Short-term Pastoral Counseling

Short-term Pastoral Counseling

PACO 500

Solution-based Short-term Pastoral Counseling (SbStPC) Handout

[All Website Links were last reviewed 10/31/2019]

Note: In order to satisfactorily complete Meaning-Making Forums 1-4, remain closely connected to this handout, required readings, lectures, and previous learning activities. For future reference, journal on this handout as you engage subject matter.

Aim to become very familiar with all content and websites as soon as possible. You are expected to draw upon this framework and integrate pertinent insights from ALL required course materials into each thread (see Course Schedule and Meaning-Making Forum Guidelines & Rubric).

All of PACO 500’s readings and learning activities attempt to provide language and skills for becoming an effective and efficient people-helper. As a required resource, this handout provides a rationale for using SbStPC along with an overview of its counseling process and skills for developing related competencies.


1. In what ways does a solution-based, short-term strategy become a value-added to a student-minister’s counseling experience?

· SbStPC uses a collaborative methodology to align with God’s intentions (Kollar, 2011, p. 57). In the process of understanding the problem/issue affecting the care-seeker’s life, the student-counselor will come to realize that s/he is not the game-changer. Instead, the collaborative relationship (i.e., the counselor, counselee, Word of God, and Wonderful Counselor) utilized empowers “relocation” (i.e., a purposeful process of moving from where one is to where one needs to be under the dominion and direction of a well-defined guiding purpose statement; Rice, 2005).

· In no fashion is a problem or issue ignored or minimized; in fact, the opposite is true. Problem description requires teamwork. Kollar (2011) identifies the action of problem description, goal formulation, and vision clarification as a co-creative methodology between the Holy Spirit, counselor, and counselee (p. 57).

· In the first phase of the counseling process, the student-counselor is prompted to actively listen to the Holy Spirit and counselee. This timely partnership enhances the counselor’s ability to understand the problem being described. That is, to “get” what it is, when it is most often and least often present, and how it threatens who or what is important to the care-seeker.

· When a problem is satisfactorily understood, a goal/solution may be collaboratively developed along with a describable, measurable, and repeatable plan of action to move out and away from the problem.

· The SbStPC process does not assume the care-seeker can move toward the goal alone. Upon finding the keys to solution, effort is made to identify and secure partners to support care-seeker’s forward progress.

· Unlike problem-focused approaches which require more time, SbStPC manages the counseling process effectively and efficiently with its brief (e.g., 3–5 sessions), time-limited (e.g., 50–90-minute time frame per session), focused (e.g., identifiable phases within the counseling process; see “Hawkins Analysis Grid” and “Core Competency Two: Developing Your Style to Connect with People” – Ch.3 in Dr. Younce’s dissertation below) boundaries.

· SbStPC challenges the student-minister to rethink existing paradigms and to value each care-seeker as a fellow image-bearer. This reflection often cultivates the essential interpersonal skills (i.e., empathetic, considerate, authentic) to flex with a care-seeker’s fallen-ness without compromising truth and grace.

· As with any effective people-helping strategy, a significant emphasis is placed on interpersonal skill development. SbStPC learning activities provide students with language to discuss what makes them tick and become ticked off. Gaining language to describe human behavior, along with corresponding people-helping skills, facilitates rapport building and cultivates a context for change.

· SbStPC challenges each student-minister to operate under the authority of the Word of God, in the power of the Holy Spirit, within a community of accountability for the purpose of intentionally pursing the imitation of Christ and moving others toward faith in and imitation of Christ.

· Take this discussion further and review a fellow Liberty University student’s doctoral dissertation which captured much of SbStPC’s competency based approach:

The Significance of Developing Core Counseling Competencies in Pastoral Care Ministry



2. Are we to assume that similar theoretical monikers such as solution-focused brief therapy and Kollar’s (2011) solution-focused pastoral counseling are just different names for this course’s Solution-Based, Short-term Pastoral Counseling?

Not at all! Solution-Focused Brief Therapy is a secular theory which primarily houses solution-focused and brief therapy approaches, both of which are secular theories. The use of “solution-based” rather than “solution-focused” permits us to move away from a “one theory serves all” orientation and meaningfully develop an eclectic (i.e., wise integration of contributions from other theories such as cognitive behavioral therapy, rational emotive behavioral therapy, strategic therapy, etc.; see Kollar’s ch. 18 discussion of theories and tasking) and biblically responsible counseling approach that goes beyond Kollar’s primary focus on behavior.


The goal of Solution-Based, Short-term Pastoral Counseling (SbStPC) seeks to resource the helping relationship under the dominion and direction of a guiding purpose–being and becoming more like Christ in every relational context. This approach is soundly informed by the Word of God, conspicuously enriched by truth, grace, mercy, and assertive wisdom, empowered by the person and work of the Holy Spirit, and effectively managed within a faith-based community of accountability.


SbStPC addresses the needs of the whole person and acknowledges our profoundly fallen human condition. Additionally, it asserts that the ultimate source of profound change/healing is the redemptive work of our God and Savior Jesus Christ. Correspondingly, as commentary is received from various disciplines, all material is carefully sifted and sorted through a biblical lens. Therefore, it is essential to understand that PACO 500 uses a Solution-Based, Short-term Pastoral Counseling process rather than a solution-focused process.


3. What are the distinctive features in our SbStPC strategy?

Markers useful for locating one’s self within the fluidity of the counseling session are identified as distinctive features: purpose, goal, chief aim, role/responsibility, behavioral position, and guiding assumptions.

· Phase One Purpose: Get the Care-seeker’s Present Story (Session One)

· Goal: Problem description

· Chief Aim: Listen Well

· Role/responsibility: Counselor builds rapport/demonstrates fit (i.e., via attentive listening, counselor identifies with and validates concerns)>Counselee talks>Counselor actively listens for Counselee’s description/understanding of life with the problem

· Behavioral Positions: attending, blaming, or willing

· Guiding Assumption(s)?

· Memorize Kollar’s Guiding Assumptions. Just like with Scripture, the Holy Spirit can bring these truth-based principles to mind at just the right time (Jn. 14:26).

· Consider this Pastoral Counselor’s dilemma: Careseeker is awfulizing and seems stuck in a going nowhere cycle. What do I need to remember? “God is already active in the counselee” and “Finding exceptions help create solutions” (Kollar, 2011, p. 62–67). The careseeker is so stuck s/he cannot see God’s previous involvement. I need to look for clues of God’s involvement. Finding exceptions to the problem will likely reveal a coping skill that has been overlooked.

· Key Insight to Remember: Until you are invited into the Care-seeker’s world and commit to counseling, you must remain in Phase One. If you are invited, do make sure that you can commit and have the assurance that you are fit and able to do good and no harm. If there is any doubt, it would be wise to refer to another people helper. Counselee remains in Phase One as long as s/he is in attending position. A blamer can move forward but will be a “lamer” until a realistic perspective can be gained. Once a truth-based reality can be developed, the lamer will become a gamer and move toward responsibility and the willing position.

· Phase Two Purpose: Develop the Care-seeker’s Preferred Story/Solution (Session Two)

· Goal: Goal formulation

· Chief Aim: Collaborate well

· Role/responsibility: Counselor builds rapport/demonstrates fit (i.e., via attentive listening, counselor identifies with and validates concerns)>Counselee sets the direction and Counselor tacks with counselee’s process and collaboratively tests counselee’s notions for reality/do-ability

· Behavioral position: must achieve a willing position

· Guiding Assumption(s)?

· Memorize Kollar’s Guiding Assumptions. Just like with Scripture, the Holy Spirit can bring these truth-based principles to mind at just the right time (Jn. 14:26).

· Key Insight to Remember: Counselee is not in a willing position and ready to move into Phase 3 until a goal has been satisfactorily described and developed. The Miracle Question is a timely collaborative tool to cultivate a forward look with life without the problem.

· Preferred Story/Solution is shaped by the Common Sense Test: Counselor will foster solution-based perspectives when focused on Kollar’s (2011/1997) basic tenets:

Tenet One – “If it’s not broken, don’t fix it!”

Tenet Two – “Once you know what works, do more of it!”

Tenet Three – “If it’s not working, do something different!” (pp. 82–84)

· Phase Three Purpose: Clarify and Execute Action Plan (Session Three)

· Goal: Vision (i.e., goal) Clarification

· Chief Aim: Execute well

· Role/Responsibility: Counselor builds rapport/demonstrates fit (i.e., via attentive listening, counselor identifies with and validates concerns)>Counselor and Counselee actively participate in building hope and supporting forward progress

· Behavioral position: forward progress requires a willing position to be maintained

· Guiding Assumption(s)?

· Memorize Kollar’s Guiding Assumptions. Just like with Scripture, the Holy Spirit can bring these truth-based principles to mind at just the right time (Jn. 14:26).

· Key Insight to Remember: Small concrete steps lead to small changes which eventually generate bigger changes. As forward progress is achieved, consolidate it with supportive feedback. Be prepared to use the supportive feedback technique as well as other SbStPC core skills when the sameness of life is encountered, resistance is experienced or expressed, and relapse is likely. It would be wise to collaboratively think about supporting the change process with accountability. This notion may become part of tasking after the break.

· Helping Strategy must pass the Common Sense Test: Counselor will cultivate a solution-based paradigm when focused on Kollar’s (2011/1997) basic tenets:

Tenet One – “If it’s not broken, don’t fix it!”

Tenet Two – “Once you know what works, do more of it!”

Tenet Three – “If it’s not working, do something different!” (pp. 82–84)

· Phase Four Purpose: Connect Care-seeker to Community (Session Four)

· Goal: Consolidate and Support Change

· Chief Aim: Connect well

· Role/Responsibility: Counselee commits to a community of accountability directed at preferred story during & after the process of dishabituation of unhealthy patterns and re-habituation of healthy patterns. Counselor reinforces commitment to change through supportive feedback and by arranging accountability through pastoral care and small group ministries in soul-care context.

· Behavioral position: willingness and forward progress are maintained through meaningful support

· Guiding Assumption(s)?

· Memorize Kollar’s Guiding Assumptions. Just like with Scripture, the Holy Spirit can bring these truth-based principles to mind at just the right time (Jn. 14:26).

· Key Insight to Remember: Be proactive with efforts to successfully disengage. If you prepare ahead of time to meaningfully connect with responsible community, s/he will likely maintain forward progress.


How will you evaluate a “successful disengagement” from the counseling scenario? If the counselee comments more on what he was able to accomplish with the resources provided, rather than you, then s/he is probably moving out and away from the problem with a high level of ownership. However, as you disengage, do not disconnect as pastoral care will continue to be needed to maintain forward progress.

· Accountability must continue to reinforce the Common Sense Test: Appreciative helpers/hopers need to foster solution-based perspective and practice Kollar’s (2011/1997) basic tenets:

Tenet One – “If it’s not broken, don’t fix it!”

Tenet Two – “Once you know what works, do more of it!”

Tenet Three – “If it’s not working, do something different!” (pp. 82–84)


4. Do we have to create our own guiding assumptions or can we adopt/adapt Kollar’s Guiding Assumptions?

It would be wise to start with Kollar’s nine guiding assumptions (ch. 7). To create an appreciation for each assumption, write a brief explanation describing what it means to you. A pertinent example would help anchor the assumption as well. Consider Kollar’s discussion of remaining in agreement with the intent of the Holy Spirit. Assumptions are part of our SbStPC methodology for co-creating perspectives, solutions, and strategies in session with the Holy Spirit, counselor, and counselee (Kollar, 2011, p. 57).


Other assumptions to consider from Competent Christian Counseling (2002, p. 351)

1. All people are created in the image of God and, as his image bearers, have infinite value and worth.

2. All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God (Romans 3:23).

3. For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life (John 3:16, WEB).

4. The most effective pastoral counseling takes into account the whole person: body, soul, and spirit.

5. Different approaches can be helpful with different kinds of people struggling with different kinds of problems.

6. People have various strengths and resources to help them solve their problems.

7. Small changes are all that are necessary. Small changes lead to large changes. A change in one part of a system usually leads to a change in other parts of the system.

8. Problems are solved; people are not cured.

9. Change is inevitable, growth is optional


5. In what ways might we apply insights from Clinton & Hawkins’ Quick Reference Guide in the SbStPC structure?

Look at the section labeled “Using the Quick Reference Guide to Biblical Counseling” (pp. 10-11).

Phase One: Getting the Present Story (Consider: Prayer Starter; Portraits; Definitions & Key Thoughts; Assessment)

Phase Two: Developing the Preferred Story (Consider: Prayer Starter; Assessment; Wise Counsel; Biblical Insights)

Phase Three: Clarifying and Executing the Action Plan (Consider: Prayer Starter; Wise Counsel; Action Steps; Biblical Insights; Recommended Resources)

Phase Four: Consolidating and Supporting Change (Consider repeating Phase Three application)

6. What are the key skills most often associated with SbStPC?

In addition to insights gleaned from Nichols’ Masterpiece (2017), Petersen’s (2015) Why Don’t We Listen Better? and Kollar’s (2011) Solution Focused Pastoral Counseling, consider the following web resources.


The Art of Triage and Referral:

· When Does a Pastor Need to Refer a Person to a Counselor or MD for Help?

· Three C’s of Pastoral Counseling – Dr. Cynthia Eriksson

· Pastoral Counseling: The Art of Referral

· Triage and Referral


Listening Skills:



Become a Better Listener: Active Listening:

Active Listening Example:


Listening skills – paraphrasing examples:






In addition to Kollar’s (2011) tracking questions (chs. 10, 11), feedback process (chs. 12, 13), always be mindful of the counseling mnemonic: MECStat (i.e., Miracle Question; Exceptions to the problem; Coping skills; Scaling questions; the supportive feedback break – time-out, affirmation, tasking). This memory device will highlight Kollar’s presentation of core techniques (ch. 15: Not Knowing & Yes Set; Miracle Question; Scaling; Exceptions; Compliments; the Break).


Solution Based Techniques foster Forward Progress:



MECStat information (click open the attachment): 


ABCs and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:

A fun view of ABCDE and Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy:


A Christian perspective on Mental Health: Dr. Adrian Rogers 5 Steps to Mental Health


Consider the need for True Wisdom by Matt Chandler:


A Christian perspective on changing your thinking: Taking Control of our Thoughts – Charles Stanley and


Brad Tate’s sermon – “Change My Attitude – Complaining”


7. Will we use David Benner’s (2003) Strategic Pastoral Counseling stages (i.e., Encounter, Engagement, and Disengagement) in our SbStPC structure?

No. The expectation is to use the four phases presented in this course; however, Benner’s three stages offer additional description to our four-phase structure.

· Phase One: Getting the Care-seeker’s Present Story or Portrait (Session 1: Encounter)

[possible disengagement if referral is needed]

· Phase Two: Developing the Care-seeker’s Preferred Story/Solution (Session 2: Engagement)

· Phase Three: Clarifying and Executing Action Plan (Session 3: Engagement)

· Phase Four: Connecting Care-seeker to Community (Final Session: Disengagement

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VOL 47: NOVEMBER • NOVEMBRE 2001  Canadian Family Physician • Le Médecin de famille canadien 2289


Solution-focused therapy

Counseling model for busy family physicians

Gail Greenberg, MSW Keren Ganshorn, BPT, MD, CCFP Alanna Danilkewich, MD, CCFP, FCFP


OBJECTIVE To provide family doctors in busy office practices with a model for counseling compatible with patient-centred medicine, including the techniques, strategies, and questions necessary for implementation. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE The MEDLINE database was searched from 1984 to 1999 using the terms psychotherapy in family practice, brief therapy in family practice, solution-focused therapy, and brief psychotherapy. A total of 170 relevant articles were identified; 75 abstracts were retrieved and a similar number of articles read. Additional resources included seminal books on solution-focused therapy (SFT), bibliographies of salient articles, participation in workshops on SFT, and observation of SFT counseling sessions taped by leaders in the field. MAIN MESSAGE Solution-focused therapy’s concentration on collaborative identification and amplification of patient strengths is the foundation upon which solutions to an array of problems are built. Solution-focused therapy offers simplicity, practicality, and relative ease of application. From the perspective of a new learner, MECSTAT provides a framework that facilitates development of skills. CONCLUSION Solution-focused therapy recognizes that, even in the bleakest of circumstances, an emphasis on individual strength is empowering. In recognizing patients as experts in self-care, family physicians support and accentuate patient-driven change, and in so doing, are freed from the hopelessness and burnout that can accompany misplaced feelings of responsibility.


OBJECTIF Offrir aux médecins de famille dont la pratique en cabinet privé est surchargée un modèle de counseling compatible à la médecine centrée sur le patient, notamment des techniques, des stratégies et des questions nécessaires à sa mise en œuvre. QUALITÉ DES DONNÉES Une recension a été effectuée dans la base de données MEDLINE de 1984 à 1999 à l’aide des mots clés « psychothérapie en pratique familiale, thérapie brève en pratique familiale, thérapie axée sur la recherche de solutions et psychothérapie brève ». On a identifié 170 articles pertinents; 75 résumés ont été cernés et un nombre à peu près égal d’articles ont été lus. Au nombre des sources d’information additionnelles figuraient des ouvrages fondamentaux sur la thérapie axée sur la recherche de solutions (TARS), les bibliographies des articles importants, la participation à des ateliers sur la TARS ainsi que l’observation de séances de ce genre de counseling enregistrées par des experts dans ce domaine. PRINCIPAL MESSAGE La concentration des thérapies axées sur la recherche de solutions portent sur l’identification et l’amplification conjointes des forces du patient constitue le fondement sur lequel repose la détermination de solutions à un éventail de problèmes. La thérapie axée sur la recherche de solutions est simple, pratique et relativement facile à administrer. Du point de vue d’un néophyte, le MECSTAT offre les paramètres qui facilitent le perfectionnement des compétences à cet égard. CONCLUSION La thérapie axée sur la recherche de solutions reconnaît que, même dans les circonstances les plus noires, l’insistance sur les forces du sujet se révèle habilitante. En reconnaissant les patients comme des experts pour prendre soin d’eux-mêmes, les médecins de famille soutiennent et accentuent les changements réalisés par le patient et, ce faisant, se libèrent de l’impuissance et de la fatigue professionnelle qui accompagnent parfois des sentiments mal placés de responsabilité.

This article has been peer reviewed.

Cet article a fait l’objet d’une évaluation externe.

Can Fam Physician 2001;47:2289-2295.



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C ounseling has been the subject of numer- ous family medicine journal articles, focus- ing on a variety of issues.1-9 All articles share one precept: family physicians are

in the uniquely privileged position of working with patients who present with an array of physical and mental health concerns and problems.

As family physicians shift their delivery of patient care from a disease-centred to a patient-centred clini- cal method, the search for a compatible counseling paradigm is timely. Solution-focused therapy (SFT) emerged in the United States in the late 1970s and early 1980s under the umbrella of brief therapy. It was pioneered by family therapists who developed a model of counseling that clearly departed from the psychotherapeutic theory and practice of the day.10 The name of the new approach, SFT, captured its fun- damental shift from a focus on problems to a focus on solutions. Counseling concentrated on solutions and on causes of problems, and conversations recognized clients as experts in solving their presenting problems. This idea, that “individuals have within them, or within their social systems, the resources to bring about the changes they need to make,”11 is what makes SFT so compatible with patient-centred clinical care.11

The medical literature has begun to support SFT as a collaborative counseling model that fits within a busy patient-centred family practice.12-15 Family physician advocates suggest that SFT’s concentration on patient strengths, abilities, and resources creates a counsel- ing atmosphere flavoured with hope and optimism. It places responsibility for change in the hands of patients by using empowering language and recognizing them as skilled in matters of self-care. In this way it is deeply respectful of patients as individuals and takes a more balanced approach to finding solutions.

Use of basic counseling skills, such as attending and listening, genuineness, empathy, positive regard, and reflection, provide the foundation upon which SFT is practised. The model is applicable to the variety of men- tal and physical health problems in family medicine, and contraindications are minimal.11-15 Giorlando and

Schilling state that the approach allows the medical encounter to be effective, yet efficient, in terms of num- ber and length of visits.12 It is consistent with a busy practice where 15 minutes seems like a lot of time to have available for a counseling appointment.

Quality of evidence The MEDLINE database was searched from 1984 to 1999 using the terms psychotherapy in family practice, brief therapy in family practice, solution-focused ther- apy, and brief therapy. A total of 170 titles were identi- fied. We decided to obtain abstracts when authors were physicians or nurses, the article title referred to a physical or mental health problem that presents in family medicine, the author was a recognized author- ity in SFT, or the title suggested an introductory or research focus. This left us with approximately 75 texts (articles, book chapters, and books) published over 10 years that were relevant to family practice.

Research on SFT’s effectiveness as a brief coun- seling model, though minimal, is promising.16-20 It is important to state at the outset, however, that studies comparing short- to long-term therapies indicate neg- ligible differences in outcome. In fact, de Shazer and Kim Berg21 go so far as to suggest that “all therapy models work” because, by and large, individuals ben- efit from talking to a counselor.

Outcome studies indicate that between 66% and 80% of SFT clients improved during therapy. This indi- cation supports 50 years of outcome studies22 compar- ing psychotherapeutic approaches. Process studies evaluating specific SFT techniques suggest effective- ness, yet once again, the number of studies is small. When scientific research on SFT is rigorous, results consistently demonstrate it to be effective in assisting patients to accomplish their treatment goals.

Assumptions of therapy The following core assumptions are at the root of SFT and provide key ideas that drive the practice and tech- niques of this counseling model.11,23,24

• Change is constant, inevitable, and contagious. Solution-building conversations identify, elaborate, and reinforce change behaviour.

• Patients are experts on their lives. Our job is to sup- port and amplify this expertise.

• Presuppositional language emphasizes the presump- tion that change will occur, creating an atmosphere of “when,” not “if.”

• Patients have strengths, resources, and coping skills that drive change while generating optimism and hope.

Ms Greenberg is Medical Education Coordinator, Dr Ganshorn is an Assistant Professor, and Dr Danilkewich is Residency Program Director and an Associate Professor in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon. Ms Greenberg is a non-physician member and Drs Ganshorn and Danilkewich are physician mem- bers of the Section of Teachers of Family Medicine in the College of Family Physicians of Canada.



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• Exceptions to the identified problem are often under- valued. Because exceptions are part of solution behaviour, solution-building conversations explore them in considerable detail.

• Extensive information about a problem is rarely nec- essary to bring about change.

Overview of interview The literature on SFT is abundant. We suggest the acronym, MECSTAT, conceived by and borrowed from Giorlando and Schilling,12 as a good place to start for beginning practitioners of this model (we have slightly altered the acronym to reflect our own vision). The approach incorporates the fundamental and essential components and language of SFT, its nuts and bolts, and molds them into a model that is easy to both learn and use (Table 1). Although the literature on SFT is extensive, MECSTAT is the only documented model we found that clearly, succinctly, and sequentially walks counselors through the tech- niques of SFT.

The model captures the essence of SFT. In any given encounter with a patient, a physician can combine the steps depending on time available, the problem, the patient’s readiness to change, and the physician’s emerging skill level and comfort with various techniques. Each visit ends with assigning a task that keeps patients focused on solution build- ing.

Posing miracle, exception, coping, and scaling ques- tions are central to solution-building conversations (Table 2).25-28 By asking these questions, we remind patients of many things: change is constant; excep- tions to problems exist; coping indicates strength; goals that are important to and defined by patients help drive and sustain change; and change, commit- ment to change, and the confidence that change will occur is measurable in increments.

Questions are asked using presuppositional language. Inherent in any question is the presumption that change is inevitable and probably already happening. Use of the word “suppose” implies that the patient knows the answer and, if not, encourages imagining an alternative.

“When you are on track to solving the problem that brought you in today,” elicits problem-solving skills and suggests that the problem will be resolved. Additional examples of presuppositional language include asking

“instead of ” questions (“What will you be doing instead of crying?”), “difference” questions that explore exceptions and reinforce change (“What will your spouse notice you are doing differently when you are coping better with the pain?”), and the use of tentative speech suggesting change (“Could it be that you are already on track to deal with the drinking problem?”).

Miracle questions After meeting with patients and getting a brief descrip- tion of presenting problems, posing the miracle ques- tion signals the onset of solution talk.29 This question and all related amplification questions help patients iden- tify a goal, something that will be improved or different to signal that treatment has been successful. Because SFT is goal oriented, miracle and related questions facili- tate description of a goal that indicates the presence of something different, rather than an absence, something that is concrete, in the present, in patients’ language and control, and indicative of beginnings.

Although there are variations of the miracle ques- tion, we suggest that a good place to begin is with the following: “I am going to ask you a question that

M Miracle questions

E Exception questions

C Coping questions

S Scaling questions

T Time-out

A Accolades

T Task

Table 1. Solution-focused therapy using MECSTAT

Table 2. Miracle question: Variations on a theme

Imagine that, while you are sleeping tonight, a miracle happens. You wake up tomorrow, and you sense that you are on track toward making a decision. What will you be doing differently that will tell you that you are on track?

Imagine 6 months into the future, after you have successfully solved the problem that brings you here today. What will be different in your life that will tell you the problem is solved?

Pretend the problem is solved. What are you doing differently?

If I have a video camera and follow you around when you have solved this problem, what will I see that will tell me this?

What will be the first sign that a piece of the miracle is happening?

• Who will be the first to notice this is happening?

• What will others notice about you that will tell them this is happening?



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is different from those you might have heard before. It is going to require that you do some pretending. Suppose that tonight, after our meeting, you go home, go to bed, and fall asleep. While you are sleeping, a miracle happens, and the miracle is that the problem that brought you here is solved. But, because you are asleep, you do not know that the miracle has hap- pened. When you wake up tomorrow morning, what will be the first thing you notice that will tell you the miracle has happened?” (Table 2).

This question encourages patients to construct a vision of the future. All related questions serve to amplify the description, providing details of what the

“solution picture” will look like. Merely posing the miracle question appears to act as a catalyst for people on the cusp of making changes. As with all the other components of MECSTAT, asking the miracle ques- tion and then subsequent questions can be a stand- alone intervention (also called a single-step strategy). Because it elicits and amplifies patient goals, the mira- cle question is the place to begin.

Usually, we ask a presession change question before the miracle question; often a small piece of the miracle (the goal) happens between the time an individual books an appointment and then comes in to the office. “Many times, in between the call for an appointment and the appointment, people notice that already things seem different. What have you noticed about your situation?” This question focuses on differ- ences and signals to patients an intention to draw on strengths and resources.

Exception questions These questions are intended to uncover patients’ suc- cesses and strengths. Exception questions operate from the presumption that there are always times when the identified problem is less intense or absent and when pieces of the desired solution picture appear. Patients often paint a problem picture that is univer- sally present, and exception questions short-circuit this presentation by eliciting exception behaviour, instances when the desired outcome is happening,

“even if only a little bit.” Once patients identify excep- tions, physicians amplify their role in the solution pic- ture30 (Table 3).

Coping questions Hopelessness is often expressed by patients in the grip of crises or chronic problems, and it behooves physicians to rise above it. Coping questions enable both patients and physicians, particularly in sit- uations that seem overwhelmingly hopeless, to

accept patients’ perceptions of their situations, and then highlight how patients cope with and endure difficulty31-33 (Table 4). These kinds of questions uncover concrete acts taken by people coping with adversity and provide a foundation upon which to build solutions.

Scaling questions Scaling questions are useful for making vague patient perceptions concrete and definable. They measure problem severity, progress toward a goal, confidence, and commitment to a goal.28 On a 10-point scale, the number 10 represents the most positive end of the scale. Asking a patient to “scale” items transforms a description of something important into an acces- sible and measurable entity. This then becomes a starting point from which future progress can be assessed (Table 5).

Table 3. Exception questions

Are there times now that a little piece of the miracle happens? Tell me about these times. How do you get that to happen?

What will you do to make that happen again?

What will your husband (for example) say you need to do to increase the likelihood of that (exception) happening more often?

What is different about the times when the problem does not happen, or when it is less severe or less frequent?

Table 4. Coping questions

How did you manage to get yourself up this morning?

How are you preventing things from getting worse?

That sounds nearly overwhelming. How do you manage to cope?

I understand how hard this is for you. How did you manage to get to the office today?

Table 5. Scaling questions

On a scale of 1 to 10, where 10 is the problem solved and 1 is the worst it has ever been, where is the problem today?

On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 meaning you have every confidence this problem can be solved and 1 meaning no confidence at all, where are you today?

If 10 means you are prepared to do anything to find a solution and 0 means that you are prepared to do nothing, how would you rate yourself today?

What will you need to do to go from a (for example) 3 to a 3.5?



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If a patient scales a problem at 1 or 2, you might ask, “How will you know when you reach 2.5?” This question requires the patient to identify the next step and to begin solving the problem. If confidence is scaled at 1, asking, “How did you manage to come in today?” encourages a patient to recognize that action is possible even with low confidence. If confidence is scaled at 3, a question like, “What do you need to do in order for your confidence to move to 3.5?” will encourage thinking in concrete terms of strate- gies needed to sustain and increase confidence. When patients have trouble thinking in terms of forward movement, a question like, “What do you need to do to maintain the progress at 3?” frees up both patients and physicians to recognize that sometimes, treading water is an accomplishment in and of itself.

Time-out Because SFT is a counseling model used by a variety of health care professionals, using time-out is prac- tical for some and not for others. Time-out allows both clients and counselors to reflect on conversa- tions they have just concluded. When a session has been observed by colleagues behind a one-way mir- ror, counselors use the time-out for consultation. At the onset of each session, counselors inform clients that a time-out will occur toward the end of their time together that day. This time-out prepares clients to receive the accolades and task assignment that follow.

Family physicians should limit time-outs to a min- ute or two, during which time physicians leave the examining room to mentally list the accolades to deliver moments later. Although time-outs are not always feasible, the rationale for using them warrants reinforcement: the accolades we offer patients are part of solution talk, and taking a minute or two to identify praise statements is important.

Accolades Using accolades is a simple strategy that packs a pow- erful punch. Integral to solution-building conversa- tions, its effect is multiple: it validates any progress that patients make; it encourages patients by remind- ing them of personal power over their well-being; it emphasizes strengths and abilities; it sets up the expec- tation that past success is an excellent indicator of future possibilities; it fosters confidence; and it facili- tates relationship building and maintains rapport.29

Accolades take many forms, including compliments and cheerleading. Simple statements are intended to reflect back to patients positive observations about something they have said or done. When accolades

take the form of cheerleading, they encourage patients to think aloud about personal accomplishments. “How did you decide to do that?” or “How do you explain that?” reinforces and accentuates exception behaviour.

In reality, once you get your head around the power behind the use of accolades, it becomes, for some of us, the easiest and most supportive first step in solution talk. When we focus on small things patients do to overcome adversity, we quickly begin to notice strengths and accomplishments. These become the subject of compliments.

Task Assessing patients’ change readiness in terms of the cycle of change by Prochaska et al34 influences the negotiated task. Webster summarizes it quite nicely:

Clients who are very unsure about what they want from therapy are usually not given assignments. Those who have a defined complaint are given the task to observe when exceptions occur. Clients who are willing to change are given “doing” tasks, which amplify existing exceptions and construct different kinds of interactions in their real life.35

The homework task is discussed at the end of the session, after the time-out. As physicians begin to learn to use this model, we suggest the following as possible generic assignments to negotiate with patients: think about the times when an exception occurs and note dif ferences; observe for positive changes; do more of the exceptions and pay attention to the consequences; pretend to do a small piece of the miracle picture; pretend you know what to do to start solving the problem and try it out; and finally, think about what you are doing to prevent the situa- tion from worsening.36

Benefits and caveats Shifting from one’s favourite counseling approach to one that is new and unfamiliar is not without peril. We have experienced first-hand the dissonance from such an endeavour. The benefits of using this approach, however, far outweigh the discomfort of a counseling situation when we are barely one step ahead of patients in our own knowledge and experience.

Solution-focused therapy is easily integrated into patient-centred clinical care. Its language is both hope- ful and optimistic. Appreciating that change occurs in small increments means that goal behaviour is readily accessible and attainable, thus creating a posi- tive climate for both patients and physicians. Solution- focused therapy puts ownership of their health back



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into the hands of patients, and in so doing reminds them of the control, authority, and responsibility they have over their lives. This feels good to patients and doctors alike. It relieves physicians of the silent bur- den of having to come up with the right answers, while providing tools to find answers.

Ample literature supports using SFT with patients in a variety of situations: psychiatric disorders, sexual abuse, grief, palliative care, family dysfunction, weight loss, addictions, and physical disability, to name a few.26,28-33 It is important to clarify, however, that SFT is dif ferent from long-term, traditional counseling approaches in its assumption that patients are capa- ble of moving forward and growing in spite of incom- plete understanding, insight, or resolution of deep, underlying problems. Although these problems are not denied, patients determine the pace of discovery and relevance to the current solution.

Contraindications are minimal, and can generally be described as any situation where counseling in family physicians’ offices is contraindicated: emergen- cies, life-threatening situations, threats of suicide, or psychotic episodes. Time restraints of family practice often mean that physicians learning to use the model take a “single step” approach. We encourage learners to select bits and pieces of the acronym MECSTAT, become familiar with its language and method of ask- ing questions, and then gradually build on as comfort with the model grows. Quite often, scaling is a good place for new learners to get their feet wet (for exam- ple, scaling “coping” and “hope” in a patient with depression). On the 10-point scale, scaled information provides a small goal to work on between appoint- ments (patients could choose to maintain hopefulness at a particular number as a week’s goal, or perhaps pay attention to coping behaviour).

The biggest hurdle in implementing the model lies in initially trying to do too much, given time and knowledge constraints, which can be very frus- trating. Solution-focused therapy as a conceptual model is user-friendly, and steps can be taken one at a time. We like keeping visual reminders in the room with us during practice sessions, reminding us what to do when clinical encounters begin to sound like problem talk instead of solution talk. We encourage new learners to read SFT material (the reading will help address various dilemmas, such as when patients present the solution in terms of changes in another’s behaviour, or of the absence of something). Do a little, monitor SFT attempts in patient charts, follow up with SFT strategies, and practise, practise, practise!

Conclusion Solution-focused therapy is a brief counseling model that seems uniquely adaptable to patient-centred care. The MECSTAT acronym offers a ready-to-use tool that captures the essence of the model and provides a step-by-step guide for new learners. Best of all, phy- sicians who have used SFT describe its optimism and hopefulness with patients whose lives sometimes seem bleak. This counseling model offers both patients and physicians a new way to discuss the intricacies of life that is refreshing, effective, and filled with promise and change.

Competing interests None declared

Correspondence to: Ms Gail Greenberg, Regina General Hospital,

1440—14th Ave, Regina, SK S4P 0W5; fax (306) 766-4041;


References 1. Borins M, Morris BAP. Role of family physicians in counseling and psychotherapy.

Can Fam Physician 1995;41:757-8 (Eng), 769-71 (Fr). 2. Williamson P. Psychotherapy by family physicians. Prim Care 1987;14:803-16. 3. Swanson JG. Family physicians’ approach to psychotherapy and counseling.

Perceptions and practices. Can Fam Physician 1994;40:53-8.

Editor’s key points • Solution-focused therapy is a practical method of

counseling for busy family physicians that is both efficient and effective.

• Solution-focused therapy is based on assumptions that change is inevitable, that patients are experts on their own lives, that patients have strengths and resources, and that they can be supported to find their own solutions.

• Solution-focused therapy is patient-centred and expresses optimism that problems can be solved.

Points de repère du rédacteur • La thérapie axée sur la recherche de solutions

représente un mode pratique de counseling pour les médecins de famille affairés, qui est à la fois efficiente et efficace.

• Cette thérapie se fonde sur l’hypothèse que le changement est inévitable, que les patients sont les experts quant il s’agit de leur propre vie, qu’ils ont des forces et des ressources, et qu’ils peuvent être appuyés dans la recherche de leurs propres solutions.

• La thérapie axée sur la recherche de solutions est centrée sur le patient et est empreinte d’optimisme quant à la résolution des problèmes.



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5. Christie-Seely J. Counseling tips, techniques, and caveats. Can Fam Physician 1995;41:817-25.

6. Peterkin AD, Dworkind M. Comparing psychotherapies for primary care. Can Fam Physician 1991;37:719-25.

7. Rosser WW, Borins M, Audet́ D. Anxiety disorders in family practice. Diagnosis and management. Can Fam Physician 1994;40:81-8.

8. Rockman P, Moran B. An introduction to brief therapy for family physicians. Toronto, Ont: Rockman and Moran; 1997.

9. Links PS, Balchand K, Dawe I, Watson WJ. Preventing recurrent suicidal behaviour. Can Fam Physician 1999;45:2656-60.

10. Barker P. Solution-focused therapies. Nurs Times 1998;94:53-6. 11. Chandler M, Mason W. Solution-focused therapy: an alternative approach to

additions nursing. Perspect Psychiatr Care 1995;31(1):8-13. 12. Giorlando M, Schilling R. On becoming a solution-focused physician: the MED-

STAT acronym. Fam Systems Health 1997;4:361-72. 13. Poon VHK. Short counseling techniques for busy family doctors. Can Fam

Physician 1997;43:705-13. 14. McNeilly R. Solution oriented counseling: a 20-minute format for medical practice.

Aust Fam Physician 1994;23:228-30. 15. Park E. An application of brief therapy to family medicine. Contemp Fam Ther

1997;19:81-8. 16. Franklin C, Corcoran J, Nowicki J, Streeter C. Using client self-anchored scales to

measure outcomes in solution–focused therapy. J Systemic Ther 1997;16:246-65. 17. Macdonald A. Brief therapy in adult psychiatry—further outcomes. Assoc Fam

Ther Systemic Pract 1997;19:213-22. 18. Jordan K, Quinn WH. Session two outcome of the formula first session task in

problem- and solution-focused approaches. Am J Fam Ther 1994;2(1):3-16. 19. Zimmerman T, Layne A, Wetzel B. Solution-focused couple therapy groups: an

empirical study. Assoc Fam Ther Systemic Pract 1997;19:124-44. 20. Steenbarger B. Toward science-practice integration in brief counseling and ther-

apy. Counseling Psychol 1992;20(3):403-50. 21. De Shazer S, Kim Berg I. ‘What works?’ Remarks on research aspects of solution-

focused brief therapy. Assoc Fam Ther Systemic Pract 1997;9:121-4. 22. McKeel AJ. A clinician’s guide to research on solution-focused brief therapy. In:

Miller S, Hubble M, Duncan B, editors. Handbook of solution-focused therapy. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1996. p. 251-71.

23. Hillyer D. Solution-oriented questions: an analysis of a key intervention in solu- tion-focused therapy. J Am Psychiatr Nurs Assoc 1996;2(1):3-10.

24. Walter J, Peller J. Rethinking our assumptions: assuming anew in a postmodern world. In: Miller S, Hubble M, Duncan B, editors. Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1996. p. 9–26.

25. Furman B, Ahola T. Solution talk: the solution-oriented way of talking about problems. In: Hoyt M, editor. Constructive therapies. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 1994. p. 41-66.

26. Miller SD. Some questions (not answers) for the brief treatment of people with drug and alcohol problems. In: Hoyt M, editor. Constructive therapies. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 1994. p. 92-110.

27. DeJong P, Miller S. How to interview for client strengths. Soc Work 1995;40(6):729-36.

28. DeJong P, Kim Berg I. Interviewing for solutions. Pacific Grove, Calif: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 1998.

29. Walter J, Peller J. Becoming solution-focused in brief therapy. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel, Inc; 1992.

30. Hopwood L, Taylor M. Solution-focused brief therapy for chronic problems. In: Vandecreek L, Knapp S, Jackson T, editors. Innovations in clinical practice: a source book. Vol 12. Sarasota, Fla: Professional Resource Press, 1993. p. 85-97.

31. Butler W, Powers K. Solution-focused grief therapy. In: Miller S, Hubble M, Duncan B, editors. Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1996. p. 228-47.

32. Duvall J, Rockman P. Living a wonderful life: a conversation with Yvonne Dolan. J Systemic Ther 1996;15:82-93.

33. Ahlers C. Solution-oriented therapy for professionals working with physically impaired clients. J Strategic Systemic Ther 1992;11(3):53-68.

34.Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC, Norcross JC. In search of how people change: applications to addictive behaviors. Am Psychol 1992;47(9):1102-14.

35. Webster D. Solution-focused approaches in psychiatric/mental health nursing. Perspect Psychiatr Care 1990;26(4):17-21.

36. Cade B, O’Hanlon WH. A brief guide to brief therapy. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co; 1993.







































































A thesis project submitted to

Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary

in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree










Craig L. Younce





Lynchburg, Virginia


December 2, 2011








































MENTOR: Dr. Charlie Davidson





READER: Dr. Rod Dempsey




















Craig Younce


Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary, 2012


Mentor: Dr. Charlie Davidson




The purpose of this thesis project is to present the importance of developing four

specific core competencies in the area of pastoral counseling. It is problematic that most

pastors have received minimal or no training in counseling resulting in inadequate

therapy when parishioners seek pastoral counseling during times of crisis. The material

presented in this thesis project enables pastoral care givers to become proficient

counselors through a series of learning objectives, best practices, critical tasks, and

accomplished practices directed toward improving counseling competencies in the area of

personal, marriage, and family counseling. Additionally, this project addresses the

problem of pornography, and proposes a blueprint to be implemented in developing a

church program that would assist men in overcoming addictions to pornography.


Abstract length: 121 words.













This thesis is dedicated to my beautiful wife, Terri.

Her sacrifice, love, patience, and encouragement gave me the strength to persevere.

She enabled my dream to become a reality!


“A man’s greatest treasure is his wife — she is a gift from the LORD.”

Proverbs 18:22 CEV










































THE CONTEXT OF PASTORAL CARE ……………………………………………………………. 1


Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1


Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………………………… 3


Statement of Limitations ……………………………………………………………………………………. 6


Definitions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8


Biblical and Theoretical Basis ……………………………………………………………………………. 11


Statement of Methodology …………………………………………………………………………………. 16


Review of the Literature ……………………………………………………………………………………. 20






Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35


The Importance of Self-Awareness …………………………………………………………………….. 38


Learning Objective One: Unfolding Your Life as You Know It …………………………….. 41


Learning Objective Two: Unfolding Your Life As You Want It to Be …………………….. 59


Learning Objective Three: Unfolding Your Plan for Change …………………………………. 62


Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 72













PEOPLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73


Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73


Best Practice One: Integrating the Bible into the Counseling Model ………………………. 75


Best Practice Two: Proper Relational Style & Safety …………………………………………… 83


Best Practice Three: The Counseling Setting and Culture ……………………………………… 95


Best Practice Four: Solution-Based Brief Pastoral Counseling ……………………………….. 97





MARRIAGES …………………………………………………………………………………………………..100


Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………100


The Spiritual Implications …………………………………………………………………………………..101


The Evolution of Psychology into the Twenty-First Century …………………………………..102


Family Systems Therapy …………………………………………………………………………………….105


Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) ………………………………………………………117


Attribution Theory …………………………………………………………………………………………….120


Cognitive Behavior Therapy ……………………………………………………………………………….121


Contextual Family Therapy ………………………………………………………………………………..124


Emotionally Focused Therapy …………………………………………………………………………….125


Solution Focused Brief Therapy ………………………………………………………………………….127


Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….130















FAMILIES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….132


Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………132


Accomplished Practice One: Embracing a Strong Theistic Psychotherapy ………………133


Accomplished Practice Two: Mastering Christian Integrative Psychotherapy ………….139







BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………………………………………..182


VITA ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….191




































Pastoral counseling opportunities are divine appointments with individual

members of the church community. James Dittes, former Yale University Professor of

Psychology of Religion, penned his reflections on the matter of pastoral counseling with

these thoughts:

However casual the person is while waiting around after a committee meeting or

in crossing your path after church, however brazen, professional, or apologetic

one is in claiming your time, however confident or pompous the person has

always come across to you, when you hear the phrase, “Can I talk to you?” or a

similar statement, it should be taken as the self-disclosure of a tormented person

who feels unable to cope. It is possibly a cry for help more desperate than it

sounds because it is a confession, to some degree, of personal deficiency and

paralysis. 1


The pastor is very often the initial crisis counselor sought out by people under the

influence of a church ministry. Counseling sessions may occur formally in the church

office; but, they also transpire naturally throughout the daily itinerary of the pastor as he

or she interfaces with members of the congregation. Wayne Oates referred to this

pastoral dynamic in the following manner, “You, as a pastor, move from one crisis to

another with those whom you shepherd. In a single day, you may visit the mother of a

newborn baby, give guidance to a person who is becoming a Christian, talk with high


1 James E. Dittes, Pastoral Counseling, the Basics (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press,

1999), 18.







school or college graduates about their life work, unite a couple in marriage, comfort a

person who is bereaved, call upon someone who is confronting a serious operation, and

listen to the last words of a patient who is dying. 2

Christian pastors throughout history and in all places have ministered to the

presence of personal problems of their parishioners. J. R. Beck wrote, “We have not

always labeled this important pastoral function as counseling; but, this function has

always existed as a vital expression of ministry for undershepherds caring for their sheep

in the name of the great Shepherd.” 3 Influenced the past one-hundred years by the

discipline of psychology and the past fifty years by counseling, parishioners have grown

accustomed to counseling as an expected component of pastoral care. Therefore, inherent

in the call of “shepherding a flock” is the necessity to be a competent and skilled


Most pastors grasp the significance of the pulpit ministry; but, some have not

fully comprehended the weight of the counseling aspect. Clyde Narramore once stated,

“It has been said that a minister who does not place a strong emphasis on counseling is

only half a minister.” 4 Preaching is a wonderful blessing; however, it may not always

meet a church member’s specific need. For example, a young woman is concerned about

a matter standing in the way of marriage, but does not get the particular help she needs

from the weekly sermon. Another young man is wrestling with homosexual feelings and

knows unless his situation improves he is likely to have serious trouble; however, the


2 Wayne Oates, The Christian Pastor, 3

rd ed. (Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press, 1982), 17.


3 J. R. Beck, Baker Encyclopedia of Psychology and Counseling, 2

nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker

Books, 1999), 834-835.


4 Clyde Narramore, The Psychology of Counseling (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing

House, 1960), 11.







sermon is miles away from his personal issues.

Every pastor should keep in mind that God is very much interested in the

individual person. Jesus manifested this during His earthly ministry. Even though Jesus

was pressed by the multitudes, He visibly expressed His interest in individuals and was

prepared to meet them at their specific point of need. Jesus called His disciples one by

one; He met Nicodemus alone to discuss the things of God. He sat by a well and

explained to a Samaritan woman how she could truly quench her thirst with the Living

Water. During a bustling street procession, Jesus looked up into a tree and spotted a man

sitting on a branch, then left the crowd and went to the man’s home to personally discuss

his spiritual needs. Jesus’ parable of the Good Shepherd stated that He left the ninety and

nine to help one poor wandering sheep. Therefore, like Jesus, pastors must be well

equipped to deal with individuals at their precise point of crisis.



Statement of the Problem

The project, The Significance of Developing Core Counseling Competencies in

Pastoral Care Ministry, focuses on the development of core counseling competencies

essential in the area of pastoral care ministry. Howard Clinebell, in his textbook Basic

Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling, proposed that for clergy “it is important to

obtain the best available supervised training in counseling, both academic and clinical,

not only to avoid doing harm but to maximize one’s abilities as an instrument of

healing.” 5 The problem is most pastors have not experienced such training. Some of the

fault may lie in the shadow cast on counseling by Jay Adam’s nouthetic movement; as a


5 Howard Clinebell, Basic Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling, 2

nd ed. (Nashville, TN:

Abingdon Press, 1984), 49.








result, pastors are hesitant to embrace the discipline of counseling apart from sola

scriptura. The proponents of the biblical counseling movement thwart the use of

psychology and psychotherapy, except in special circumstances. One could also blame

the readiness of pastors to outsource their counseling responsibilities to counseling

ministries, professional counselors, and counseling centers. However, most of the fault

must be placed on the lack of pastoral counseling instruction provided in the Master of

Divinity Degree programs of American Seminaries. Clinebell would go on to express

that it is the competent pastoral counselor who will experience the privilege of guiding

people on their inner journey toward wholeness. The minister, who has paid the price of

disciplined study and training leading to competency, will experience the wonderful

amazement and joy that comes with the realization one has been an instrument through

which the Holy Spirit has brought healing and growth to another human being. 6

After examining Master of Divinity degree curricula from a significant number

and diverse selection of theological seminaries in the United States, this writer observed

that students trained for pastoral ministry in these programs received minimal education

in the discipline of counseling. The seminaries evaluated by this author, offered few, if

any, compulsory classes or required minimal credit hours in the field of counseling. The

Master of Divinity degree is considered by most institutions to be the only approved first

master’s degree for students preparing for a pastoral or preaching ministry, as well as any

other ministry largely comprised of biblical teaching, 7 and is generally considered the

degree required for ordination by most mainline denominations. Yet, most seminaries


6 Clinebell, Basic Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling, 49.


7 Southwestern Theological Baptist Seminary Catalog, Master of Divinity,

catalog /page.cfm?id=32&open=3_area (accessed, July 18, 2011).







neglected an emphasis on pastoral care, which is a key component of pastoral ministry.

An examination of the data queried showed that required counseling courses in

the Master of Divinity degrees surveyed by this writer only constituted 2.1 percent of

institutional curricula. The information confirmed that the theological seminaries

analyzed by this author offered less than one required counseling course, .76 percent, per

Master of Divinity program; and, nearly one third, 32 percent, of the seminaries

researched did not offer any required counseling classes in their Master of Divinity

programs. Furthermore, the nature of most of the counseling classes offered, as part of

the curriculum, was introductory rather than specialized.

Think about it, on any given Sunday what do pastors in America see as they look

out over their congregations? They may see a husband who admitted his wife to a mental

hospital the week before, a young wife deeply depressed by the tragic death of her

husband, a couple who recently learned that their child has leukemia, an alcoholic

wrestling with his addiction, a husband and wife struggling to overcome the agony of

alienation in their marriage, a high school boy whose girlfriend is pregnant, an

ambulatory paranoid women who did not responded to psychiatric treatment, a man

facing surgery for a suspected malignancy, a man anticipating with near terror the

emptiness he fears mandatory retirement will bring to his life, and the crisis list could go

on and on. Howard Clinebell proposed, “Such people often trust the very fabric of their

lives to the counseling skills of their minister. Frequently , the pastor is the only person

they allow to enter their private hells;” 8 yet the reality is, in their desperate need, people

will open their hearts to the pastor whether or not the pastor possesses the required

8 Clinebell, Basic Types of Pastoral Care and Counseling, 47.







counseling skills. Wayne Oates made the point that pastors do not enjoy the freedom of

deciding whether or not to counsel when he stated, “The choice is not between

counseling and not counseling, but between counseling in a disciplined and skilled way

and counseling in an undisciplined and unskilled way.” 9 The problem is many who

pastor churches, lack significant training in one of the most important aspects of ministry,

pastoral counseling.



Statement of Limitations

The field of counseling is a broad discipline with multiple areas of focus, each

requiring unique competencies; however, for the purposes of this project, only four

specific core counseling competencies were proposed and developed. After extensive

reading on the topic of pastoral counseling, this writer asserts these four core counseling

competencies undergird the genre of counseling referred to as “Pastoral Counseling.”

However, because psychology is progressive and constantly changing, one must approach

pastoral counseling as a life-long learning experience, constantly expanding one’s

knowledge of the discipline. The four core counseling competencies unique to this

project are limited to the following:

1. Knowing yourself to guide people

2. Developing your style to connect with people

3. Constructing your strategy to mend marriages

4. Building your plan to repair families

A supplemental section has been included as an appendix to this project pertaining to


9 Wayne Oates, An Introduction to Pastoral Counseling (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1959),








“structuring your church to restore men.”

Another limitation of this project relates to use of the Master of Divinity degree as

a guideline for determining lack of training in pastoral care ministry. This author is

aware that many pastors shepherd churches across America without possessing the

Master of Divinity degree. Nevertheless, the Master of Divinity degree was selected

because it is considered by most seminaries, educational institutions, and traditional

denominations to be the minimum professional degree required for ordination.

Traditional denominations primarily refer to the Anglican, Congregational, Episcopal,

Lutheran, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Wesleyan denominations. The Master of Divinity

degree is also the preferred professional degree for both military and civilian chaplaincy.

It should also be noted that the Master of Divinity degrees assessed were general Master

of Divinity degrees or Master of Divinity degrees with a concentration in pastoral

ministries; and, the research did not include Master of Divinity degrees with

specializations in counseling or chaplaincy as these concentrations naturally required a

significant number of counseling courses. Information about the Master of Divinity

degrees was compiled from current online catalogues posted before July, 2011. The

collection of data was for the purpose of establishing the following information, the

percentage of curriculum committed to counseling education and the number of

counseling courses offered per Master of Divinity degree.

A further limitation of this project pertains to the selection of American

theological seminaries used in this writer’s query of information about the Master of

Divinity degrees. Although there are hundreds of excellent theological seminaries in the

United States, it was necessary to select a diverse grouping of religious educational







institutions in order to achieve an accurate representation of facts for this research. Two

limiting criteria were implemented in the selection process of theological seminaries

reviewed for this project. The first criterion took into consideration the reputation of the

theological institutions selected. In other words, whether sectarian or nonsectarian, these

religious educational institutions were considered the “flagship seminaries” for those

groups which support them. The second condition weighed the need for denominational

diversity in the research data.

An added limitation relevant to this project deals with the definition of pastoral

counseling. Pastoral counseling may be viewed as distinct category of counseling subject

to state or national licensure; or, it may be perceived as the counseling component of

pastoral ministry. This project limits the definition to the latter.

A final limitation of this project concerns the nature in which the core counseling

competencies are presented. The competencies are addressed and presented topically and

are not presented in the form of detailed curriculum.




The following terms are relevant to this thesis project and will be used repeatedly

throughout. The definitions applied to these terms were influenced by this writer’s

research from multiple sources, the American Psychological Association Dictionary of

Psychology 10

and the Dictionary of Counseling. 11





10 APA Dictionary of Psychology (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2007).



Donald A. Biggs, Dictionary of Counseling (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994).







Best Practice

Best practice is a term that has experienced “translational drift” over the years. A

best practice, for the purposes of this project, is a technique or methodology that through

experience and research has proven to reliably lead to a desired result. A commitment to

using the best practices in any field is a commitment to using all the knowledge and

technology at one’s disposal to ensure success. Best practices offer a set of guidelines,

ethics, or ideas that represent the most efficient or prudent course of action.



Clients for the purposes of this project are members of a church community or

parish receiving pastoral care in the context of pastoral counseling. The term client and

parishioner are often used interchangeably throughout this thesis project.



Competencies are identified behaviors, knowledge, skills, and abilities that

directly and positively impact the success of pastoral counselors and their clients.

Competencies can be objectively measured, enhanced, and improved through coaching

and learning opportunities. The identified core competencies are applicable to basic

pastoral counseling.



Counseling, generally speaking, is a non-medical discipline in which the goals are

to facilitate and quicken personality growth and development for the purpose of helping

persons modify life patterns with which they have become increasingly unhappy; and, to

provide camaraderie and wisdom for persons facing the inevitable losses and







disappointments in life. Counseling is a systematic approach to problem solving that

focuses on helping clients deal with their presenting problems.



Interventions are actions taken on the part of a counselor to deal with the issues

and problems of a client/parishioner. The selection of the intervention is guided by the

nature of the problem, the orientation of the pastoral counselor, the setting, and the

willingness of the client to proceed with the treatment.



Pastor is an ordained minister serving the body of Christ either locally or at large.

It is the assumption of this author that pastors are those who have received ordination by

a church or denomination that has tested the theological acumen of the individual in

addition to significant biblical and theological training manifested in the form of

academic validation.


Pastoral Counseling

Pastoral Counseling is a reparative function needed when the growth of persons is

seriously jeopardized or blocked by crisis. Pastoral counseling occurs when the

counselor and counselee focus their relationship upon the relationship of God for the

process of restoration. God becomes the third person in the relationship; and, instead of

being simply dialogue, a trialogue is formed. People need pastoral care throughout their

lives, but usually need pastoral counseling during a severe crisis. According to the

American Psychological Association Dictionary of Psychology, a pastoral counselor is

one who has received advanced training in one or several of the behavioral sciences in







addition to religious training, theological training, or both.



Psychotherapy is a form of psychological treatment for problems of an emotional

or spiritual nature in which a trained person deliberately establishes a professional

relationship with a client for the purpose of removing, modifying, or retarding existing

symptoms of mediating disturbing patterns of behavior, and of promoting positive

personality growth and development.



Biblical and Theoretical Basis

Master’s Seminary president and noted preacher, John MacArthur, declared,

“Counseling, particularly counseling that employs and applies God’s Word, is a

necessary duty of Christian life and fellowship.” 12

Since apostolic times, counseling has

been a natural function of corporate spiritual life. The Bible commands believers to

“admonish one another” (Rom. 15:14) 13

; “encourage one another” (Heb. 3:13); “comfort

one another with these words” (1 Thess. 4:18); “build up one another” (1 Thess. 5:11);

“confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another” (James 5:16). Along with

these commands is the biblical assumption of preparedness. The Apostle Peter

encouraged his readers to “always be ready to explain” their hope “in a gentle and

respectful way” (1 Peter 3:15-16 NLT); therefore, effective Christ-centered counseling,

on any level, is never to be approached in a haphazard manner.


12 John MacArthur, Counseling: How to Counsel Biblically (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson,

2005), 3.


All scriptures presented in this writer’s thesis project, unless otherwise noted, are taken from the

English Standard Version of the Bible.







The great Baptist minister, W. A. Criswell, once said, “Someday, sometimes,

somewhere, every one of us will desperately need the presence and prayers of the

preacher. He is God’s man to show the right way or give us strength to follow what we

ought to do.” 14

Criswell considered it a tremendous opportunity to minister as a

shepherd-counselor to the needs of the people of God. Jay Adams considered pastoral

counseling a significant part of the sum of the whole pastoral activity when he stated,

“Pastoral counseling is special, but not a separate area of pastoral activity; indeed,

biblically it is close to the heart of shepherding. It involves the extension of help to the

wandering, torn, defeated, dispirited sheep who need the restoring mentioned in Psalm

23:3 (‘He restoreth my soul’).” 15

When a minister neglects the ministry of counseling,

other crucial areas of the ministry suffers, such as preaching. When a pastor is not

involved in the lives of the people, the pastor loses touch with the difficulties and the

thought processes and habits that lead to problems; as a result, the sheep will not be

properly prepared for spiritual warfare. 16

Pastors are individuals who have the privilege

of leading the way by responding to the words of the Apostle Paul, “Now we who are

strong ought to bear the weaknesses of those without strength” (Rom. 15:1), and the

occasion to fulfill the law of Christ by carrying the burdens of others (Gal. 6:2 NLT).

Because of the significance of pastoral counseling, the pastor of the church congregation

should be extremely well prepared to counsel. Paul advised his protégé, Timothy, “Be

prepared, whether the time is favorable or not. Patiently correct, rebuke, and encourage


14 W.A. Criswell, Criswell’s Guide for Pastors (Nashville, TN: Broadman Press, 1980), 273.



Jay E. Adams, Shepherding God’s Flock (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House,

1975), 172.



MacArthur, Counseling; How to Counsel Biblically, 234.







your people with good teaching” (2 Tim. 4:2 NLT).

Already established in the introduction to this thesis project is the inherent

responsibility of pastors to counsel as part of one’s call to shepherd a flock. The problem

posed in this thesis project is, in the area of counseling, many ministers lack suitable

training and education partly due to the fact that they received only minimal course

instruction and field training in counseling from their seminary educations. An informal

scrutiny, by this writer, of lower theological institutional curriculum, such as Bible

College and other undergraduate degrees, yielded similar results to that of the seminary

research. It is the recommendation of this author that, in addition to proper theological

training for the purpose of becoming competent pastoral care givers, pastors should

develop four core counseling competencies that are foundational to the discipline of

pastoral counseling. Ideally, these core competencies could be delivered in an academic

venue, and more specifically, as a required part of all Master of Divinity degree

programs, no matter what the specialization or concentration may be.

The theoretical element of this project is based on the notion that the goal of

pastoral counseling is holistic healing. The scriptural basis for this approach is

demonstrated by our Lord in Mark’s gospel account of the life of Christ. Jesus, seeing

the faith of a paralyzed man and the four men who had just lowered him through the roof

of the crowded home where He was preaching, said to the paralyzed man, “Son, your sins

are forgiven” (Mark 2:5) and then proceeded to heal the man from his physical affliction

(Mark 2:11). In spite of the theological debate surrounding the healing event, the young

man got up, took his mat, and confidently walked out in full view of all of them (Mark

2:12). This young man had been spiritually healed through the forgiveness of his sins,







physically mended and no longer paralyzed, and theologically restored being convinced

that Jesus Christ was God and had the authority to forgive his personal sins.

From a holistic counseling perspective, the effectual pastoral counselor offers

help psychologically, theologically, and spiritually. The pastoral counselor is

professionally able to participate fully in a psychological treatment relationship. At the

same time, the pastoral counselor identifies with and reflects on emotions within the

counseling relationship, the pastoral care giver is also evaluating and assessing from

outside the counseling relationship. The pastoral counselor is noticing facial expressions,

non-verbal gestures, voice tone, and styles of relating. Mastering this type of

psychological practice requires education, instruction, and cultural sensitivity.

Additionally, the pastoral counselor considers the theological perspectives that connect to

the assorted tasks of counseling. Historical and systematic theology, biblical

understanding, as well as Christian tradition are respected and deemed to be key elements

of pastoral counseling. In order to accomplish these goals, one must have a basic

working knowledge of the God’s Word, Christian history, and theological systems.

Furthermore, the pastoral counselor is concerned with understanding the spiritual life of

the client. Mark McMinn expressed the pastor’s concern for the spiritual life of the client

in this manner,

How are the clients’ problems related to spiritual development? When is a

problem simply a behavioral habit to be eliminated or reshaped; and, when is a

problem a reflection of deep, inner yearnings for intimacy with God and others?

How can a treatment relationship be crafted to foster qualities of humility and

insight? When, if ever, should prayer or scripture memory be used in counseling

or prescribed to a client? 17



These questions are rarely considered by most mental health therapists; but, pastoral


17 Mark R. McMinn, Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling (Carol

Stream, IL: Tydale House Publishers, 1996), 270.







counselors regularly encounter questions such as these. To address these issues, one

must be a trained and skilled spiritual practitioner.

The theoretical premise of this thesis project based on the importance of

counseling in the Word of God, the significance of the role of pastoral counseling within

the context of pastoral care, and the impact of holistic healing on one’s spiritual

wellbeing is that the pastor must develop and master the following core competencies in

order to effectively fulfill the role of pastoral counselor. First, in order to astutely guide

others, one must know one’s self within the spectrum of one’s personality, personal

spirituality and theological worldview. This is achieved through a variety of primary

“learning objectives.” Second, one ought to develop a relational style action plan in order

to connect with individual clients. This is attained by implementing specific “best

practices” into one’s manner of counseling. Third, one should master the “critical task”

of constructing the appropriate counseling strategies for the purpose of providing a

holistic healing process for couples. Fourth, it is necessary for the pastoral counselor to

be proficient in two explicit “accomplished practices” connected with treating distressed

families and bringing stabilization into the lives of clients affected by emergency and

nonemergency calamity. Finally, the pastoral counselor will be capable of forming group

treatment therapies for men desiring to overcome pornography, one of the strongest and

most addictive behaviors having a negative impact on the church in today’s culture.

Developing a program for restoration is a crucial goal in this problematic area. Mastering

these significant core counseling competencies enables the pastoral counselor to

confidently face the biblical responsibility to “be prepared whether the time is favorable

or not” in order to “patiently correct, rebuke, and encourage your people with good







teaching” (2 Tim. 4:2 NLT) both from the pulpit and in the areas of individual and family

pastoral counseling.


Statement of Methodology

This thesis project provides a viable solution addressing the problem of a lack of

counseling training in the area of pastoral counseling in the following manner:

 This project will present “learning objectives” designed to assist the pastoral

counselor in the area of self-awareness, a critical component enabling one to

guide others.

 This project will establish “best practices” for developing the pastoral

counselor’s relational style with clients.

 This project will deal with the “critical task” of developing a strategic

approach to couples’ counseling.

 This project will recommend two “accomplished practices” for counseling

families in distress.

 This project will address the problem of men and internet pornography as well

as propose a group therapy design to be implemented in developing a church

program assisting people in overcoming addictions to internet pornography.

The breakdown of the chapters is as follows:


Chapter One – Conveying the Significance of Core Counseling Competencies in the

Context of Pastoral Care


Chapter one introduces the importance of pastoral counseling and the necessity

for pastors to master five core counseling competencies that are central to this area of







pastoral ministry. Chapter one also states the problem addressed by this thesis project,

affirms the limitations of the thesis project, and delineate definitions that are relevant to

this thesis project. Additionally, chapter one presents the methodology by which the

stated problem will be solved and reviews literature pertinent to research for this thesis



Chapter Two – Knowing Yourself to Guide People

Chapter Two presents core competency number one, “Knowing Yourself to Guide

People,” and is delineated through three personal learning objectives for the pastoral

counselor. The first learning objective unfolds one’s life as it is understood in the present

and poses the reflective question, “who am I right now and how did I get here?” In

addition to personal analysis and reflection, three diagnostic tools were used to support

this portion of the thesis project, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Uniquely You

Professional/Leader Profile diagnostic tool, and the Adjective Checklist ACL diagnostic.

The second learning objective unfolds one’s life as one desires it to be. One’s preferred

life story considers areas in the life of the pastor that need improvement or change. The

third learning objective establishes a plan for change which involves creating master

goals that include the analysis of present realities, the shaping of preferences, structuring

for change, and setting up support and accountability.


Chapter Three – Developing Your Style to Connect with People

Chapter Three discusses core competency number two, “Developing Your Style

to Connect with People,” and is allocated through three “best practices” established for

pastoral counselors engaging individual clients in today’s church. These “best practices”







include learning concepts, skills, and resources necessary to effectively, ethically and

safely approach parishioners within the context of pastoral counseling. In order to master

these “best practices,” pastoral care-givers must address the following critical issues:

First, the pastoral counselor must judge the importance of integrating the Bible into the

counseling model. Second, the pastoral counselor will consider the proper relational style

for creating a context of change and relocation as well as constructing an ethical and safe

environment for counseling. Third, the pastoral therapist resolves to address the

counseling setting, bearing in mind matters of cultural diversity and how one will

influence change within that context. Finally, pastoral counselors are to be astute

strategist especially in the area of Solution-Based Brief Pastoral Counseling (SBBFC).


Chapter Four – Constructing Your Strategy to Mend Marriages

Chapter Four, addresses core competency number three, “Constructing Your

Strategy to Mend Marriages,” and is described as the critical task of developing a

strategic approach to counseling couples. Core competency number three presents many

of the prevailing psychological theories that have formed the basis for strategic therapies

used in couples’ and marriage counseling today. It is important that pastoral counselors

recognize not only the significance of providing spiritual help for their clients, but also

the ability to corroborate appropriate psychological therapies for the purpose of achieving

the holistic wellbeing of the couples being counseled. The information presented in this

chapter discusses the major tenets and techniques associated with an eclectic group of

family theories for the purpose of exposing a cross section of relevant psychological

therapies for implementation when counseling couples in distress. This chapter assumes

that pastoral counselors are already astute in the techniques of spiritual counseling,







therefore, directing most of its information toward the area of Psychology. The collected

facts will provide information to assist pastoral counselors in partnering spiritual and

psychological issues through the basic knowledge of these selected therapies.


Chapter Five – Building Your Plan to Repair Families

Chapter Five speaks to core competency number four, “Building Your Plan to

Repair Families” by recommending two accomplished practices for counseling families

in distress. Accomplished practice one is “embracing a theological foundation”

supporting the psychotherapy provided by the pastoral caretaker in times of crisis.

Accomplished practice two encompasses “mastering Christian Integrative

Psychotherapy,” a combination of relational and cognitive therapy as a primary

therapeutic tool. This integrative approach fits extremely well with the Christian

worldview of most pastoral caregivers.


Appendix B – Structuring Your Church to Restore Men

Appendix B covers “Structuring Your Church to Restore Men,” and addresses the

problem of men and internet pornography as well as a plan for developing a church

program assisting people in overcoming addictions to internet pornography. Because of

the shameful stigma attached to this condition, churches tend to shy away from

constructing a biblical healing process in this critical need area. The information

presented in this chapter unfolds a threefold reparative plan for pastoral counselors of

churches that desire to accept responsibility and exhibit compassion to men who struggle

with the issue of pornography.









Review of the Literature

Books and journals from experts in the fields of pastoral counseling and Christian

counseling are an important component of the process of gathering information and proof

for this thesis project. Examining expert contributions from various authorities on this

topic provided this writer with a well-rounded point of view on the five core counseling

competencies presented in this project. The following is a review of the key literature

beneficial to this thesis project:


A Pastor’s Guide to Interpersonal Communication by Blake J. Neff

A Pastor’s Guide to Interpersonal Communication, the Other Six Days was a

tremendous resource addressing the issue of personal dialogue. This book provided

insight and expert training needed by pastors for those personal one-on-one conversations

pastoral counselors can expect. Neff’s work explored the dynamics of communication

and detailed the communication tools available to communicators. This book

comprehensively analyzed a variety of topics including perception, self-disclosure, verbal

and nonverbal messages, listening, stages of relational development, power assertiveness

and dominance, conflict management, forgiveness, persuasion, dual relationships,

pastoral family communication, and how to develop a communications model. 18



The Bible

Isaiah 9:6

The information in this thesis project presents Jesus as the ultimate authority in

counseling. It is noteworthy that the prophet Isaiah was inspired by the Holy Spirit to


18 Blake J. Neff, A Pastor’s Guide to Interpersonal Communication (New York, NY: Routledge

Taylor and Francis Group, 2006).







present our Savior, Jesus Christ, as the “Wonderful Counselor” (Isa. 9:6). Jesus is the

highest and ultimate authority to whom one may turn for counsel; and, His Word is the

well from which one may draw godly wisdom. One of the magnificent aspects of

Christ’s perfect sufficiency is the superb counsel and great wisdom He supplies through

His Word in our times of despair, confusion, fear, anxiety, and sorrow. One of the

primary purposes of the pastoral counselor is to expose the counselee to the healing and

encouraging truths of God’s Word. All scriptures presented in this author’s thesis

project, unless otherwise noted, are taken from the English Standard Version of the Bible.


2 Timothy 3:16-17

The material in thesis project proclaims the Bible as the infallible rule of faith and

practice for counseling. The Bible is God’s written revelation to man; therefore, the

sixty-six books of the Bible, given by the Holy Spirit, constitute the plenary Word of

God. The Word of God is an objective, propositional revelation verbally inspired in

every word, absolutely inerrant in the original documents, infallible, and God-breathed.

As the Apostle Paul stated, “All scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for

teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of

God may be complete, equipped for every good work” (2 Tim. 3:16-17). Therefore, the

Bible constitutes the only infallible rule of faith and practice. God spoke in His written

Word by a process of dual authorship. That is to say, the Holy Spirit administered the

human authors; and through their individual personalities and different styles of writing,

they composed and recorded God’s Word to man without error. The Bible is the ultimate

tool for pastoral counseling.








2 Corinthians 8:10 and Acts 5:38-39

All components of this thesis project maintain that wise pastoral counseling is

based on spiritual maturity and knowledge. The Apostle Paul’s statement, “Here is my

advice” (2 Cor. 8:10 NLT), provides Christian counselors with a biblical example of one

giving preferred counsel based on maturity, knowledge, and guidance from the Holy

Spirit. The same tone of mature deliberation is presented in the book of Acts as the

Jewish leader, Gamaliel, advised the Sanhedrin regarding Jesus’ followers and stated, “So

my advice is, leave these men alone. Let them go. If they are planning and doing these

things merely on their own, it will soon be overthrown. But if it is from God, you will

not be able to overthrow them. You may even find yourselves fighting against God”

(Acts 5:38-39 NLT). The Bible values wise counsel based on spiritual maturity and



1Thessalonians 2:11-12 and Romans 12:8

The ideas proposed in thesis project uphold the notion that pastoral counseling

and encouragement are synonymous. One of the inherent responsibilities of pastoral

counseling is encouragement. Biblical encouragement in its purest and simplest

definition means to come alongside someone as a helper. The Apostle Paul reminded

believers in Thessalonica of his caring and helpful pastoral actions with these words, “For

you know how, like a father with his children, we exhorted each one of you and

encouraged you and charged you to walk in a manner worthy of God” (1Thess. 2:11-12).

Encouragement strengthens and calls out renewed commitment. Typically, believers are

encouraged to some godly course of action. The purpose of encouragement is that one

may be strengthened for rehabilitated faith and obedience. How wonderful then is the







spiritual gift of encouragement (Rom. 12:8)! As pastoral counselors exercise the spiritual

gift of encouragement, counselees are strengthened and enabled to experience positive

spiritual growth and victorious Christian living.


Colossians 4:6, 1 Peter 3:15, and James 3:1

The concepts presented in this thesis advocate contemplative speech. God’s

Word says, “Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt, so that you may

know how you ought to answer each person” (Col. 4:6), thus reminding pastoral

counselors that the gracious demeanor with which one extends counsel is as vital as the

advice one gives. The example of salt provides two notable concepts; not only does salt

add flavor, it also prevents corruption. Therefore, salt metaphorically symbolizes the

importance of tactful, yet confronting, advice if necessary. The Apostle Peter enhances

the importance of the counselor’s dialogue when he states, “But in your hearts, honor

Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks

you for a reason for the hope that is in you” (1 Pet. 3:15), indicating the critical nature of

training and preparation for those who intend to help others with hopeful and helpful

advice. Preparation will aid the counselor’s speech in the areas of “gentleness and

respect.” The pastoral counselor’s speech is always pensively presented in the tension

addressed in the book of James which says, “Not many of you should become teachers,

my brothers, for you know that we who teach will be judged with greater strictness”

(James 3:1).












1 Corinthians 6:12, 1 Corinthians 10:23, Romans 14:21, and 1 Corinthians 8:13

The ideals brought forth in thesis project show that pastoral counseling is not

always subjected to expediency and pragmatism. In other words, although a method,

intervention, or technique may be ethically permitted for a pastoral counselor to practice,

it may not be to the client’s spiritual benefit. The Apostle Paul told the Corinthian

believers, “All things are lawful for me,” but not all things are helpful” (1 Cor. 6:12);

and, “All things are lawful, but not all things build up” (1 Cor. 10:23). Pastoral

counselors must be extremely careful not to “allow the end to justify the means;” and as a

result, cause weaker brothers or sisters in the faith to stumble, or worse, to fall into sin. It

is better to follow the biblical principle stated in Romans 14:21 (CNT), “The right thing

to do is to keep from eating meat, drinking wine, or doing anything else that will make

other believers fall.” As the proverbial statement says, “It is better to err on the side of

caution,” “lest I make my brother stumble” (1 Cor. 8:13).


Proverbs 11:14, Proverbs 24:6 and Proverbs 24:15

All parts of this thesis project grasp the importance of counselors in dispensing

godly advice and direction. The book of Proverbs is a valuable collection of God’s

wisdom for His people. The spiritual, ethical, psychological, intellectual, physical,

marital, social, and professional areas of our lives are addressed in this book of wisdom.

The practical advice delineated in the book of Proverbs is that the way of wisdom is

respect for God, doing right, and using common sense to develop life patterns that will

bring joy, harmony, and accomplishment in all areas of life. The book of Proverbs

recognizes that counselors are an integral part of staying the course toward these goals.

The writer of Proverbs reminds the reader of the importance of counselors when it says,







“Where there is no guidance, the people fall” (Prov. 11:14) and “by wise guidance you

can wage your war” (Prov. 24:6). How many persons, couples, and families are waging

war against numerous issues; yet, the book of Proverbs says the benefits of counselors are

safety and victory (Prov. 11:14, 24:6). The book of Proverbs posits the idea that one

often needs wisdom to be pointed in the right direction and to give confidence that one is

empowered in the movement toward good goals. The book of Proverbs reminds one that

it is “a wise man that listens to advice” (Prov. 12:15).


Proverbs 27:17

The views asserted in thesis project comprehend the importance of peer friendship

in the area of pastoral counseling. One of the most recognized passages of scripture is

“Iron sharpens iron, and one man sharpens another” (Prov. 27:17). This proverbial truth

reminds every pastoral counselor of the need to debrief with a friend or peer. It would be

a recommended practice that pastoral counselors enlist a personal mentor or colleague for

the purposes of debriefing, encouragement, and personal support.


Christian Counseling Today (Journal)

Contributions from a variety of articles examined in various issues of Christian

Counseling Today have influenced numerous portions of this thesis project. For example,

Stephen Arterburn’s, “Your Cheating Heart: Men and Pornography” inspired much of

what was written in chapter six which addressed the topic of men and internet

pornography. Below is a sample excerpt from that article.













Just as drug professionals are familiar with drug content, drug paraphernalia, and

drug delivery systems, those familiar with pornography implement the internet

more and more as the preferred delivery system for their virtual sexual “fix.” The

internet has allowed men, with ease and anonymity, to become deeply involved

with this sinister sin. Sadly, virtual pornography has become the “drug of choice”

among conservative Christian men as well. 19



This writer is extremely grateful to the American Association of Christian Counselors for

distributing such a high quality counseling journal with a wide variety of perspectives.


Hoped-Focused Marriage Counseling by Dr. Everett L. Worthington

Dr. Everett L. Worthington’s work, Hoped- Focused Marriage Counseling, was

helpful in constructing the critical task of developing a strategic approach for counseling

couples presented in chapter four of this thesis project. This book proved to be a

comprehensive and tightly organized theory of Christian marriage counseling based on

promoting hope and teaching couples a strategy to build love, faith, and work into their

relationships within the parameter of a sufficient, yet limited number of therapeutic

sessions. Dr. Worthington proposed a concise, well-organized, and powerful approach to

helping couples in distress. His approach flexibly and eclectically drew from

interventions originally developed within disparate theoretical frameworks. The author

integrated, under a unifying strategy for marriage, interventions drawn from other

approaches as well as his own interventions. These interventions focused on fostering

hope in partners, the therapist’s allegiance to the principles of scripture, and the work of

the Holy Spirit in helping couples handle problems. Hope-focused marriage counseling

is an evidenced-based Christian approach to counseling couples with a genuinely brief


Stephen Arterburn, “Your Cheating Heart: Men and Pornography,” Christian Counseling

Today, 14.1 (2006): 12.








and flexible system that extracts from both theology and psychology. 20



How People Grow by Henry Cloud and John Townsend

Two key assumptions supporting this thesis project are the integration of biblical

counseling with psychology and the connection of spiritual growth to psychological

catharsis. One of the books helpful in assimilating these two notions in the fabric of this

thesis project is How People Grow – What the Bible Reveals About Personal Growth by

Henry Cloud and John Townsend. The authors supported the previously mentioned

concepts by presenting the holistic impact of spiritual growth on relationship problems,

emotional problems, and all other problems of life. Cloud and Townsend rejected the

notion that one set of solutions exists for spiritual life issues and another for real-life

issues. This book detailed how the Word of God and spiritual life speak to the process in

which people grow out of their problems. The overarching goal of the research presented

in this book is to get people back into a proper relationship with God. However, in

addition to the primary goal of the book are the ideals of reconciling people to each other

and reconciling people to the ways of holiness and pure living. Spiritual growth is not

only coming back into a relationship with God and each other, not just about pursuing a

pure life; it is also about coming back to the life that God created people to live, a life of

deep relationship, fulfilling work, celebration, and a life that now provides satisfaction

and solves problems. 21




20 Everett L. Worthington Jr., Hope-Focused Marriage Counseling: A Guide to Brief Therapy

(Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2005).


Henry Cloud, and John Townsend, How People Grow: What the Bible Reveals About Personal

Growth (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing, 2004).








How to Solve the People Puzzle by Dr. Mels Carbonell

How to Solve the People Puzzle: Understanding Personality Patterns presented

the value of profiling and assessing the personality patterns of people according to the

DISC model of human behavior. The DISC model of human behavior was first

introduced by William Marston in 1928 and segregated basic human behavior into four

quadrants, which often explained why people do what they do. In 1977, Dr. John Geier,

chairman of the Human Behavior Science Department at the University of Minnesota,

designed the first paper assessment which identified a person’s DISC personality type

using a business and personal perspective. After studying under Dr. Geier and Dr. Frank

Wichern, staff psychologist at Dallas Theological Seminary, Dr. Carbonell designed his

unique combination of personality and faith-based profiles. The comprehension of

various human behavior patterns and combinations of human behavior shapes within the

DISC model provided profiling rationale for the actions of people within the

circumference of relational environments. According to Dr. Carbonell, insight from this

information can make the difference between right and wrong responses, and the best or

worst behavior in any situation. In his book, Dr. Carbonell profiled various combinations

of personality patterns through the grid of two different but identical graphs. “Graph

One,” was designed to describe specific personality types from a public perspective; and,

“Graph Two” discussed particular personality types when individuals were either in their

home environments or in settings among friends and relatives. Dr. Carbonell concluded

that when individuals were either in public or private environments, they tended to have

different relational expectations. The purpose of Dr. Carbonell’s book was to assist the

reader in developing controlled responses in one’s behavior when dealing with other







people. Dr. Carbonell concluded, “We cannot control what others say and do, but we can

affect their responses by how we say and do things.” Therefore, since behavior is the

greatest cause for our happiness and hurts, it only stands to reason that one focus on

improving one’s relationships. 22



Saving Your Marriage Before it Starts by Les and Leslie Parrott

The Parrott’s book Saving Your Marriage Before it Starts was an important

source in constructing the critical task of developing a strategic approach to counseling

couples outlined in chapter three of this project. According to the authors, every couple

marrying today is at risk. More than two-hundred thousand new marriages each year end

prior to the second anniversary. The truth is most engaged couples prepare more for their

wedding day than they do for their marriage. What would the impact be if the same

amount of time, money, and energy spent on the ceremony was invested in the marriage?

Because of significant marriage research, more is known today about building a

successful marriage than ever before. For instance, it has been proven that happily

married couples have healthy expectations of marriage, realistic concepts of love,

positive attitudes and outlooks toward life, the ability to communicate their feelings, an

understanding and acceptance of their gender differences, the ability to make decisions

and settle arguments, and a common spiritual foundation and goal. The previous list

forms the basis of the seven questions posed by the authors in this work. This book was

based on the notion that marriage does not have to be a gamble. Most couples tend to

mistakenly blame the wrong things for breakups and marital dissatisfaction; therefore, the


22 Mels Carbonell, How to Solve the People Puzzle: Understanding Personality Patterns (Blue

Ridge, GA: Uniquely You Resources, 2008), 303.








Parrott’s directed their book toward the genuine causes of marital conflict. The authors

discovered that learning to live “happily ever after” is “less a mystery than the mastery of

certain skills.” The book was well-rounded and appropriate for those people who are

single or dating, in committed relationships, contemplating marriage, or already

established in marriage. 23



Solution-Focused Pastoral Counseling by Charles Allen Kollar

Solution-Focused Pastoral Counseling was influential to this author as Kollar

presented the significance of developing a positive, affirmative, and effective short-term

counseling model. In recent years, many pastoral counselors have embraced several

forms of brief counseling therapies; however, Solution-Focused Pastoral Counseling is a

specific form of brief therapy that is motivated by a clear and firm agenda with which

solution-focused pastoral counselors move quickly in the very first session of counseling,

directing the counselee’s focus onto resolutions rather than allowing continued focus on

problems. One of the unique features of Kollar’s model is that it avoids the difficulty of

permitting a problem to become an identifying feature of someone’s personality, i.e. “He

is an alcoholic” instead of “He struggles with alcoholism.”


The Counsel of Heaven and Earth by Ian Jones

Ian Jones’s book, The Counsel of Heaven and Earth, also provided valuable

insight into incorporating the components of integrating biblical counseling with

psychotherapy, and connecting spiritual growth to psychological catharsis. According to

Jones, biblically based counselors need a clear understanding of the question and


23 Les Parrott and L. Parrott, Saving Your Marriage Before It Starts (Grand Rapids, MI:

Zondervan, 1995).







commitment to the call of God upon their lives. In this book, the author stressed that a

full and complete understanding of human nature and our world, necessary for an

effective biblical counseling ministry, cannot be understood outside the revelation of

God. Comparatively, all secular counseling theories have a fundamental flaw. The

common denominator of secular counseling is that the individual and society is at the

center of all change. Secular counseling has a tendency to focus on the horizontal

dimension of relationships but ignores the divine or vertical aspect. As Jones stated,

“The motivation for change and the behavioral drives originate somewhere on a

continuum between individual freedom to choose and social or biological pressure to

conform.” 24

Therefore, the implication attached to the secular theories derived from this

notion are that counseling must address the self by addressing personal awareness or by

reprogramming the cognitive or behavioral dimensions; or, it must reorder the social and

biological forces that shape a person’s world. In contrast, Jones drew from the example

of God’s efforts in Genesis to reconcile and restore Adam and Eve and proposed three

dimensions that must be addressed in Christian counseling – one’s location in

relationship to self, to others, and to God. Biblical Christian counselors are to recognize

the importance of finding a counselee’s spiritual, psychological, and social location.

Driven by Christ’s example and compelled to compassion by the Great Commandment,

Ian Jones encouraged biblical counselors to address the issue of location and lostness, and

to develop a process to help a person who has wandered off track find the path home. In

this book, Jones placed a high value on the spiritual condition of the counselor.


24 Ian F. Jones, The Counsel of Heaven and Earth: Foundations for Biblical Christian Counseling (Nashville, TN: B &H Publishing Group, 2006), 24.








The Life You’ve Always Wanted by John Ortberg

John Ortberg’s, The Life You’ve Always Wanted, was a valuable resource for

establishing the learning objectives in chapter two of this thesis project. Ortberg’s book

provided a practical guide for accomplishing the goal of genuine spiritual transformation.

The book described the means for authentic Christianity through the application of ten

specific spiritual disciplines. In many ways, the book reflected Dallas Willard’s classic

work on discipleship, The Spirit of the Disciplines: Understanding How God Changes

Lives; however, in this writer’s opinion, Ortberg’s sensible and matter-of-fact approach

to the topic brought forward a contemporary relevance for the purposes of this project.

Ortberg perceived the sad cry of the human race to be an overwhelming contentment with

the status quo, the tendency to say, “I am what I am.” Ortberg pointed out, one was

originally called to be the person that God had in mind when originally designed by the

Heavenly Father; therefore, there existed a struggle between disappointment and hope

that could only be satisfied through some sort of process of life transformation. Ortberg

concluded the desire for transformation lies deep in every human heart, which is why

people entered therapy, joined health clubs, assimilated into recovery groups, read self-

help books, attended motivational seminars, and made New Year’s resolutions.

According to the author, the possibility of transformation provides the essence of hope.

Ortberg constructed his book upon the premise that Jesus brought a message that was

significantly more than simply conforming to a religious subculture; rather, He brought a

message that spoke to the deepest longings of the human heart to be transformed into

“new creatures.” Ortberg articulated that the goal for every Christian life is to be







conformed and molded into the exact image of Christ. 25



The Skilled Helper by Gerard Egan

Gerard Eagan’s book, The Skilled Helper: A Problem Management Approach to

Helping provided the framework for the three learning objectives that are part of the first

core competency in this thesis project. Egan is Emeritus Professor of Psychology and

Organizational Studies at Loyola University of Chicago and is a leading expert in the

areas of communication, counseling, business and organization effectiveness,

management development, leadership, the management of innovation and change, and

organization politics and culture. Eagan’s book, The Skilled Helper, outlines what

counselors can do to assist clients as they develop an action plan leading to valued

outcomes while being guided by a counselor through three progressive stages of

assistance. This classic book provides a working model that helps one know what to do

during client interactions, and proved to be extremely beneficial to this thesis project. 26



Other Influential Books

In the past forty years, a counseling revolution occurred. Evangelicals are now

impactful in the field of counseling as they are presently writing about counseling

procedures and counselor education. They have written best sellers and have founded

thriving graduate programs and counseling centers. However, two distinct schools of

thought emerged in the counseling revolution. One group developed in the footsteps of

Dr. Clyde Narramore and was influenced along the lines of Fuller Seminary’s Graduate

25 John Ortberg, The Life You’ve Always Wanted, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002).

26 Gerard Egan, The Skilled Helper, 5

th ed. (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company,








School of Psychology. The core philosophy of this counseling approach is that wise

counseling requires evangelical faith be carefully integrated with the theories, therapeutic

methods, and professional roles of modern psychology. 27

The other group developed in

the footsteps of Jay Adams and along the lines of the Christian Counseling and

Educational Foundation’s pastoral training at Westminster Seminary. This school of

thought proposes that wise counseling recognizes biblical mandates and the development

of a comprehensive pastoral theology that is distinct from prevailing cultural paradigms. 28


In order to approach this thesis project with a well-rounded philosophy of pastoral

counseling from both points of view, this author found the following classic textbooks

books very helpful:


Basic Types of Pastoral Counseling by Howard Clinebell, Abingdon Press, 1984

Care for the Soul, edited by Mark McMinn and Timothy Phillips, Inter Varsity

Press, 2001


Competent to Counsel by Jay Adams, Zondervan, 1986

Introduction to Biblical Counseling by John MacArthur, W Publishing Group,



The Psychology of Counseling by Clyde Narramore, Zondervan, 1960




27 Mark McMinn and Timothy Phillips, Care for the Soul (Downers Grove, ILL: Inter Varsity

Press, 2001), 25.



Ibid., 25.



















A significant portion of core competency number one was inspired by and crafted

from material presented by Dr. Ron Hawkins and Dr. Dwight Rice in the course, The

Growth and Development of the Contemporary Ministry, offered as part of the Doctor of

Ministry Program at Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA. During this course, the Doctor

of Ministry students, including this writer, were required to personally utilize a number of

assessment tools and to practice a number of defined methods of introspection for the

purpose of developing keen self- awareness in order to enhance competency in the area of

pastoral care and counseling. As a result of this author’s personal experience with the

components presented as “Core Competency One, Knowing Yourself to Guide People,”

information from this author’s assessments and evaluations has been contributed to

support the presentation of significant core competency number one.

Over fifty years ago, the esteemed pioneer of pastoral counseling, Clyde

Narramore, wrote these still relevant words,













People sometimes ask, “What is the most important thing in counseling?” The

answer is, “The Counselor.” Naturally the counselor’s techniques are very

important. He should also have an understanding of human behavior and

knowledge of bibliography as well as sources of referral at his command. But the

most important element in counseling is the counselor himself. Counseling is, in

a sense, a projection of the counselor. You have heard the comment, “We rub off

on people.” This is especially true in counseling. The counselee subtly learns to

consider problems in the same way as does the counselor. As time is spent

together, the counselee is greatly influenced.” 1


The previous quotation reflects the significance of the pastoral counselor’s personal

impact on the counselee in the arena of counseling. Therefore, one must have a keen

perspective of self and one must comprehend the strengths and weaknesses of one’s

temperament in order to assist and lead clients through the process of counseling. No one

should be better qualified to counsel than one called to pastoral ministry. The minister

has accurate insight into human nature and knows that true wisdom and understanding

emanates from God. The pastor personally understands that it is through God’s Word

that the answers to life’s problems are found. Also, one who shepherds realizes the

significance of the powerful resource of prayer. To be a good counselor, the minister

must be the right kind of person consistently growing in the grace and knowledge of

one’s Lord and Savior, constantly developing an attractive personality that radiates Jesus

Christ. The purpose of this core competency is to provide the pastoral counselor a self-

evaluation instrument that can be initially implemented and regularly tweaked throughout

one’s counseling ministry because personal spiritual growth is such a critical component

of being competent to counsel.

It has often been said that one cannot successfully lead someone where one has

not already gone, or at least has been willing to go. Therefore, it is befitting for the

pastoral counselor to work on changing and improving one’s self before trying to

1 Clyde Narramore, The Psychology of Counseling (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1960), 18.







improve others. That is why John Maxwell proposed, “As a leader, the first person I

need to lead is me. The first person I should try to change is me. My standards of

excellence should be higher for myself than those I set for others. To remain a credible

leader, I must always work first, hardest, and longest on changing myself. This is neither

easy nor natural, but it is essential. 2 Christian Psychologist Eric Scalise said, “Only a

leader who has followed well knows how to lead others well… Connecting with clients

becomes possible because one has walked in their shoes.” 3 Competent leadership

through counseling requires an understanding of the world in which clients live. Echoing

this line of thinking, Dr. Melvin C. Blanchette, an expert in the field of pastoral

psychology, stated,

There is indeed a commonality among those who share the human condition.

Growth begins only when one accepts his or her unique starting point and that the

greatest struggle in life is not with outside forces but with inside feelings which

must be brought to awareness, understood, and hopefully worked through to

insight and acceptance; once we have come to such a point in our personal lives,

our professional activities as psychologists, pastoral counselors, social workers, or

mental health professionals will certainly afford us greater happiness, and better

care to our clients. 4


Therefore, the pastor who is competent to lead others through counseling must be

emotionally, physically, and spiritually centered by securely affirming both inwardly and

outwardly one’s personal identity.

Pastoral counselors, by virtue of their position in ministry, are automatically

thrust into the position of leadership and influence. Ministers lead church worshipers

2 John C. Maxwell, The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2007),


3 Eric Scalise, “Leadership Gold – Nuggets Mined From John Maxwell,” Christian Counseling

Today, 17, no. 4 (2011): 41-43.

4 Melvin C. Blanchette, “Personal and Professional Growth Through Psychological Testing,” in

Pastoral Counseling 2 nd

ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1991), 113.








corporately, they lead church staffs administratively, they lead congregations spiritually,

and they lead parishioners exemplarily. Leadership at its most basic level is about

influence; and, leading parishioners within the relational context of pastoral counseling is

no exception to this rule. Because people do what people see, more often than not, the

pastoral counselor will be trusted to authenticate client goals on the basis of personal

practice and experience. As Norman Vincent Peale once said, “Nothing is more

confusing than people who give good advice but set a bad example.” 5 When people trust

each other, incredible results are accomplished; however, when a lack of trust exists, a

relationship becomes dysfunctional. Trust is a function of two characteristics; one is

competence and the other is character. The pastoral caregiver must have the requisite

abilities to be effective in the practice of pastoral help; but, ultimately it is about

character. When ministers who counsel are authentic, humble, courageous, and

effectively self-managed, people will listen.



The Importance of Self-Awareness

Competencies are identified behaviors, knowledge, skills, and abilities that

directly and positively impact the success of pastoral counselors. This author proposes

that four significant core competencies are basic to the endeavor of appropriating credible

pastoral care within the forum of pastoral counseling. The first of these significant core

counseling competencies deals with the value of self-awareness as it relates to one’s skill

to properly evaluate and assess the condition and needs of clients.

5 Norman Vincent Peale, quoted in The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership by John Maxwell

(Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2007), 161.







Self-awareness benefits the pastoral counselor in numerous ways. To name just a

few: It unlocks one’s understanding to the role of emotion in healthy and unhealthy

approaches to counseling. It opens the door to the development of personal skills

required for maintaining a healthy relational lifestyle. It promotes the discussion of one’s

inner private world for the development of successful counseling strategies. Self-

awareness identifies the strengths and weaknesses that one brings personally to the

counseling context; and, it assists one in understanding how one’s present counseling

context fits with one’s relational style. 6 Therefore, this writer proposes, within the

context of core competency number one, three specific learning objectives, for the

purpose of promoting self-awareness. The first learning objective directs the pastoral

counselor toward unfolding one’s current life story by asking the pastoral counselor to

develop a personal profile, and to then address the following questions, “who am I right

now,” “how did I get here,” “where am I now,” followed by the composition of an overall

conclusive summary. The second learning objective focuses on unfolding life as one

wishes it to be. The ideal story considers areas in the life of the pastor that need

improvement or change. The third learning objective unfolds a plan for change, which

involves creating master goals that include the analysis of present realities, the shaping of

preferences, structuring for change, and setting up support and accountability. These

learning objectives were greatly influenced by “the skilled helper model” originally

presented by Gerard Eagan in his textbook, The Skilled Helper. 7 Eagan’s “helping

model,” the centerpiece of his book, moves clients through three stages: one’s current

6 Carl Rogers and Barry Stevens, Person to Person: The Problem of Being Human, a New Trend

in Psychology (Lafayette, CA: Real People Press, 1967), 85-101.

7 Gerard Egan, The Skilled Helper, 5

th ed. (Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company,

1994), 22-24.







scenario, one’s preferred scenario, and one’s strategy for achieving the preferred

scenario. Self-awareness can, and does, enable personal and professional growth in the

life and ministry of the pastoral counselor that can be translated into effective counseling

techniques. It is important for the pastoral counselor to be aware of one’s own needs,

wounds, brokenness, and vulnerability as the unique struggle of another person is

discovered through assessment and evaluation.

Before beginning the three learning objectives of this core competency, the

pastoral counselor must consider two prerequisites. First, the pastoral counselor should

receive course instruction in the importance of implementing assessment tools in one’s

counseling context as well as training in administering and analyzing assessments of a

variety of instruments available to the field of Christian counseling. Second, the

following suggested reading list ought to be completed before commencing to learning

objective one:

Connecting: Healing for Ourselves and Our Relationships by Larry Crabb 8


A Pastor’s Guide to Interpersonal Communication by Blake Neff 9


The Life You’ve Always Wanted by John Ortberg 10



Eat This Book: A Conversation in the Art of Spiritual Reading by Eugene

Peterson 11



8 Larry Crabb, Connecting: Healing for Ourselves and Our Relationships (Nashville, TN: Thomas

Nelson Publishers, 2004).

9 B. J. Neff, A Pastor’s Guide to Interpersonal Communication (New York, NY: The Hayworth

Pastoral Press, 2006).


John Ortberg, The Life You’ve Always Wanted (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002).


Eugene Peterson, Eat This Book: A Conversation in the Art of Spiritual Reading (Grand Rapids,

MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2006).








Learning Objective One: Unfolding Your Life as You Know It


Part A: The Personal Profile


The Method

The overall method for accomplishing the learning objectives associated with core

competency number one is journaling; therefore, the pastoral counselor must construct a

written document reflecting one’s personal profile within the present life story. The

initial component of unfolding one’s current life, the personal profile, should include four

elements. First, the profile should reflect on the pastoral counselor’s marriage and family

status. Second, it ought to contain the minister’s present ministry context. Third, it must

explain what drives the minister. Finally, it is necessary for the profile to consider the

overarching goal in the life of the pastoral counselor. The length of the personal profile

should be approximately four-hundred words and not exceed five-hundred words. As

previously stated in the introduction to core competency number one and because this

part of the thesis project deals with self-awareness, this author has provided personal

samples to demonstrate the three learning objectives.


Sample: This Writer’s “Personal Profile”

It is the heartfelt desire of this writer to daily pursue the personal objective of

being a committed follower of Jesus Christ. This author has been married to Terri

Younce, his high school sweetheart, for thirty-seven years. Terri is the Administrative

Coordinator for the Department of Education and Behavioral Studies at Palm Beach

Atlantic University in West Palm Beach, Florida where this author and his wife have

lived for the past thirteen years. This writer and his wife have three adult children, Tara,







Craig (Butch), and Sara. Tara is married to Jeremiah Cody Smith; and, they have one

child, Olivia Grace Janelle. Tara is an adjunct Professor of Education and Arts and

Sciences at Palm Beach Atlantic University; and, Cody is a licensed mental health

therapist who supervises child services counselors for the organization Boys and Girls

Town of America. Butch is a Ph.D. in Biomedical Sciences who is a medical research

for Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute; Butch also is an adjunct Professor of

Biology at Valencia State College. He is married to Amy, an exceptional student

education teacher in the Orlando, Florida public school system. Sara is married to Adam

Boyd. Sara is a kindergarten five schoolteacher; she is also an enrichment teacher of

dance and theatre at a prestigious private school. Sara has studied with Howard Gardener

at Harvard University. She is also a private dance instructor and gives music lessons as

well. Adam is retail manager and is completing his master’s degree at Southern

Seminary. This writer is the Pastor of Palms West Community Church in West Palm

Beach, Florida where this writer’s family, with the exception of Butch and Amy, are a

vital part of his church ministry.

The information presented above is an important part of this author’s present story

because it is the culmination of what has driven this author’s life for the past thirty-eight

years. This writer’s life priorities respectively revolve around this writer’s love and

commitment for God, his love and commitment for his wife, his love and commitment for

his family, and his love and commitment for ministry; and, this writer believes that those

priorities are consistent with his overarching goal in life, which is to be a fully-devoted

follower of Jesus Christ. This author’s overarching goal of being a fully-devoted







follower of Christ reflects his love and obedience to his Heavenly Father, and provides an

example to others and his family of what it means to imitate Christ.


Part B: Who Am I Now?


The Method

The second element of unfolding one’s current story requires the pastoral

counselor to use self-assessment tools in order to discover the present reality about self.

At least three personality/temperament assessment instruments should be taken and the

results, as they influence the pastoral counselor’s present context, are to be recorded in a

journal. Preferably, the pastoral counselor should use the assessment tools that will

normally be implemented within the pastor’s own counseling context. After completing,

scoring, and analyzing the assessment instruments, the pastoral counselor uses

information gleaned from the evaluation tools to probe the issue of, “Who am I right

now?” At this point, the pastoral counselor constructs a written self-analysis of his

present story containing the following elements: a formal temperament diagnosis, the

benefits of one’s temperament, the limitations of one’s temperament, how one’s

temperament connects to ministry, and an overall summary of one’s temperament. This

writer found this part of the exercise to be immensely valuable in discovering one’s real-

self as opposed to one’s perception of self. Because this is the key research segment of

learning objective number one, around fifteen hundred words would be expected. For the

purpose of demonstrating this portion of learning objective one, this author personally

employed three evaluation instruments. They were the MBTI Myers-Briggs Type

Indicator instrument, the ACL Adjective Check List assessment tool, and the DISC







Personality Types and Profiles mechanism. This writer endorses five assessment tools to

choose from as part of the first learning objective connected to core competency number



The Three Hundred Sixty Degree Feedback Interview:

This assessment permits one to gain insight from the perspective of those who are

in one’s sphere of influence. This assessment is typically a human resource tool but is

quite effective and eye-opening as a self-assessment tool. It takes into consideration how

one actually interacts with others. Its purpose is to provide a means to monitor one’s

personal and professional growth. For the purpose of this learning objective, it requires

asking at least three colleagues or friends the following questions. The answers do not

have to be long, just concise and legible.

 How does _____ typically interact with other people? Can you think of a

recent example?

 Have you ever been in a situation where you saw _____ take on new tasks or

roles? Describe this situation and what he or she did?

 What has been a particularly demanding goal for _____ to achieve?

 When you observe _______, which of the following pictures come to mind, a

lion, an otter, a beaver, or a golden retriever? (The following web site will

explain how these animals describe personality patterns: personality-types-lion-beaver-









Interpersonal Communication Skills Test (Abridged):

Communicating with others is an essential skill in counseling. When it comes to

communication, what one says and what one does not say are equally important. Being a

good listener is quite crucial. Robert Greenleaf once said, “Many attempts to

communicate are nullified by saying too much.” The Interpersonal Communication

Skills Test – Abridged is a simple online assessment containing ten questions and takes

approximately five minutes to complete. This assessment tool is a communication skills

index that rates one’s ability to get one’s point across in a clear, concise way as well as

listen to others and understand where they are coming from. After finishing the test, one

receives a brief personalized interpretation of one’s score that includes a graph and

information on the test topic. 12



The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI):

Based on one’s individual responses, the MBTI instrument produces results to

identify which of sixteen different “personality types” best describe a person. One’s

personality type represents one’s preferences in four separate categories, with each

category composed of two opposite poles. The four categories describe key areas that

combine to form the basis of a person’s personality as follows:

Where you focus your attention — Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I)

The way you take in information — Sensing (S) or Intuition (N)

The way you make decisions — Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)

How you deal with the outer world — Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)


Discovery Fit and Health, “Interpersonal Communication Skills Test – Abridged,” (accessed August 30, 2011).








One’s MBTI type is indicated by the four letters representing one’s preferences. One’s

responses to the MBTI assessment not only indicate preferences, they also indicate the

relative clarity of preferences; that is, how clear one is in expressing one’s preference for

a particular pole over its opposite. This is known as the preference clarity index, or pci.

Most people find that the MBTI results describe them quite well. 13

The MBTI instrument

is one of the most widely used assessment tools in the world.


Uniquely You: DISC Short-Professional Profiler:


The Uniquely You DISC Personality Profiles were developed by Dr. Mels

Carbonell in 1987. Dr. Carbonell was first introduced to the DISC Personality Profile

while attending Dallas Theological Seminary. Because of his burden to help churches

improve effectiveness, plus increase church growth and health, Dr. Carbonell created the

first of its kind combination Spiritual Gifts and DISC Personality Profiles. Dr. Carbonell

purposely does not refer to personality profiles as personality tests because people pass or

fail a test; rather, these DISC profiles are simple personality assessments, and no one

fails. The DISC Model of Human Behavior describes the four basic temperament types:

(Choleric) D-type, (Sanguine) I-type, (Phlegmatic) S-type, and (Melancholy) C-type.

Everyone is a blend of DISC behavior. No normal person has a bad personality; it is

what one does with one’s DISC personality that may be good or bad. Identifying one’s

DISC personality blend is vital to effective leadership and relationships. 14



Peter B. Myers and Katharine D. Myers, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Profile Sample, 261001.pdf – Adobe Reader (accessed August 30, 2011).


“Uniquely You Solving the People Puzzle,” under -What is Uniquely You? (accessed September 1, 2011).








The Adjective Check List (ACL):

The Adjective Checklist (ACL) consists of three-hundred adjectives and

adjectival phrases commonly used to describe a person’s attributes. It may be

administered to an individual to elicit a self-evaluation or a characterization of someone

else; or it may be used by observers in a clinic, counseling center, research laboratory, or

in marketing research as a convenient, standardized method for recording and generating

meaning of personal attributes of clients, research subjects, products, or even cultures.

The ACL is distinctive in that the number of items checked is unspecified, so that

adjectives chosen are ones that are relevant for the person being evaluated. The variation

in selections is itself viewed as a personality variable. In addition to a score on the

number of items checked, there are twenty-three other scales, all of which the standard

scores are adjusted according to the items that are endorsed; this adjustment removes the

influence of acquiescence from the twenty-three measures. Administration time varies

from ten to fifteen minutes. 15


Sample: This Writer’s “Who Am I Now?”


Diagnostic results of this writer’s temperament:

The first diagnostic tool employed by this author was the Myers-Briggs Type

Indicator, referred to as the MBTI diagnostic tool. According to the MBTI diagnostic

tool, this writer is very clearly an “ENFP.” The “E20” indicator denotes this writer’s

extroverted desire to focus on the outer world of people and activity. That is to say, this

author directs energy and attention outward and receives energy from interacting with


“The Adjective Check List,” Mind Garden,

(accessed September 1, 2011).







people and from taking action. The “N26” marker signifies that this author is a person

that prefers intuition, that enjoys taking in information based on the big picture, and that

focuses on the relationships and connections between facts. Grasping patterns and seeing

new possibilities is what captures this writer’s attentiveness. The “F21” pointer signifies

this writer prefers to use decision making in areas of importance. There is a tendency for

this writer to place himself within situations to identify with others so that he can make

decisions based on their values about honoring people. What energizes this author is

appreciating and supporting others as he looks for qualities to praise. The goal of this

author is to create harmony and treat each person as a unique individual. The “P21”

indicator implies that this author prefers to use the perceiving process in the outer world,

and that he likes to live in a flexible spontaneous way, seeking to experience and

understand life rather than to control it. Details and final decisions seem confining to this

writer, as he prefers to stay open to new information and last-minute options. The MBTI

assessment tool indicates that this writer’s resourcefulness in adapting to the demands of

the moment is what energizes him. The high scores (see subscript numbers) indicate that

the “ENFP” preferences were very clear. 16


The second diagnostic tool that this author used to evaluate “who I am right now”

was the Uniquely You Professional/Leader Profile diagnostic tool, which this author took

in an online format. This diagnostic tool employed the DISC four temperament model of

behavior as a basic format of evaluation. Uniquely You Resources calculated the

assessments of the professional/leader profile then presented them to this writer along

with determinative explanations as a client of the organization. According to the DISC


The Myers and Briggs Foundation, MBTI Basics,

personality-type/mbti-basics/ (accessed December 6, 2011).








assessment, this writer is an S24/I21/C19. The subscript numbers indicate this author’s

level within the categories on a numerical scale of one to thirty with fifteen being the

median normal. The “S” indicates that this author is passive and is a people oriented. It

points out that this writer is steady, stable, shy, security-oriented, servant-based,

submissive and a specialist. The “I” category specifies that this author is active and

people oriented as well. This category identifies this author’s temperament as inspiring,

influencing, inducing, impressing, interactive, and interested in people. The “C” category

shows that this writer also has a tendency toward being passive and task-oriented. This

means that part of this writer’s temperament is cautious, competent, calculating,

compliant, careful, and contemplative. 17


The third diagnostic that this author used to evaluate “who I am right now” was

the Adjective Checklist commonly referred to as the ACL diagnostic tool. As previously

mentioned, the ACL assessment consists of three-hundred adjectives and adjectival

phrases commonly used to describe a person’s attributes. The ACL diagnostic tool

correlates with twenty-four assessment scales. The administering of this diagnostic

assessment occurred during the intensive class at Liberty University. The testing

organization accounted for the scientific nature of the scoring that revealed the following

conclusions. This author perceives himself to be socially acceptable. In the area of

achievement, this author strives to be outstanding in pursuits of socially recognized

significance, and exhibits the trait of endurance with a willingness to persist in any task

undertaken. This writer highly regards neatness, planning, and organization. This writer

engages in attempts to understand his own behavior as well as the behavior of others.


“Uniquely You Solving the People Puzzle,” under Professional – Leadership Online Profile, (accessed

December 6, 2011).







The assessment also found this writer to be nurturing, involved in behaviors that

provide material or emotional benefits to others along with the tendency to seek and

maintain numerous personal friendships. This author also displays the propensity to act

independently of others, or of social values and expectations, as well as valuing the

novelty of experience and avoidance of routine. This writer scored above average in the

following “topical scales,” assessing a diverse set of attributes, potentialities, and role


 Counseling Readiness – The willingness to accept counseling or professional

advice in regard to personal problems, psychological difficulties, and the like

 Self-control – The extent to which self-control is imposed and valued

 Self-confidence – Self-reliance, confidence, poise, and self-assurance

 Personal Adjustment – The ability to cope with situational and interpersonal

demands, and a feeling of efficacy

 Ideal Self – Strong sense of personal worth or harmony between what one is

and what one wants to be

 Creative Personality – The desire to do and think differently from the norm,

and a talent for originality

The ACL assessment disclosed that in the area of ego this writer would be described as a

nurturing adult, which indicates one displays attitudes of support, stability, and

acceptance associated with the concept of a “nurturing parent,” and attitudes of

independence, objectivity, and industriousness associated with the concept of a “mature

adult.” 18



“The Adjective Check List.”







Gerard Eagan asserted in The Skilled Helper, that the goal of reviewing one’s

current story was to identify, explore, and clarify one’s strengths and weaknesses as well

as one’s problem situations and unused opportunities. 19

Therefore, summarizing the

overall results from the three previous assessments, this author is warmly enthusiastic and

imaginative, and sees life as full of possibilities. This author makes connections between

events and information very quickly, and confidently proceeds based on the patterns that

this author sees. This author wants a lot of information from others and readily gives

appreciation and support. This author is spontaneous and flexible, often relying on this

author’s ability to improvise and on this author’s verbal fluency.

Additionally, this writer tends to be more passive than active, and has strong

people skills. This writer has both the ability to be outgoing and reserved. This writer

can be the life of the party or a spectator. This writer generally likes to influence and

interact with people, but can also withdraw and concentrate on specific projects. People

tend to like this writer’s friendliness, enthusiasm, and cordiality. There are times this

author may rub people the wrong way with a critical and fault-finding attitude.

Generally, this author is not pushy or controlling unless people try to get this author to do

things that go against this author’s plans or beliefs. This author does not always have to

be in charge, and prefers peace and harmony as well as organized environments. People

often like this author’s multifaceted flexibility, but sometimes would like this author to be

more decisive and direct.

Further, this writer prefers conventional values and lifestyles, seeking security in

the tried and true. This writer dislikes decision-making, and has a tendency toward

avoiding conflict. Interpersonally this writer is forbearing and sometimes conciliatory,


Eagan, The Skilled Helper, 22-23.







conscientious, unassuming, and patient deferring to others without loss of self-respect.

This author generally works hard to achieve the attainment of consensual goals, and is a

steadying influence on others. This author is likely to seek power, success, and tangible

accomplishments in a world free of subjective concern and worry. This is how “I am

fearfully and wonderfully made” (Psalm 139:14).


Benefits of this writer’s temperament:

The significant benefits of this author’s temperament are that this author is

relational and cerebral. In other words, this author is good at caring, thinking, and

problem solving. This author tends to show strengths through friendliness and kindness.

This author is not concerned about being in charge or being the boss, and is keenly

perceptive about people. This author experiences a wide range of feelings and emotions,

which show this author to be relationally authentic. This author has exceptional insights

into the possibilities of others and eagerly gives appreciation and support. This author

feels confident in moving ahead on insights; and, this author’s enthusiasm generally

inspires people to come along because this author is warm, friendly, caring, cooperative,

and supportive.

Because of this writer’s temperament, life is viewed as a creative adventure full of

possibilities. This writer is discerning about the present and the future and enjoys

thinking in depth rather than doing shallow research. This writer is curious, creative,

imaginative, energetic, enthusiastic, and spontaneous. This writer tends to show

strengths through the ability to solve difficult problems. This writer is good at

understanding how people and groups work, and is persuasive and compelling in

pursuing what is important to others.







Another benefit of this author’s temperament is confidence with people skills;

therefore, this author can motivate people to success. This author has the ability to

impress a crowd with speech, demeanor, and actions. This author can also make

individuals feel comfortable and connected. This can be outgoing and reserved, as well

as both active and passive. People usually like this author, especially when thoughts and

observations are shared about a task or a problem. As long as this author stays positive,

people listen to him.


Limitations of this writer’s temperament:

Even though the benefits connected to this writer’s temperament are significant,

there are a number of weaknesses as well. This writer has a tendency to back off from

being commanding or demanding. Unless there is a question about accuracy, this writer

is not dominant or challenging. This writer is occasionally intimidated by others to do

things that this writer does not really want to do. This writer can be stubborn if asked to

do the wrong things, but will back down if what others want from this writer is not very


This author’s temperament experiences a wide range of feelings and emotions.

Often, this author needs affirmation from others. Routine, schedules, and structure drive

this author crazy. This author can turn people off with opinions. Sometimes, this author

becomes negative or critical. This author does not have to be in charge, but prefers that

leaders know where they are going and how to get there without wasting a lot of time,

expense, and energy. This author needs to improve in the area of indecisiveness and the

need to please people.








Ministry and this writer’s temperament:

There are two key areas of ministry in which this writer’s temperament plays a

critical part. The first area is how this writer relates as a leader. This writer’s leadership

style is varied and this writer’s temperament style is more personable than most other

types. This writer loves inspiring crowds and supporting individuals while mapping the

future. This writer is not usually very directing or demanding, however, can assume a

strong and dominant role when no other leader is present. Being pushy or bossy is not

this writer’s cup of tea. This writer likes creating enthusiasm through communication

skills. This writer prefers to plan and prepare to ensure a job well done.

The second area that this author’s temperament plays a critical part is in the way

this author handles conflict management. This author does well at resolving and avoiding

conflicts because of this author’s people skills. This author excels at controlling personal

thoughts and opinions unless someone demonstrates continued incompetence. This

author has a tendency to overlook the wrongdoing of close friends because of a desire for

popularity. This author is generally an astute observer and balances relationships with

dedication to the truth and open communication.


Overall summary of this writer’s temperament:

Overall, this writer’s temperament analysis reveals good leadership skills because

of this writer’s ability to relate well to most people. This writer is a good follower with

the aptitude to listen carefully and follow instructions. This writer tends to be cheerful,

submissive, and strives for perfection. This writer works hard at excellence and strives to

ensure that everyone is moving together to better accomplish the task. This writer is

usually positive, but sometimes personally struggles with moodiness and pessimism.







Part C: “How Did I Get Here?”


The Method

This part of the learning objective continues the process of personal reflection and

journaling. As the pastoral counselor constructs this portion of the personal journal, two

areas of emphasis are to be ruminated. First, the role of one’s temperament in connection

to one’s pre-conversion life experience; and second, the part one’s temperament played in

association with one’s spiritual conversion and transformation. This part of the learning

objective exposes lingering issues that may have been brought forward from pre-

conversion life that still influence one’s present life story, and scrutinize one’s present

temperament in light of the cohesion of spiritual resources that result as part of the

process of transformation. This section of learning objective one should not exceed one-

thousand words.


Sample: This Writer’s “How Did I Get Here?”


Pre-Conversion Life and Temperament:

Prior to conversion, this author gave in to the weaknesses of this author’s

temperament. In this author’s pre-conversion life, the foremost desire was to excel in

front of people and to inspire them. The “DISC” profile revealed that people viewed this

author as being inspirational and influential with crowds as well as individuals. This

author’s temperament profile presented this author’s ability to verbalize exceptionally,

and the aptitude to display warmth on an individual basis. People appreciated this

author’s relational influence. All of this was very important and brought this author great

self-satisfaction. Ministry was the platform chosen by this author to naturally engage the







benefits of this temperament, even though this author was not yet a true follower of

Christ. This writer employed people skills and the knack to relate in order to convince

and persuade others to engage in what was perceived to be true religious activities. In the

course of things, this writer naively neglected challenging the spiritual integrity of

authority figures. Those who were guiding this writer were theologically inerrant. As a

result of this writer’s temperament, this writer rarely spoke out against those authority

figures practicing bad theology because of their relational proximity. Because of this

writer’s non-confrontational temperament, truth from colleagues and peers was accepted

verbatim. This author struggled with worry, and on many occasions, felt torn about what

to do or to not do. This author covered inward melancholy by moving from one

enthusiastic event to another. When there was a lull in enthusiasm, true to this author’s

personality, this author became contemplative and absorbed by the problems of life.

Because this caused frustration, this author tended to use caustic and critical words with

those whom were relationally the closest. Frequently, this author let emotions take

control, verbally expressing those sentiments in a hurtful manner.

The problem was, this writer was not a true believer. Therefore, this writer was

not able to genuinely or spiritually employ his God-given temperament, nor was this

writer able to experience genuine appreciation for the benefits of this writer’s unique

personality created by God. This writer was missing the blessing of what God fashioned

this writer to be. As a result, this author felt frustrated and failed to follow through on

some important decisions. This author eventually became rebellious and shaped a non-

conforming heart. In this writer’s pre-conversion life, people skills were used for this

writer’s benefit resulting in perplexity and a double-standard lifestyle.







Transformation Because of Temperament:

A byproduct of this author’s temperament is the enjoyment of research and

thorough preparation in order to obtain tenable information and facts. This author likes

to stand out as one who knows what this author is talking about, and as one who cares for

other people’s concerns. As previously mentioned this writer enjoys thinking in depth

rather than doing shallow research. This writer is curious, creative, and imaginative.

This writer tends to show strength through the ability to solve difficult problems. As

presented in the previous section, a person with this writer’s temperament usually does

not like conflict. However, as a result of conversion and spiritual transformation, this

author will guard and defend the truth of God to the point of conflict if necessary. This

author’s temperament causes this author to be passionate about inspiring and supporting

others, while providing clear answers that solve problems. By His grace, God used the

previously mentioned aspects of this author’s temperament to bring about a spiritual, life


Many years ago, the local Christian radio station in this writer’s area began airing

a new program from California called “Grace to You.” The minister, John MacArthur,

was preaching a series entitled the “The Road to Heaven;” and, the speaker expounded on

Matthew 7:21-23, which stated,

Not everyone who says to me, “Lord, Lord,” will enter the kingdom of heaven,

but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. On that day many

will say to me, “Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, and cast out

demons in your name, and do many mighty works in your name?” And then will

I declare to them, “I never knew you; depart from me, you workers of



The Holy Spirit used that scripture to grip the heart of this author and render life

transformation. This moved this author to genuinely repent and receive Jesus Christ as







Lord and Savior. Since that day, this author has set out to accomplish the overarching

goal of becoming a fully-devoted follower of Jesus Christ and to pass that goal onto

others. Through this writer’s personality and temperament, God used three resources to

bring about a life transformation. The first resource was the Word of God, which

provided the truth that is to be believed and obeyed. The second resource was the Holy

Spirit, who clarified the truth and endowed this writer with the power to extract and enact

the principles of truth from God’s Word. The third resource was the community of faith,

the body of Christ, for the purpose of encouragement, exhortation, and accountability.

Sovereignly and graciously, God has provided this writer with the appropriate personal

and spiritual resources, which in combination with this writer’s temperament, have

brought this writer to this writer’s present station in life.


Part D: “Where Am I Now?”


The Method

Finally, after creating a personal profile, examining “who am I now,” and

investigating “how I got here,” one is ready to reveal one’s station in life at the present

moment. This section is to be a concise written wrap up of learning objective number

one, and should not exceed two-hundred words. This is to be an honest summary of

one’s present life story.


Sample: This Writer’s “Where Am I Now?”

After examining “who I am right now” and “how I got where I am,” it is fitting to

discuss spiritually where this writer is right now. With this writer’s temperament, this







writer must guard against withdrawing and becoming too contemplative about life and its

problems. This writer has entered this zone and has ended up spiritually on a plateau.

This is a concern for this writer. The Bible says, “ And we all, with unveiled face,

beholding the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from one

degree of glory to another. For this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit” (2 Cor. 3:18);

this scripture states that life for the fully-devoted follower of Christ is a continual process

of transformation. Therefore, this author should be continually moving from one level of

faith to another. It is from this plateau that this author must relocate to experience the

“Shalom” that this author was created to enjoy. Having accessed this author’s personality

and temperament through three assessment devices, the MBTI, ACL, and DISC

diagnostic tools, the pragmatic results from these assessments have provided a relatively

consistent analysis describing who this author is right now and how this author got to this

place in life.


Learning Objective Two: Unfolding Your Life As You Want It to Be


The Method

As stated at the onset of this core competency, journaling is the process by which

learning objective number two is accomplished. Developing a preferred scenario helps

one identify what is wanted in terms of goals and objectives that are based on an

understanding of the problem situations and unused opportunities that are part of one’s

personal story. 20

This learning objective requires the pastoral counselor to employ a

therapeutic technique called the “miracle question.” This technique was pioneered by


Egan, The Skilled Helper, 22-23.







Steve de Shazer, an influential figure in the development of Brief Therapy, and Solution

Focused Therapy. The previously mentioned theories or hybrids of these theories are

implemented in most modern pastoral counseling contexts. These theories do not focus

on past problems, but on what clients want to achieve today and in the future. By making

conscious the many ways the client is creating their ideal future and encouraging forward

progress, pastoral counselors point clients toward goals rather than the problems that

drove them to therapy. The “miracle question” sparks images about the future by asking

one, “If you were to wake up tomorrow morning and a miracle occurred, and your

problems were gone, your world was exactly as you wanted it to be; what would that

world look like?” In other words, what is one’s preferred story, what is it that would

bring calm to one’s life? The answer to the “miracle question” opens many avenues

through which the counselor can track options for client change. Since this technique has

been proven so successful, what better question for the pastoral counselor to self-

administer for the purpose of self-awareness and establishing future goals for personal

change. After the preferred story has been developed, the pastoral counselor should

impose a time frame for initiating the desired personal changes. Around five-hundred

words should be sufficient for undertaking learning objective number two.


Sample: This Writer’s Life as I Want It to Be


After a thorough self-analysis, this writer’s preferred story is that the spiritual

disciplines of personal joy, prayer, and scripture reading would become second nature

and optimally practiced. This author’s preferred life story requires an enthusiastic

transformation in the spiritual discipline of personal joy, a positive renovation in the

spiritual discipline of prayer, and a progressive revolution in the area of how this writer







approaches the Holy Scriptures. Dallas Willard wrote, “A discipline is an activity within

our power, something we can do, which brings us to a point where we can do what we at

present cannot do by direct effort.” 21

Everything from learning a language to sports

depends upon discipline; and, the availability of discipline in the human makeup is what

makes the individual human be responsible for the kind of person one becomes. A

spiritual discipline is an activity that can help one gain power to live life as Jesus taught

and modeled it. A spiritually disciplined person is someone who can do the right thing at

the right time in the right way with the right Spirit. To this author, this is the epitome of

who Jesus really was. Rick Warren once said that the best way to study Jesus was to

study how He handled his interruptions. Jesus could do whatever was called for at any

given moment because He was fluent in the spiritual disciplines. It is this author’s

desire, as a fully-devoted follower of Christ, to achieve peak performance in ministry;

therefore, this author’s weaknesses must be strengthened in the spiritual disciplines of

joy, prayer, and scripture reading.

It is important to note what a disciplined person is not in order to appreciate the

life of a disciplined person. A disciplined person is not someone who simply exercises

spiritual disciplines just for the sake of doing them. Also, a spiritually disciplined person

is not just a highly-systematic, rigidly-scheduled, chart-making, early-rising person. This

type of person definitely would not work well with this author’s personality, which

struggles with organization and structure. Rather, a disciplined follower of Christ is one

who has the heart and insight to see another’s needs, and accepts the responsibility of

appropriately meeting those needs as if it were one’s “second nature” to do so. As John


Dallas Willard, “Spiritual Disciplines – Spiritual Formation and the Restoration of the Soul,”

Journal of Psychology and Theology 26.1 (Spring 1998): 101-109.







Ortberg stated, “A disciplined follower of Jesus is someone who discerns when laughter,

gentleness, silences, healing words, or prophetic indignation is called for, and offers it

promptly, effectively, and lovingly” 22

Over the next thirty days, this writer commits to

developing a proficiency in the spiritual disciplines: joy, prayer, reading, and meditating

on the Holy Scriptures. Improving these three areas of this writer’s life will create calm

where there has previously been an elevated level of spiritual uneasiness.


Learning Objective Three: Unfolding Your Plan for Change


The Method

Most modern pastoral counseling flows through stages. Initially, a brief

orientation occurs; the client is evaluated and assessed; the establishment of an

empathetic relationship occurs; a preferred story is created; finally, therapeutic

interventions or solution-focused master goals are presented to the client. 23

Thus far, this

has been the ebb and flow of core competency number one. The pastoral counselor

completes core competency number one by contemplating the previous “preferred story,”

and delineating master goals for positive spiritual growth and change as they align with

one’s overarching goal in life. Therefore, in the counseling context, the pastoral

counselor will lead the client through a process the pastor has already personally

experienced. Journaling learning objective three begins with revisiting the pastoral

counselors overarching goal in life; at that point, at least three master goals for change are

constructed. Each master goal is charted by presenting three components: a scrutiny of


Ortberg, The Life You’ve Always Wanted, 50.


Egan, The Skilled Helper, 24.







the present reality within the context of the goal, the shaping of preferences based on the

truth in the scriptures, and the proposed structure for change including a supporting

person for the purpose of accountability. Learning object three of core competency

number one should be around twenty-five hundred words.


Sample: This Writer’s Plan for Change

This writer’s overarching goal in life is to be a fully-devoted follower of Jesus

Christ by emulating the Apostle Paul’s directive to the early Christians at Ephesus to

“Imitate God, therefore, in everything you do, because you are his dear children. Live a

life filled with love, following the example of Christ” (Eph. 5:1-2). Within the context of

this overarching goal, this writer has a passion to follow in the footsteps of Christ, to love

as Jesus loved, and to serve as Jesus served. Like the early Christians in Acts chapter

two, this writer is compelled to pursue full devotion to God in a Christ-centered

community with others who are on this same spiritual journey. This author is committed

to serving sacrificially, growing intentionally, and relating authentically to other people.

As a fully-devoted follower of Jesus Christ, this author is dedicated to the following:

This author is devoted to Christ as the Savior and leader of this author’s life. This author

is committed to continual development of Christ-like servanthood. This author is

committed to taking ongoing steps toward spiritual growth in this author’s relationship

with Christ. This writer is committed to pursuing Christ-honoring relationships. This

writer is committed to participating membership in full support with the vision and

leadership of a local church. Therefore, implementing the following three master goals

for change in order to achieve spiritual growth in areas of personal joy, personal prayer,







and scripture reading is consistent with the purpose of this writer’s overarching goal in



Master Goal One – An enthusiastic transformation in the spiritual discipline of joy

The analysis of this writer’s current life story as it relates to joy is that this writer

could express happiness more often rather than approaching life with an unbalanced bent

toward seriousness. In fact, this writer would like to be more joyful on a consistent basis.

It is not that there is anything in particular that this writer is unhappy about, there is just

something missing that this writer cannot quite grasp. The goal is to remove the

melancholy attitude that is sometimes a negative part of this writer’s temperament.

This author’s preferred new life story is rooted in the scripture truth that joy is a

fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22), and the joy of the Lord is strength (Neh. 8:10). Because joy

is strength, conversely, its absence will create weakness; and, as a fruit of the Spirit,

should not joy be a natural byproduct of salvation? So what impedes one from being

joyful? In his book, Laugh Again, Charles Swindoll proposed three common joy

inhibiters: worry, stress, and fear. Swindoll defined worry as “an inordinate anxiety

about something that may or may not occur.” According to Swindoll, stress is “intense

strain over a situation one can’t change or control,” and fear, according to Swindoll, is a

“dreadful uneasiness over danger, evil, or pain,” that magnifies our problems. This

author’s personality lends itself toward worry and stress, two of three things previously

mentioned that impede one’s capability for joy. In order to resist these “joy stealers,” one

must embrace the same confidence that Paul expressed in his letter to the Philippians.

After giving thanks for the believers (Phil 1:3-5), the Apostle Paul assured them “And I

am sure of this, that he who began a good work in you will bring it to completion” (v.6).







Whatever causes worry, stress, and fear cannot ultimately keep God from continuing His

work. With this confidence, one can begin each day knowing that God is in control. One

can leave everything in His hands. 24


This writer’s structure for change will begin with the following measures to be

implemented Monday through Friday during the first week of this writer’s thirty-day

commitment to change. Monday morning, during a designated prayer time, this writer

will confess any previous melancholy attitudes and ask the Lord to open this writer’s eyes

to His goodness. This writer will memorize and repeat, throughout the day, the following

scripture, “Nehemiah said, Go and enjoy choice food and sweet drinks, and send some to

those who have nothing prepared. This day is holy to our Lord. Do not grieve, for the

joy of the Lord is your strength” (Neh. 8:10 NIV). This writer will use the previous

scripture to provide an impetus to allow the Holy Spirit to bring to mind a joyful

experience to remember, and repeat that experience to two people throughout the day.

Tuesday morning, this author will memorize and repeat, throughout the day, “A

friendly smile makes you happy…” (Proverbs 15:30 CEV), then intentionally find a

happy person to be around sometime during the day. After spending time with that

person, this author will thank them for their happiness and move on. This is important

because, every day, people who have rejected happiness in their lives and who have

become victims in their stories surround me.

Wednesday, throughout the day, this author will reflect on the following memory

verse, “Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the

heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows” (James 1:17 NIV). This is


Joanie Yoder, “Joy Stealers,” Our Daily Bread (February 17, 2003),

joy-stealers/ (accessed September 16, 2011).







officially designated “joy day.” Today this author will intentionally listen to music that

moves the soul, wear clothes that this author particularly likes, and eat food that this

author enjoys. This author will take time to experience and savor the joy. Throughout

the day, this author will offer thanks to God for His good and perfect gifts.

Thursday, all day, this author will unplug and give up television. Some fun activity will

be planned with this author’s wife for the evening. This author has taken note that it is

not coincidental that the Amish are the least depressed group of people in America.

Friday, this writer will find a time in the morning to reflect on the past week of

intentional joy. This writer will make a commitment to God to view life from a biblical

perspective; because, to a certain extent, joy flows from a certain kind of biblical

thinking. John Ortberg wrote, “Cognitive psychologists remind us that always between

the events that happen to us and our responses to them lay our beliefs or interpretations to

those events” 25

As a minister and pastoral counselor, this writer is compelled to view all

events in the light of the resurrection and the ultimate triumph of the risen Christ. This

writer’s support partner for master goal one will be his wife. This author’s resources for

this master goal will be a joke book, along with some humorous and appropriate

internet/u-tube videos.


Master Goal Two – A positive renovation in the spiritual discipline of prayer

Prayer synchronizes with this writer’s overarching goal of imitating Christ

because prayer was demonstrated by Jesus to be an important component of serving God.

The analysis of this writer’s current story is that this writer consistently and consciously

prays spontaneously throughout each day; however, this writer needs to develop a


Ortberg, The Life You Always Wanted, 73.







designated time for specific or focused prayer. It is the sincere desire of this writer that

this writer’s prayers are significant, impactful and align with God’s will. This writer’s

concern is that spontaneous praying, even though being an admirable discipline, does not

complete this writer’s opportunity to be totally effective in the area of powerful and

obedient prayer.

The shaping preferences for this author’s new story about prayer are rooted in the

lessons and examples of Jesus Christ. The Gospel of Luke presented to the church the

picture of Jesus praying, and the importance of a designated time for focused prayer

when it recorded, “Once Jesus was in a certain place praying. As he finished, one of his

disciples came to him and said, “Lord, teach us to pray,” (Luke 11:1 NLT). Jesus

responded to His disciple’s request with the words, “This is how you should pray,”

emphasizing not only a structure for prayer with his words, but also the importance of

time and venue as part of the equation. This author derived two lessons from Luke’s text

on prayer. First, even though prayer is to be part of one’s daily consciousness resulting in

continuous prayers throughout one’s daily experience (I Thess. 3:10), Jesus additionally

demonstrated the importance of designating a time and place for formal prayer. Also,

Jesus’ presentation of a model for prayer, even though it is not to be verbatim and

repetitious (Matt. 6:7), highlighted an emphasis on the protocol and formality of focused

prayer. It is important to remember, more than any other activity, prayer is the concrete

expression that invites a person to a relationship with God. Dallas Willard expressed the

notion that prayer is the discipline of talking to God about what we are doing together,

and is to be, at times, a serious endeavor. 26

This author initially commits to

26 Dallas Willard, The Divine Conspiracy – Rediscovering Our Hidden Life In God (San Francisco,

CA: Harper Collins, 1998), 323.







implementing the following guidelines to establish a time for specific and focused prayer

each day at five in the morning for a period of thirty days.

This writer’s structure for implementing change and establishing a system of

focused prayer revolves around two criteria, the prayer itself and a review of the prayer.

This writer’s guidelines for the formal prayer are as follows: This writer realizes it is best

to choose the same time each day to have a focused time of prayer. This writer also

grasps the importance of paying attention to the setting where prayer occurs to avoid

disturbance. Jesus generally took care to find places that would be free of distractions.

Mostly, Jesus prayed outdoors in places of beauty. Mark said, “Before daybreak the next

morning, Jesus got up and went out to an isolated place to pray.” (Mark 1:35 NLT). This

writer has chosen an optimum time of day for focused prayer, and has committed to

deliberate intellectual and heart preparation before beginning to prayer. This author will

exercise the discipline of sincerely praying what is really on this author’s heart as moved

by the leading of the Holy Spirit. If this author’s mind wanders, this author will let that

be a stepping-stone for further prayer. This author will include intercessory prayer as

part of his prayer. This author will use a variety of models for focused prayers including

Jesus’ model prayer, the prayers of the Apostle Paul throughout the New Testament, and

prayers that are expressed in the Psalms.

To assist in developing a permanent pattern for focused prayer, this writer has

constructed, as a separate exercise guideline, a prayer review. To get the most out of

focused prayer, this writer will take three or four minutes, after every focused time of

prayer, to reflect on the dynamics of the prayer. This writer will follow the reflection

with a series of questions:







 How did the prayer get started?

 Was there an awareness of God’s presence?

 During the prayer, did any parts of the prayer seem especially “alive?”

 Were there times of strong convictions or emotions?

 Was there recognition of moving closer to God or farther away?

 Was there a sense of calling to respond to carry out some action?

This author’s support on this project will be a close personal friend from this author’s

church. This person will sign off on the prayer review sheets weekly, keep them for this

author, and return them at the end of the time period in which this author has committed

to establish his master goal for personal change.


Master Goal Three — A progressive revolution in the area of scripture reading

So much of this writer’s reading is specifically for Bible study and for sermon

preparation. It seems, even though this writer is reading large portions of the Holy

Scriptures on a daily basis, something is still missing. After reading Eugene Peterson’s

book, Eat This Book, there is a deep conviction relevant to this writer’s manner of

reading the Holy Scriptures. The element of scripture meditation and reflection is

missing from this author’s scripture reading method. As one seeking to be a fully-

devoted follower of Christ, this author is committed to reading the Bible meditatively the

next thirty days. Because of this writer’s responsibilities for sermon preparation, this

writer will still employ the Bible study format for sermon preparation; however, this

writer will schedule significant blocks of time for personal reading of the scriptures in a

meditative format.







The scriptural truths reframing this author’s new story for scripture reading and

the importance of meditation are rooted in the cooperative work between the

enlightenment and teaching ministry of the indwelling Holy Spirit and the power of the

living Word of God. The Holy Spirit generates wisdom, patience, and power for change

in the core self. The Holy Spirit contributes to the restoration of the image of God in the

core self and makes Christ visible in the words and works of those who follow Him.

However, it is the revelation of truth in the scripture that activates the work of the Holy

Spirit. There is an interesting correlation between two passages of scripture. Ephesians

3:18-19 states, “Instead, be filled with the Spirit. Speak to one another with psalms,

hymns and spiritual songs;” whereas, Colossians 3:16 says, “Let the word of Christ dwell

in you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom, and as you sing

psalms, hymns and spiritual songs.” Being Spirit-filled and letting the Word dwell in

you, yield the same result indicating an important connection.

Because of this writer’s busy and eclectic schedule, this writer finds it best to

block out forty minutes to read and meditate on the scriptures immediately following this

writer’s time of prayer in the morning. This author has constructed a scripture reading

program in which this author will read the first thirty chapters of the Psalms, one chapter

correlating with each of the next thirty days. This author’s reading and meditating

strategy will be as follows:










1. After this writer’s time of focused prayer in the morning, this writer will read

a commentary on the Psalms relevant to the text that this writer will be

reading. That exercise will prepare this writer with some background

information about the text, which will make the reading richer for this writer.

2. Before this author engages a passage of scripture text, this author will ask God

to meet him in the text; and, this author will read the text expecting to see God

in it.

3. This writer will prepare his attitude toward reading to be subservient,

obedient, repentant, rather than simply searching for information.

4. This author will determine to concentrate and to meditate on smaller portions

of the text.

5. Through memorization, this writer will take one thought or verse personally

throughout the rest of the day.

As a result of accomplishing these three master goals, this author envisions his

life to be expressed in joy, laughter, fun, and blessing. In fact, it is exciting just to

contemplate the first week of the thirty day commitment that has been created to infuse

joy into this author’s world. This writer can also envision being close to God in

reflective focused prayer. This writer is looking forward to getting alone with God in a

quiet place and even more so, anticipating what God will say during those conversations.

Finally, this author foresees the peace that will reverberate through this author’s life as

the Holy Spirit takes the words that this author digests from the Holy Scriptures and

accelerates the transformation process in this author’s core being. This writer can

exuberantly anticipate thirty days of joy, meditative prayer, and cleansing from the Word







of God. Therefore, this writer can pledge fully to commit to administering the features of

the three master goals for spiritual growth contained in this paper.




The purpose of core competency number one is to promote self-awareness for the

purpose of knowing how to guide people through the evaluative and constructive

processes of pastoral counseling. Chris Widener subtitled his inspirational little book,

Persuading Others Begins with You, and nothing could be more accurate. For this

reason, the three learning objectives that are part of this core competency are so critical.

This competency has dealt primarily with one’s personality as it plays out through a

spiritual context; however, influencing people through pastoral counseling involves more

than self-awareness, it encompasses a life of undivided integrity, always demonstrating a

positive attitude, considering other people’s interests as more important than one’s own

interests and not settling for anything less than excellence. 27












Chris Widener, Persuading Others Begins with You (New York: Doubleday, 2008).
















It is important to understand that one’s temperament determines how one relates

to others. That is why, core competency number one, “knowing yourself to guide others”

is so important. Some pastoral counselors are dominant, directing the activities of those

whom they guide. Others are careful planners, therefore, more reserved in their

counseling behaviors. Still, others are people oriented, personally involving those whom

they counsel in their plans and actions. Additionally, some pastoral counselors are

motivational, inspiring their clients to change while others are passively assertive causing

their clients to assume the role of follower in order to accomplish goals. Andrew Seidel,

in his book, Charting a Bold Course, presented the following excellent observation about

the significance of diverse temperaments in the area of pastoral care and leadership,

What is true of us inside is expressed to others through our temperament and our

spiritual gifts as well as our strengths, weaknesses, limitations, and flaws. Our

temperament is a unique God-given part of our identity. It is the characteristic

way in which we relate to people and events or tasks. There is no “best”

temperament or spiritual gift. 1


Each temperament has its own strengths and weaknesses. Much like spiritual gifts, God

gave all the temperaments because all of them are needed. Therefore, God utilizes all

1 Andrew Seidel, Charting a Bold Course: Training Leaders for a Twenty-first Century Ministry

(Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers, 2003), 75-76.







types of temperaments and personalities in the pastoral leaders and counselors He has


It must also be noted that the core of one’s personal identity is found in one’s

relationship to God through Jesus Christ. When one’s relationship with God has been

consciously authenticated, and the awareness of the faithfulness of God’s love and

acceptance has been established, and the security of one’s position in Christ has been

validated, one has the freedom and strength to give, serve, lead, and counsel in a godly

manner. No longer does one need to use others to fulfill personal needs.

Core competency number two, “developing your style to connect with people,”

establishes four best practices for pastoral counselors who uniquely engage clients in

today’s church. These best practices include learning concepts, skills, and resources

necessary to effectively, ethically, and safely approach parishioners within the context of

pastoral counseling. In order to master core competency number two, pastoral care-

givers must address the following best practices. First, the pastoral counselor must judge

the importance of integrating the Bible into the counseling model. Second, the pastoral

counselor must consider the proper relational style for creating a context of change and

relocation for the client, as well as construct an ethical and safe environment for

counseling. Third, the pastoral therapist must resolve to address the counseling setting,

bearing in mind matters of cultural diversity and how one will influence change within

that context. Finally, pastoral counselors must be astute strategists, especially in the area

of “Solution-Based Brief Pastoral Counseling” (SBBFC).









Best Practice One: Integrating the Bible into the Counseling Model


The Bible and Counseling

One of the most important thought processes to be considered in the area of

pastoral counseling pertains to the matter of the pastoral counselor’s modality of

treatment relevant to the patient’s spiritual and mental catharsis. Because of the spiritual

and theological nature of the pastoral position, the pastoral counselor must decide how

biblical truth, along with theories and practices of psychology will be incorporated into

the personal counseling model. In the past, Christian counselors generally embraced one

of two treatment philosophies; in one camp were the biblical integration therapists, “the

Bible and psychology” counselors; in the other camp were the nouthetic or “purely

“biblical” counselors. By the nineteen seventies, many of the integration therapists had

become enchanted with the many forms of anti-Christian psychobabble and secular

psychoanalytical theories to the degree that Christian counseling had become Christian in

name only. However, during that same era, Jay Adams orchestrated a counseling

insurgency challenging the fields of Christian counseling and pastoral care as he

trumpeted the call for Christian counselors to maintain theological orthodoxy and

adherence to the centrality of the scriptures. Adams also championed the cause of holy

living by dealing bluntly with sin and establishing biblical interventions for overcoming

evil. Adams’ strict model found limited acclaim among evangelical counselors, yet,

served the purpose of influencing the field of Christian counseling to at least reconsider

essential biblical principles as foundational.

The field of Christian counseling has come a long way from the nineteen

seventies when its theoretical development reflected secular models that were blended







with an assortment of scriptural precepts and biblical models absorbed in narrow

exegetical structures of theological terms and phrases lacking rigorous hermeneutical

examination or empirical validation. Since those days, the robust character of pastoral

and Christian counseling has yielded numerous approaches to care-giving with an

assortment of techniques and interventions. According to Tim Clinton and George

Ohlschlager, editors of the book Competent Christian Counseling, there has been a

progressive shift in the field of Christian counseling as a whole. These men recently

uncovered at least ten distinctive counseling theories or identities across the nearly fifty

thousand members of the American Association of Christian Counselors, suggesting a

broader eclectic approach to Christian counseling has evolved. 2 So, how does the

pastoral counselor, for his own purposes, evaluate the biblical legitimacy of the varied

assortment of counseling practices and theories that assert they are derived from a

Christian or biblical foundation; or, should the pastoral counselor abort the use of the

science of psychology altogether and practice Bible only techniques in counseling?

This writer asserts that pastoral counselors would do well to take their lead from

the Reformers of the sixteenth century; for them, all claims of truth and authority,

whether from philosophy, science, or church leadership, were to be placed against the

Bible and judged as beneficial according to biblical criterion. The Reformers considered

the Bible to be the ultimate authority over God’s natural revelation. They were not

alienated from the world to the extent that they discounted the beneficial elements of

secular human reason. Even though the renowned Reformers Luther and Calvin did not

seek to deny the value of secular human reason, it should be noted they did not exalt it

2 Tim Clinton and G. Ohlschlager, Competent Christian Counseling, Volume One: Foundations

and Practice of Compassionate Soul Care (Colorado Springs, CO: WaterBrook Press, 2002), 69-93.







either. For example, they did not deny that the church had authority; but, they did reject

the notion that the church’s authority should supplant the Word of God. The Reformers

realized, in the natural world, there was truth revealed that both Christians and non-

Christians could discover. But, they were clear that such truth could never lead to

salvation and ultimate spiritual healing. They comprehended the limits of natural

revelation and the mind of man to understand it; but, they did not deny the plausibility of

scientific discovery due to natural revelation. However, the Reformers did demand that

the Bible be placed in authority over all truth, all practice, and all matters of faith and


The Reformers comprehended that divine revelation had been presented to man in

two different ways, through natural revelation and special revelation. They implicitly

understood that God visibly makes Himself known through natural revelation, which is

the world He created and all of His creatures, including human beings. God has also

revealed Himself through special revelation, His Word, both incarnate in Jesus Christ and

written in the Bible. Thus, human beings learn and reason from those two realms of

revelation. Through reason, humans inquire into the natural order through a process of

study that is called science; and, humans explore the realm of special revelation through

study and illumination of the Holy Spirit, a process that is called theology. Although

truth is discovered in either sphere, theological study in the Bible is given the greatest

authority because by it one can determine the parameters of an accurate worldview and

the means to a right relationship with God. Theology can affirm what ought to be;

whereas, science can only state what is. All of that being said, particular theories and

practices from the science of psychology can be useful to the pastoral counselor; yet, they







must stand up to certain biblical criterion. Homiletically, a pastor may confer with

certain trusted commentaries derived from human reason to prepare the sermon; but, the

definitive source of validation of truth for the sermon is always the Word of God, studied

and illuminated by the Holy Spirit. In the same manner, for counseling purposes, the

pastoral counselor may approach a client problem with the help of a particular theory or

practice, again originating through human reason; but, the source of truth for genuine

soul care and theory corroboration is ultimately derived from the Bible along with help

from the Holy Spirit.

The ensuing question may be asked, “What guidelines are helpful when

determining which theories and practices of psychology are useful to the pastoral

counselor?” Harry Shields and Gary Bredfeldt, authors of Caring for Souls, presented

five practical questions helpful in guiding pastoral counselors in considering ideas drawn

from the field of psychology. First, is the proposed psychological concept directly

supported by the scriptures? Second, is the psychological notion theologically consistent

with the scriptures? Some psychology concepts are not taught explicitly in the scriptures;

yet, they are in keeping with biblical concepts and are found implicitly in the overall

teachings of God’s Word. Third, is the psychological conclusion addressed in the Bible?

It is possible that a particular psychological conclusion may not be addressed in the Bible

at all. When a psychological practice is not biblically addressed, extreme caution must be

exercised when implementing the procedure into the counseling setting. It is best to

make sure the practice is scientifically supported. Also, one must apply the biblical

principles of profitable benefit and weaker brother. In other words, although a method or

technique may be lawful for a believer to practice, it may not be to the person’s spiritual







benefit (1 Cor. 6:12; 10:23); and, the pastoral counselor must be extremely careful not to

cause the weaker brother or sister in the faith to fall (Rom. 14:13-21; 1 Cor. 8:13).

Fourth, is the psychological idea denied by the scriptures? Some concepts practiced by

psychologists are blatantly in conflict with the Holy Scriptures. Finally, is the proposed

psychological theory doubtful? A number of practices may not seem to be congruent

with biblical norms. They may be derived from faulty biblical teaching and subsequently

result in ungodly actions. Therefore, when there is any doubt at all, it is best to bypass

the action in favor of prudence. 3 Asking theses five questions will assist the pastoral

counselor in determining spiritual credibility of certain theories and practices in the field

of psychology. When the Word of God is central in one’s thinking, one can appropriately

import truth from all potential sources into the area of pastoral counseling.


The Bible and the Counselor

The Bible states, “All scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching,

for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be

competent, equipped for every good work” (2 Tim. 3:16-17). Thus, it may be

theologically assumed that the basis for truth by which everything else is appraised is the

Word of God; and, within the scriptures, there is an overabundance of information

guiding one on how to live a proper life. 4 Henry Cloud and John Townsend, in How

People Grow, go so far as to posit “the Bible stands alone as God’s only perfect guide to

3 Harry Shields and G. Bredfeldt, Caring for Souls: Counseling Under the Authority of Scripture

(Chicago, IL: Moody Press, 2001), 50-52.

4 Timothy Clinton, A. Hart, and G. Ohlschlager, Caring for People God’s Way: Personal and

Emotional Issues, Addictions, Grief, and Trauma (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2005), 53.








life and growth.” 5 Who can argue against the miracle that with over forty different

authors and over fifteen-hundred years, the Bible stands alone as a book with a

magnificently consistent set of precepts, ideas, and stories? Only divine inspiration could

achieve such a cohesive masterpiece. Since the Bible is in written form, it can be

scrutinized and checked objectively; therefore, the pastoral counselor may align with the

psalmist and confidently proclaim, “The statutes you have laid down are righteous; they

are fully trustworthy” (Ps. 119:138 NIV).

Because ultimately the Bible is the first and final authority in Christian

counseling, the pastoral counselor must become a capable biblical practitioner.

According to the journal article, The Use of Scripture in Counseling, by Eric Johnson and

Ian Jones, effective Christian counselors need to be competent in the use of the scriptures

for teaching, training, correcting, and growing in wisdom and knowledge (2 Tim. 3:16).

These two experts asserted that competency necessitates more than simply knowing the

scriptures, it also requires an awareness of hermeneutical principles of biblical

interpretation, the ability to access the counseling situation from a biblical perspective,

the application of appropriate skills and techniques found in the scriptures, an adherence

to the biblical boundaries and ethical standards that reflect a fear of God and selfless love

for the client, and an ongoing, energetic, maturing spiritual life involving such disciplines

as prayer and biblical meditation. 6

Becoming a proficient biblical practitioner also entails understanding the biblical

truth about God’s grace. Biblical truth without the proper application of God’s grace can

5 Henry Cloud and J. Townsend, How People Grow: What the Bible Reveals about Personal

Growth (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000), 193.

6 Eric Johnson and I. Jones, “The Use of Scripture in Counseling,” Christian Counseling Today,

vol.16.4 (2008): 46-50.







lead to legalism and harshness in counseling. On the other hand, a lopsided perspective

pertaining to God’s grace without the proper application of biblical truth can lead to

license. The Bible states that “the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we have

seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth” (John

1:14), indicating that both realities are complimentary. Truth does not minimize grace, it

magnifies it. Truth provides the message, grace provides the method. Grace does not

provide freedom to sin, it provides forgiveness from sin. Grace never supersedes or

compromises truth. Grace does not replace truth, it reflects it. Pastoral counselors must

be specialist at truth-telling and grace-giving just like Jesus Christ. 7

Further, Clinton, Hart, and Ohlschlager, in Caring for People God’s Way,

proposed that the Bible provides the singular authoritative standard for both generating

and evaluating a care-giving ministry. They go on to stress that the essential traits of a

complete Christian counseling theory and practice should incorporate creation in the

image of God, the model of Jesus Christ, and the empowerment of the Holy Spirit. Also,

the components necessary for an adequate model of personality and counseling must

include a clarification of one’s origin, one’s essential nature or the things that mankind

shares in common, one’s current condition or a diagnosis of what is basically wrong with

humanity, and a prescription for remedying one’s problems based on a sufficient

understanding of human motivation, development, and the processes of change. 8

Comparatively, secular counseling theories tend to present an incomplete picture of

human nature by placing the individual self, social forces, or biological drives at the

center of all change, and by seeking resolution of human dilemmas in some expression of

7 Johnson, Christian Counseling Today, 46-50.

8 Clinton, Caring for People God’s Way, 54.







personal or social power. Secular psychology views mankind as central while God is

relegated to a peripheral function. The pastoral counselor recognizes that all biblical

care-giving and support falls within the larger plans and purposes of God; and, Christian

counseling should begin with God and His Word.

Finally, the capable pastoral counselor will carefully consider how to

communicate the Word of God, and will allow the Spirit of God to work in His own time

within the counseling context. It is important that the pastoral counselor attempt to

convey the Word of God in a meaningful, natural way during a counseling session not

forcing theological jargon and scripture into the dialogue. Ian Jones, in The Counsel of

Heaven on Earth, believes that any assistance the pastoral counselor is able to give a

person in need can be used by God to reveal His active plan of salvation. Consequently,

the pastoral counselor’s genuine concern, commitment to the truths of the scriptures, and

openness to the Spirit of God will lead to a client’s eventual willingness to explore issues

of faith and biblical hope. 9

The goal of the pastoral counselor is to be a thoroughly biblical caregiver. If that

goal is to be achieved, one must always keep the Word of God as the sole authority in

matters of faith and practice. As Harry Shields and Gary J. Bredfeldt stated, “Without

that sure Word as our standard and rule, we would be lost on a sea of modern thought,

scientific claims, and theoretical proliferation.” 10

Pastoral counselors facilitate people in

finding their location in relationship to God, self, and others. They accept the authority

of the Bible and identify the uniqueness of human creation in the image of God. They

9 Ian Jones, The Counsel of Heaven on Earth; Foundations for Biblical Counseling (Nashville,

TN: B and H Publishing Group, 2006), 111-112.


Shields, Caring for Souls, 52.







comprehend the effects of sin and accept the redemptive program of God, while helping

people to find and follow a godly plan for healing. The pastoral counselor is greatly

influenced by “The Great Commandment” in communication and service to others, as the

counselor seeks to discover the provision and goodness of God in every situation. It is

the goal of such counselors to model the example of Christ the Savior and Master

Counselor in wisdom and understanding, in planning and power, and in the knowledge

and fear of the Lord, as they engage in the theory and practice of care giving. 11



Best Practice Two: Proper Relational Style & Safety


The Counselor’s Relational Style

What does the pastoral counselor normally bring to the counseling context?

Every pastoral counselor brings a unique relational style to the counseling

context. The relational style of the pastoral counselor is not as much about how one does

counseling but how one thinks, feels, chooses, and relates to God, self, and others. 12


Each pastoral counselor brings a distinctive blend of these thoughts, feelings, choices,

and relationships to the table, which dramatically affects the manner in which the pastoral

counselor relates to the client. For example, a pastoral counselor comes to the table with

a temperament, fixed paradigms, cultural postures, and relationship to God. There are

other traits that affect the relational style of the pastoral counselor; but, the previously

mentioned four are paramount to the purposes of this paper. Knowing one’s relational


Clinton, Caring for People God’s Way, 54.


Dwight Rice, The Counselor’s Relational Style, PowerPoint slide 2.2 – COUN 801 Intensive,

January, 2011.








style and learning how to check and control it is critical in order to effectively enter the

world, natural attitudes, and actions in the everyday life of the counselee. This check and

control process is for the purpose of attending to or aligning with the counselee’s

thoughts, feelings, and actions. 13


As previously discussed in core competency number one, the first trait that

pastoral counselors naturally bring to the table is temperament. A keen self-awareness of

one’s unique personality traits is essential as this will directly impact communication

with counselees. For example, someone with a dominant temperament can be highly

effective because normally that person will be direct, self-assured, and get results;

however, when exaggerated, that personality can also appear to others as being

dictatorial, demanding, or sarcastic. It is this author’s opinion that the pastoral counselor

should periodically take professional self-assessments within the context of one’s present

story. There are numerous assessment tools available to accomplish this task. This

author recommends that the pastoral counselor periodically take a spiritual gift analysis

as well. There are many benefits of knowing one’s temperament such as becoming aware

of one’s strengths and weaknesses, understanding how one’s temperament is useful in

following Christ, and recognizing how it is relevant to connecting with a client.

A second element that the pastoral counselor naturally brings to the counseling

context is fixed paradigms. A paradigm is a model that serves as a pattern for something

that forms the basis of a methodology or theory; and, pastoral counselors are notorious

for locking into a favorite method, theory, therapeutic model or therapist. Ian Jones

supports this notion as he suggests that each counselor brings prior beliefs, training, and a

repertoire of gifts and techniques into the counseling encounter; also, he asserts that at the


Rice, The Counselor’s Relational Style, PowerPoint 2.3.







heart of the counseling relationship is a set of assumptions about healing and human

nature. 14

The problem with fixed paradigms is that having them will cause the pastoral

counselor to miss out on future possibilities because unexpected information is ignored or

twisted to fit old notions which blinds one to creative solutions.

Fixed paradigms have the power to keep one from hearing and seeing what could

happen resulting in personal limitations, causing a sort of intellectual myopia. Consider

the Swiss watchmakers. Many years ago, Swiss watches were the hallmark of excellence

throughout the world. At one time, almost eighty percent of watches sold world-wide

were made by Swiss watchmakers. Today, fewer than ten percent of watches are made

by the Swiss watchmakers; and, thousands of expert craftsman have subsequently lost

their jobs. They were blinded by the incredible achievement and success of their

antiquated fixed paradigm. Meanwhile, a Swiss technician in their midst developed

quartz technology, which was resolutely rejected by the Swiss watchmakers. With this

new concept, the technician had reached beyond the fixed paradigm that watches must

have springs and gears; however, his superiors, still blinded by their old paradigm,

refused to embrace this new apparatus. Several years later, the quartz technology was

revealed by its creator at the World Fair where it drew the interest of two companies,

Seiko and Texas Instrument, and the rest is history.

According to Charles Kollar, a proponent for “Solution-Focused Pastoral

Counseling,” many pastoral counselors within the local church have fallen into the same

trap concerning counseling; counseling must be done a certain way or it just is not


Jones, The Counsel of Heaven on Earth, 15.








counseling. 15

Therefore, the pastoral counselor must be careful not to get stuck in certain

fixed-counseling paradigms just because it has always been done that way in the past.

A third ingredient that the pastoral counselor brings into the counseling context is

cultural posture. Andy Crouch, in his book Culture Making, suggested that people

respond to their surrounding culture by assuming a cultural posture that he asserted was

basically one’s attitudes toward life. He defined one’s cultural posture as one’s learned

but unconscious default position, one’s natural stance in the world. The author went on

to propose that people practice certain cultural gestures which are their responses to

particular challenges and opportunities in life. These gestures include such subjects as

condemning culture, critiquing culture, consuming culture, and copying culture. There is

nothing wrong with these cultural gestures; at times, each of these responses may be the

only appropriate response to a particular scenario. The problem comes when these

gestures become too familiar, when they become the only way one responds to culture,

when they become etched into one’s unconscious stance to the world and become

postures. 16

While there is much to be condemned in human culture such as violence,

lawlessness, and hate crimes, if one’s overall posture is cultural condemnation, one will

be closed off from the beauty and possibility, as well as the grace and mercy, that are

found in many other forms of culture. The pastoral counselor’s posture must be balanced

and must embrace the optimism and compassion of God. Crouch stated, “If we are


Charles Kollar, Solution Focused Pastoral Counseling (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan

Publishing, 1997), 16.


Andy Crouch, Culture Making: Recovering Our Creative Calling (Downers Grove, IL: IVP

Books, 2008), 90-93.








known mostly for our ability to poke holes in every human project, we will probably not

be known as people who bear the hope and mercy of God.” 17


A fourth component that is brought by the pastoral counselor into the counseling

context is one’s relationship to God through Jesus Christ. Everett L. Worthington Jr.

stated, in Hope Focused Marriage Counseling, one will have the most success with

counseling and life in general to the extent that one develops a healing character. He

goes on to say that the healing character is the character of Christ bursting through one’s

personality and is manifested in one’s relationships with clients, coworkers, family

members, and peers. Christ’s character in the counselor is the result of a permanent,

loving, and committed bond with the Lord Jesus Christ; therefore, Christ’s love and care

shows up in the counselor’s interactions with everyone. Christ’s love and care

demonstrated through the counselor produces faith and work, which provides the basis

for hope. 18

When the pastoral counselor relates to a client, it must be on the premise of

knowing one’s self completely, having an open mind, approaching life with a balanced

cultural posture, and permeating the counselor client relationship with one’s genuine love

for Jesus Christ.


What does a pastoral counselor need to bring to the counseling context?

A pastoral counselor should bring a greater awareness of the humanness of Christ

to the context of Christian counseling. As previously discussed in this paper, at the heart

of the counseling relationship there lies a set of assumptions about healing and human

nature. How does one describe the essential nature of human beings; who are we; are


Crouch, Culture Making, 93.


Everett L. Worthington Jr., Hope-Focused Marriage Counseling: A Guide to Brief Therapy

(Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 2005), 17.







human beings simply biological machines designed to respond to behavioral stimuli; are

humans simply reactors to external social pressures driving feelings, attitudes, and

actions? Secular counseling theories extract their foundation on variations of these

concepts. However, the Bible presents a different picture of who we are. According to

Ian Jones, human identity is unique among creation. Humans were created in the image

of God; but, sin brought separation and condemnation from God leading to physical and

spiritual death. Sin also distorted the image of the Creator in humans and made it

impossible for humans to realize their full potential in creation without a new spirit and a

new body. Sin not only resulted in disconnection from God, but, also caused dissonance

in relationships with other humans. All people have an inherited predisposition to sin as

soon as they are aware of moral actions and personal responsibility; and, the effects of sin

have continued through the generations. The only true hope for people who are dead in

their trespasses and sins is a new birth in the Holy Spirit. God alone has the power to

restore one’s relationship with Him and has cleared a path for reconciliation. A failure of

secular counseling theories lies in the ability to truly comprehend the biblical nature of

human beings, and their default reliance to social forces or individuals for the definitions

and causes of problems and the interventions for solutions. 19


Even though the fall created a separation between humanity and God, the

incarnation affirmed that human bodies are not intrinsically evil. Jesus was God and also

fully human with a physical body; for that reason, He was qualified to become the new

Adam who brings new life (2 Cor. 5:17). Because the pastoral counselor comprehends

the previously stated truth, the counselor may encourage clients with the authority that

one’s identity in Christ enables one to look at situations in an entirely new light. If one


Jones, The Counsel of Heaven on Earth, 20-21, 27.







comes to understand their humanness in view of Christ Jesus as the God-man, one will

find that all of their needs will be met in Him (Phil. 4:19); one will discover a peace that

soothes the soul and unites one in fellowship with God and with one another. Realizing

one’s identity with Christ, enables one to share the Lord’s likeness, attitudes, loving-

kindness, and encourages holy living. 20


A pastoral counselor must also bring a working knowledge of methods, styles,

and skills to the context of Christian counseling. Everett Worthington stated, “There is

no simple way to build hope.” One must match one’s methods to the client’s level of

disturbance, personal style, and willingness to accept the challenge of a rebirth of hope. 21


Charles Kollar shared that there needs to be a working knowledge of relational styles and

skills enabling the counselor to identify with and understand the counseling concerns of

the client. 22

Each pastoral care-giver has a particular style that influences every situation

that is encountered, especially the interpersonal arena of pastoral counseling; therefore,

the pastoral counselor needs to establish a common language with the counselee for

discussing issues and encouraging the client in the various contexts of life. According to

Kollar, “identifying with and understanding the concerns of the counselee demonstrates

fit, builds rapport, and encourages a willingness to change in order to experience

relocation ― a collaborative process of moving away from a problematic present into the

reality of a future without a specific problem.” 23

One demonstrates what Kollar calls fit

by connecting with the counselee and being there totally for the counselee. In the


Jones, The Counsel of Heaven on Earth, 141-142.


Worthington, Hope-Focused Marriage Counseling, 58.


Kollar, Solution Focused Pastoral Counseling, 112.


Ibid., 112-113.







counseling process, the goal of the counselor is to walk together with the counselee as he

or she proceeds toward solutions.

A skill that is being increasingly recognized for its importance in the area of

pastoral counseling is attending to client narrative, listening to the stories patients tell

during their time in sessions. Carrie Doehring, in her work, The Practice of Pastoral

Care, encouraged pastoral caregivers to “immerse themselves in the details of the

narratives that unfold in pastoral care.” 24

She believed that narratives reveal how the

care-seeker found meaning in the midst of life. As deep stories begin to surface, they

often reveal unresolved conflicts that lead to what sociologist, Arthur Frank, referred to

as narrative wreckage. Frank reasoned that times of illness, when deeply felt emotions

are surfacing, call for stories. 25

There is a need for persons to continue narrating their

current experience even in the midst of confusion, and to connect the present with

meaningful stories from the past. 26

As Doehring detailed in her work, the existence of

narrative threads help capture the complexity of life and profound experiences of

suffering and struggle that present during times of extreme crisis. 27


According to Kollar, in the counseling process, the pastoral counselor has the

unique opportunity to enter the world of the counselee. Through attentive listening, the

pastoral counselor is able to show the counselee that he identifies with and understands


Carrie Doehring, The Practice of Pastoral Care: A Postmodern Approach (Louisville, KY:

Westminster/John Knox, 2006), 166.


Arthur Frank, The Wounded Storyteller: Body, Illness, and Ethics (Chicago: University of

Chicago Press, 1995), 53.


Scott D. Landis, “Practicing Discernment: Pastoral Care in Crisis Situations.” The Journal of

Pastoral Care and Counseling. Vol.64 no. 1 (2010): 2.


Doehring, The Practice of Pastoral Care, 68.







the counselee’s concerns. 28

By identifying with the counselee’s emotions, the pastoral

counselor is able to walk with the client during times of rejoicing or morning (Rom.

12:15). Further, by attending to verbal and nonverbal clues and with proper eye contact,

the pastoral counselor can let the counselee know that the pastoral counselor is with that

person through the process of relocation. With the proper methods, style, and skills in

place, the pastoral counselor has the opportunity to enter into the client’s world long

enough to co-create a solution and experience walking together with the patient out from

under the weight of the problem.


The Counselor’s Safety

There are five important considerations about personal safety that should capture

the pastoral counselor’s attention. These concerns are instituting a perpetual membership

in a professional partnership, setting personal and ethical boundaries, enlisting client

consent, allowing time for debriefing, and determining professional competency. First, a

look at connecting with professional partnerships reveals several types of products that

assist the pastoral counselor in forming a safety net around one’s self and one’s ministry.

For example, partnering with professional organizations, like the American Association of

Christian Counselors, provides accessibility to a number of professional benefits such as

a universal code of ethics, licensure, continuing education, legal advocacy, professional

liability insurance, peer written journals, and conferences. Connecting with an

organization such as AACC reduces counselor vulnerability by affirmatively exposing

pastoral counselors to professional services related to moving professional helpers toward


Kollar, Solution Focused Pastoral Counseling, 112-113.







excellence, and helping them increase their capability of more consistently securing the

best counseling outcomes.

Second, pastoral counselors should set boundaries in counseling relationships.

Boundaries help to provide safety and structure in counseling by creating a border around

the professional relationship that defines the roles and responsibilities of each member of

the therapeutic dyad. A border is a limit that promotes integrity. 29

For example, the

pastoral counselor may be confronted with the conflict of dual relationships. A dual

relationship is created whenever the role of pastoral counselor is combined with another

relationship, which could be professional (e.g., professor, supervisor, or employee) or

personal (e.g., friend, close relative, past intimate partner). Counselors generally are

advised to make every effort to avoid these types of relationships because of the potential

harm to clients.

Third, for liability protection and client protection, the pastoral counselor should

offer full disclosure for all counseling and related services that will be offered to the

client. The likelihood of attaining successful counseling outcomes is enhanced when

clients are actively involved in their therapeutic journeys, making informed decisions

throughout the process. The first decision that prospective clients must make is whether

to enter into counseling and with whom. To make this decision prudently, clients have a

right to know what counseling entails. They might have many questions and

uncertainties when they first come for counseling. Therefore, the pastoral counselor has

an ethical obligation to provide clients with a full explanation of the counseling process.

Near the beginning of the counseling process, the pastoral counselor and client should


Anne Katherine, Boundaries: Where You End and I Begin (New York: Simon & Schuster,

1991), 4.







discuss and agree upon the following matters: the nature of and course of therapy; client

issues and goals; potential problems and reasonable alternatives to counseling; counselor

status and credentials; confidentiality and its limits; fees and financial procedures;

limitations about time and access to the counselor, including directions in emergency

situations; and procedures for resolution of disputes and misunderstandings. If the

pastoral counselor is supervised, this fact shall be disclosed and the supervisor’s name

and role indicated to the client. This disclosure also includes video or audio-taping of

client sessions, the use of supervisory and consultative help, the application of special

procedures and evaluations, and the communication of client data with other

professionals and institutions. According to the code of ethics set forth by the American

Association of Christian Counselors, pastoral caregivers and counselors should respect

the need for informed consent regarding the structure and process of counseling. The

pastoral counselor should be extremely cautious that the client has the capacity to give

consent; and after having discussed counseling together, the client reasonably

understands the nature and process of counseling; the costs, time, and work required; the

limits of counseling; and any appropriate alternatives. The client must freely give

consent to counseling without coercion or undue influence. The pastoral counselor

should also obtain consent from parents or the client’s legally authorized representative

when clients are minors, or for adults who are legally incapable of giving consent. 30


Fourth, the pastoral counselor should leave time for debriefing. Every pastoral

counselor needs to debrief with a friend or peer. The intentional, interpersonal mutual


George Ohlschlager, “The Y2004 Final Code,” American Association of Christian Counselors’

Code of Ethics, (2004): 9, (accessed April 25, 2011).







support of debriefing can compensate for the draining work of pastoral counseling. 31


Debriefing can address the following aspects of the pastoral counselor’s overall mental,

physical, and spiritual state: one’s mindset and motivation, vulnerabilities and

temptations, ethical dilemmas and dangers, spiritual status, family relationships, physical

health, and professional effectiveness. In line with the proverbial biblical thinking “iron

sharpens iron, and one man sharpens another” (Prov. 27:17), it would be a recommended

practice that pastoral counselors enlist a personal mentor or colleague for the purposes of

debriefing, encouragement, and support.

Fifth, the pastoral counselor should continually evaluate areas of competency.

Once the pastoral counselor has completed the required training, and if necessary, is

licensed or certified to practice, the pastoral counselor is responsible for determining

personal competence. The pastoral counselor is an autonomous professional who is

granted the privilege and responsibility for monitoring personal effectiveness. It is not

easy for the pastoral counselor to determine where boundaries of competence lie. It is

important that individual limitations be recognized; however, if the pastoral counselor is

too modest about personal competencies, the scope of practice could be unnecessarily

restricted. The task for the pastoral counselor is to recognize when one is unable to serve

prospective clients due to a lack of the needed skills or knowledge; nevertheless, the

pastoral counselor must be willing to accept clients who will challenge growth and who

will stretch boundaries of competence. The American Counseling Association code of

ethics (standard C.2. d.) recommends that the pastoral counselors regularly engage in

peer consultation or participate in peer supervision groups as a means for maintaining

professional competence. Peer groups can provide objective feedback in dealing with


Rice, The Counselor’s Relational Style, PowerPoint 2.8.







counter-transference issues, information on new techniques and research, assistance in

dealing with difficult clients, and support and help in dealing with the stress and isolation

sometimes experienced by pastoral counselors. 32



Best Practice Three: The Counseling Setting and Culture


Who are you counseling?

In today’s world, it is particularly important for the pastoral counselor to develop

intercultural and generational counseling competencies. The population of the United

States is becoming increasingly diverse both generationally and culturally; and, pastoral

counselors are coming across more clients who are different from themselves. It is

increasingly recognized that the counseling theories commonly used by counselor

educators and practitioners during the twentieth century are embedded in Eurocentric

beliefs about mental health and human development. Although such theories are useful

when implemented among persons from non-Hispanic, white European backgrounds,

they often are less effective, and can even be harmful, when used among persons from

non-white, non-European groups. 33

It would be unethical for the pastoral counselor to

attempt to provide services to culturally diverse clients without appropriate training and

experience. Therefore, the pastoral counselor should strive actively to understand the

diverse cultural backgrounds of clients, and to gain skills and current knowledge in

working with diverse and special client populations. Because counseling is not a static

science, the pastoral counselor must avail oneself to continuing education for the purpose


American Counseling Association, “ACA Code of Ethics,” (2005): 9.


D. Locke, J. Myers, and E. Herr, The Handbook of Counseling (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Publications, 2001), 536.







of maintaining competence to practice. As previously stated, regularly engaging in peer

consultation sessions or participating in peer supervision groups can be an important

factor in maintaining competence in this area as well.


What is your Counseling Mandate?

It is recommended that the pastoral counselor create a personal counseling

mandate that establishes the current counseling paradigm in which the pastoral counselor

will function. This information centers the pastoral counselor’s mission and therapy, and

can be beneficial for pending clients as well. The personal counseling mandate should be

revisited and updated periodically. The pastoral counselor’s counseling mandate should

include the pastoral counselor’s basis for care-giving and guiding assumptions.

The basis for this writer’s care-giving is biblical Christian counseling. Biblical Christian

counseling is the dynamic process of communication between a representative of God

and a person, family, or group in need designed to achieve healing in the relationship of

that person, family, or group to God, to self, and to others. Because people are relational

beings, the process of biblical Christian counseling addresses the scope of influential

interdependent relationships and draws attention to roles, needs, and God’s calling of

service to others. It looks for progress and development toward health and wholeness in

the will of God. 34


Biblical Christian counseling is a process, a procedure or course of action

involving particular techniques and schemes. The process is not random; rather, the steps

or stages of change are carefully selected with a course, a plan, and specific goals in

mind. The process is structured within the parameters of a definite time frame; and, the


Jones, The Counsel of Heaven on Earth, 59.








counseling encounter is typically a short duration as determined by the pastoral counselor

and the person(s) in need. This distinguishes the counseling process from the perpetual

ministries of evangelism and discipleship. The value of biblical Christian counseling is

that it attempts to raise an awareness of the specifics of a counselee’s current condition

that permits the person to move from guilt to the means of forgiveness, from separation to

the possibilities of restoration of home and family, from hurt to ultimate justice, from

feelings of worthlessness to incalculable value in the Lord. 35


This author’s guiding assumptions for biblical Christian counseling are: God is

sovereign and already at work before the counseling process begins; complex problems

do not always demand complex solutions; all people are created in the image of God and

as His image bearers, have infinite worth and value; “all have sinned and fall short of the

glory of God,” but hope is found in one’s choice of Jesus Christ as “all are justified freely

by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus” (Rom. 3:23-24); different

approaches can be helpful with different people; the counselee is the expert regarding his

or her problem and the best person to describe his or her preferred story; change is best

consolidated, supported, and secured under the authority of God’s Word, under the

control of the Holy Spirit, and within the community and connection offered by

responsible members and ministries. 36



Best Practice Four: Solution-Based Brief Pastoral Counseling

The “Solution-Based Brief Pastoral Counseling” approach moves the client

through four phases of therapy and is enhanced by the skill-set of the pastoral counselor.


Jones, The Counsel of Heaven on Earth, 60.


Rice, The Counselor’s Relational Style, PowerPoint 4.6.







The skill-set of the pastoral counselor includes such things as education, personality,

competencies, spirituality, biblical knowledge, ability to communicate, aptitude to listen,

capacity to observe, command of counseling sessions, awareness of limitations, and

repertoire of techniques and interventions. With an array of skills, the goal of the

pastoral counselor is to deliberately move the client through these four specific phases of

counseling in a minimal amount of counseling sessions.

Phase one asks the question, “What is the presenting story or problem?” The goal

of this phase is problem description; therefore, the counselee talks while the pastoral

counselor listens for understanding and demonstrates connection through relational style

alignment and active listening skills reflecting empathy, respect, and authenticity. The

chief aim of this phase is listening well; this is not the time to focus on assessment, but to

acquire understanding about what is happening and who and what are important to the


The second phase poses the inquiry, “What is the future preferred story or

solution look like?” During this phase, the pastoral counselor’s objective is goal

formulation; therefore, the pastoral counselor seeks to renew and maintain rapport while

anticipating an invitation to enter the care-seeker’s world. Here, the pastoral counselor

uses solution-focused questions to find out what the counselee considers the preferred

story or solution to be. During this part of the process, the pastoral counselor tests the

feasibility of the picture and generates possible ideas or alternatives if necessary. A

covert pastoral counselor’s assessment is conducted during this phase. The pastoral

counselor’s chief aim during this phase is collaborating well, and establishing a method

for tracking the client’s move toward change.







The third phase queries how the pastoral counselor and counselee will proceed

and partner toward the solution. The pastoral counselor’s goal during this phase is vision

clarification. At this point, the pastoral counselor and counselee must actively participate

together in the description and development of a strategy and solution to pursue a future

without the problematic pattern. A number of techniques or interventions such as asking

the miracle question and journaling can help with this part of the process.

The final phase addresses the issue of, “Who are the people that can best support

and secure the counselee in the process of change?” Here, the pastoral counselor’s goal

is promoting and supporting change; and, the counselee commits to a community of

accountability. During pattern dehabituation and rehabituation leading to changes

directed at the overarching goal, the pastoral counselor reinforces commitment for change

through supportive feedback, and by arranging accountability through the small-group

ministries of a local church.

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