the least effective Compatible tactics can be jointly to increase your influence (e.g., ingratiation + legitimacy ) Direction of influence matters Rational persuasion is effective across organizational levels Inspirational appeals is most effective downward influencing tactic Pressure also creates downward influence Personal appeal and coalition create lateral influence Sequence of tactics also matters Begin with softer tactics such as personal and inspirational appeals, rational persuasion, and consultation Assess your audience Reflective and intrinsically motivated individuals prefer soft tactics for they tend to have high self-esteem and desire for control Hard tactics work better with action-oriented and extrinsically motivated individuals, who are more focused on getting along with other than on getting their own way POLITICS IN ORGANIZATIONS How does politics manifest itself in organizations. There are many forms that politics can take. Below are some political activities that occur most frequently in organizations.  Attacking or blaming others Using information to advance one’s self-interest or the interest of one’s own group Managing impressions Building support for ideas Praising others Building coalitions Associating with influential people Creating obligations Research indicates that: Politically skilled individuals use influence tactics more effectively. Political skills appear to be more effective when stakes are high. Politically skilled people are able to exert influence without others detecting it. Political skills are more effective in organizations with low levels of procedural and distributive justice
TERM PROJECT- WEIGHS 40% OF FINAL GRADE Step-by-step1: Identify a Failed Collaboration with Significant Issues/Stakes Identify a specific case of collaboration failure for an in-depth analysis. The ca
CHAPTER 9: TYPES OF CONFLICTS In general, there are three types of conflicts: task conflict relationship conflict process conflicts Task conflict  Task conflicts are usually related to the content and goals of the work. Effect of task conflict on performance is less clear, and it depends on Who are involved, top management or lower level? Conflict among top management teams is associated with higher performance Conflict among low-level employees is associated with lower performance Whether relationship conflict is also involved? Yes? Then it is more likely to lead to lower performance Intensity of conflict Neither low or high level of intensity is beneficial Moderate level is optimal Personality composition of team members Higher performance is more likely if team members are high in openness and emotional stability Relationship conflict Relationship conflict focuses on relationships and often take the form of personality clashes as well as interpersonal hostility and friction Relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. Research has shown that relationship conflicts decrease mutual understanding are psychologically exhausting tend to be more destructive than other types of conflicts Tips for handling relationship conflict: If you are involved in a conflict: Communicate directly with the other person to resolve the perceived conflict. Avoid dragging co-workers into the conflict. If necessary, seek help from direct supervisors or human resource specialists. If you are not involved: Do not take sides. Suggest the parties work things out themselves. If necessary, refer the problem to parties’ direct supervisors. Process conflict Process conflict usually revolve around delegation and role Process conflict tend to become highly personalized and transform into relationship conflict CONFLICT RESOLUTION (PART 1) Conflicts may be beneficial in some cases but very rarely people wall off their feelings into categories of task, process, or relationship conflicts Managers can minimize the negative effects of conflict by focusing on preparing people for conflicts developing resolution strategies facilitating open discussion. Specifically, managers should prevent conflicts from happening by eliminating sources of conflicts and equip employees with proper conflict resolution strategies. On the team- and organizational level, managers should also consider adopting managerial structures that are less prone to conflicts.  Sources of conflict Communication Through semantic difficulties, misunderstandings and “noise” in the communication channels Conflicts are more likely when there is too little or too much communication Structure Size, specialization, and composition of the group (Larger groups, highly specialized tasks, younger members, high turnover) Ambiguity responsibility: Higher ambiguity leads to greater potential for conflict Zero-sum reward systems create conflicts, as in such systems employees need to compete, sometimes unethically, for rewards Leadership style: Conflicts is more likely when managers exert tight control and leave employees little discretion The diversity of goals If one group is dependent on another Personal Variables Personality: People high in disagreeableness, neuroticism, or self-monitoring are prone to tangle with other people more often, and to react poorly when conflict occurs Emotions (e.g., negative affectivity) Value incongruence Conflict resolution strategiesResearch has identified five conflict resolution strategies: forcing, problem-solving, compromising, avoiding, and yielding. In comparing these strategies, researchers concluded that these strategies differ systematically in terms of two dimensions: Cooperativeness: The degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concerns. Assertiveness: The degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns. Choose between conflict resolution strategies wisely: Avoiding Issue is trivial Issue is a symptom No chance you’ll win Others are in better position to resolve Need to buy time Yielding Other’s needs are more important than yours Group goals are more important than yours Build up your “bank” Harmony is essential Compromising Issue is of moderate importance Halfway point is meaningful to everyone Equal power Speed is important Forcing Issue is important Speed is important Future relationship unimportant Have power in relationship Problem-solving Issue is important Common enemy present Trust is high enough to warrant info exchange No severe time pressure Integration possible Conflict resolution: The structural approach In preparing employees for conflicts, managers should also examine the organization to see if the very structure of the organization is responsible or partially responsible for conflicts. Listed below are some options that managers should consider when examining the organizational level factors behind conflicts. Expansion of resources: If conflict is due to limited resource, expansion of the resource may be a win-win solution Authoritative command: Management use formal authority to resolve conflict Altering the human variable: If conflicts are caused by attitudes and behaviors human relations training may be a solution Altering the structural variables: If conflicts are caused by the organizational structure, conflicts may be solved by job redesign or transfers THIRD-PARTY CONFLICT RESOLUTION Sometimes parties directly involved in a conflict may not be able to solve the conflict, which prompts the need for third party intervention. In most cases, third parties play one of the following four roles:  Mediator Arbitrator Conciliator Consultant Mediator A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives.  Mediators often appear in labour-management negotiations and civil court disputes Settlement rate through mediators is about 60 percent; satisfaction rate is about 75 percent The success of mediators depends on: whether participants are motivated to bargain and settle intensity of conflict: mediators are most effective under moderate levels of conflict whether the mediator appears neutral and non-coercive Arbitrator Arbitrators have the authority to dictate an agreement. The use of an arbitrator can be voluntary (requested) or compulsory (imposed by law or contract) Use of an arbitrator will always result in a settlement however, conflict may resurface at a later time Conciliator Conciliators are trusted third parties who provide an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Use of conciliators is informal in nature Conciliators are used extensively in international, labor, family, and community disputes Conciliators engage in fact-finding, interpretation of messages, and persuading disputants to develop agreements Consultant Consultants are skilled and impartial third parties who attempt to facilitate problem-solving through communication and analysis, aided by a knowledge of conflict management Consultants do not try to settle the issues but rather work to improve relationships between parties so they can reach a settlement for themselves The use of consultants require longer-term focus: It is based on building new and positive perceptions and attitudes between the conflicting parties NEGOTIATION BASICS Definition: Negotiation refers to a process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them.  How to negotiate? There are five steps to negotiation: Five steps to negotiation: Developing a strategy Definition of ground rules Clarification and justification Bargaining and problem-solving Closure and implementation – Distributive bargaining Developing a strategy Know your Issues: items that are specifically placed on the bargaining table for discussion Positions: Individual stand on the issues Interests: The underlying concerns that are affected by the negotiation resolution Aspiration or bargaining range, as defined by target point and resistance point Target point: the most ideal but realistic outcome Resistance point: the point where you would walk away from the negotiation BATNA: Best alternative to a negotiated agreement. This is your backup offer. Therefore, the outcome from the current negotiation has to be better than your BATNA, or you should simply choose your BATNA. Defining group rules Reach agreement with the other party regarding the details about the negotiation Who will do the negotiation? Where will it take place? What time constraints, if any, will apply? To what issues will negotiation be limited? Will there be a specific procedure to follow if an impasse is reached? Exchange initial proposals or demands Clarification and Justification This is an opportunity for both parties to explain, amplify, clarify, bolster, and justify their original demands No need to be confrontational A persuasion process in which you convince the other party about why your demands are legitimate and why it is important to fulfill such demands Bargaining and Problem-Solving + Closure and Implementation Competing and collaborating strategies in negotiations tend to result in better outcomes than compromising and accommodating strategies Finalizing negotiation involving hammering out the specifics in a formal contract. In most cases, however, closure of negotiation is simply a handshake. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN NEGOTIATION People differ in terms of their capability to negotiate effectively. While part of these differences can be attributed to how frequently people practice negotiating with others, let’s not forget that the characteristics that make each and every one of us unique may also contribute to our negotiation effectiveness. In this section, we focus on the effects of personality, emotions, and gender on negotiation. Personality Traits in Negotiation Effect of personality on negotiation is weak and situation dependent Extraversion: Results depend on how others react to someone who is assertive and enthusiastic Agreeableness = cooperativeness + warmth Cooperativeness impairs negotiation results Warmth improves negotiation results People can learn to be better negotiators Moods/Emotions in Negotiation For distributive negotiations Negotiators in a position of power or equal status who show anger negotiate better outcomes because their anger induces concessions from their opponents Those in a less powerful position, displaying anger leads to worse outcomes For integrative negotiations Positive moods and emotions appear to lead to more integrative agreements (higher levels of joint gain). In general: Anxious negotiators expect lower outcomes, respond to offers more quickly, and exit the bargaining process more quickly Negative emotions lead people to oversimplify issues, lose trust, and put negative interpretations on the other party’s behavior Positive emotions increase tendency to take broader view of the situation and develop innovative solutions Gender Differences in Negotiation Do men and women negotiate differently? NO, at least not because the gender. Research has shown that men seem to be more successful negotiators than women because: The stereotype of women of being cooperative, pleasant, caring, and accommodating and the stereotype of men being tough The fact that women tend to be in relatively less powerful positions than men


We’ve proficient writers who can handle both short and long papers, be they academic or non-academic papers, on topics ranging from soup to nuts (both literally and as the saying goes, if you know what we mean). We know how much you care about your grades and academic success. That's why we ensure the highest quality for your assignment. We're ready to help you even in the most critical situation. We're the perfect solution for all your writing needs.

Get a 15% discount on your order using the following coupon code SAVE15

Order a Similar Paper Order a Different Paper