relationship between antidepressant dose and depressive symptoms

1.  Who studied color vision and what is now known as the action potentials of neurons?
 
  Charles Darwin
  Francis Bacon
  René Descartes
  Hermann von Helmholtz

 

 

2.  The _____ approach to psychology emphasized the study of mental processes and focused on inner sensations, feelings, and thoughts.
 
  structuralism
  introspection
  psychoanalysis
  functionalism

 

 

 

3.  Who studied perception and cognition in children?
 
  George Miller
  Jean Piaget
  Carl Rogers
  B. F. Skinner

 

 

 

4.  What subfield of psychology examines the power of the social environment?
 
  Gestalt psychology
  Structuralism
  Humanism
  Social psychology

 

 

 

5.  Who developed the hierarchy of needs?
 
  Sigmund Freud
  Charles Darwin
  Abraham Maslow
  Jean Piaget

 

 

 

6.  Psychology has been an academic discipline for:
 
  less than 100 years.
  less than 300 years.
  more than 300 years.
  less than 200 years

 

 

 

7.  Who was the father of empiricism?
 
  René Descartes
  Francis Bacon
  Charles Darwin
  John Locke

 

 

 

8.  Who taught the first course in scientific psychology?
 
  Wilhelm Wundt
  Edward Titchener
  Hermann Ebbinghaus
  John Locke

 

 

 

9.  Who was the leader in functionalism?
 
  Wilhelm Wundt
  Hermann Ebbinghaus
  William James
  Edward Titchener

 

 

 

10.  _____ was the first women to get a doctorate degree in psychology and studied animal behavior.
 
  Mary Washburn
  Margaret Floy Washburn
  Ingrid Thorndike
  Mary Whiton Calkins

 

 

 

11.  What subfield of psychology emphasizes the positive potential of humans?
 
  Structuralism
  Humanism
  Gestalt psychology
  Social psychology

 

 

 

12.  _____ was a Greek philosopher, who was a nativist, believing aspects of a person’s character and intelligence were innate and present at birth.
 
  René Descartes
  Plato
  Aristotle
  Francis Bacon

 

 

 

13.  _____ was a Greek philosopher who was an empiricist, believing that everything a person knows comes from experiences and environment.
 
  René Descartes
  Aristotle
  Plato
  Francis Bacon

 

 

 

14.  _____ argued that the mind was a blank slate, or tabula rasa.
 
  John Locke
  René Descartes
  Charles Darwin
  Francis Bacon

 

 

 

15.  The _____ approach to psychology emphasized the purpose of each type of behavior, with a focus on the adaptive functions that the behavior played in helping our ancestors survive.
 
  structuralism
  psychoanalysis
  functionalism
  introspection

 

 

 

16.  _____ was denied her doctorate degree in psychology from Harvard.
 
  Mary Washburn
  Mary Whiton Calkins
  Ingrid Thorndike
  Margaret Floy Washburn

 

 

 

17.  What did Ivan Pavlov study?
 
  operant conditioning
  classical conditioning
  the Pavlovian box
  the law of effect

 

 

 

18.  _____ was a researcher who proclaimed that the behavioral findings of animal research could be applied to humans and did so with “Little Albert.”
 
  John Watson
  B. F. Skinner
  Ivan Pavlov
  Edward Thorndike

 

 

 

19.  _____ was the researcher who discovered the “magical number 7.”
 
  Carl Rogers
  B. F. Skinner
  Jean Piaget
  George Miller

 

 

 

20.  What subfield of psychology examines the adaptive significance of behavior and views natural selection as needed to promote survival?
 
  Structuralism
  Gestalt psychology
  Social psychology
  Evolutionary psychology

 

1.  The four major research perspectives in psychology are:
 
  biological, cognitive, behavioral, and sociocultural.
  genetic, environmental, humanistic, and psychodynamic.
  qualitative, quantitative, descriptive, and case study.
  clinical, counseling, consulting, and educational.

 

 

 

2.  With respect to the four major perspectives reviewed in the textbook, internal influences on behavior are to external influences on behavior as the _____ perspective is to the _____ perspective.
 
  sociocultural; cognitive
  behavioral; sociocultural
  biological; cognitive
  biological; behavioral

 

 

 

3.  One who believes that environmental events condition observable conduct is taking the _____ perspective.
 
  behavioral
  biological
  cognitive
  sociocultural

 

 

 

4.  Which sampling procedure is MOST likely to produce a random sample?
 
  A researcher goes to a dealership to obtain a list of the people who purchased luxury automobiles to gather information about the driving habits of American drivers.
  A researcher surveys first-year psychology students to gather information about the school’s first-year students’ feelings of homesickness.
  A researcher stands outside a football stadium entrance before a game asking people to fill out a survey to obtain the opinions of all city residents about the building of a new stadium.
  A researcher draws 60 names from a hat that contains the names of all 300 construction workers on a job site to survey them about the job site’s safety practices.

 

 

 

5.  A factor that can take on more than one value is called a(n):
 
  correlation.
  operational definition.
  hypothesis.
  variable.

 

 

 

6.  Even if two variables are highly correlated, one cannot say that their relationship is one of _____. Instead, the relationship may be the result of _____.
 
  cause-effect; the placebo effect
  predictability; random assignment
  predictability; control
  cause-effect; a third variable

 

 

 

7.  A table or figure that depicts the number of participants receiving each score for a given variable is called a(n):
 
  frequency distribution.
  correlation coefficient.
  inferential statistic.
  scatterplot.

 

 

 

8.  If one plotted the height of every adult male in the United States on a piece of paper, one would end up with a:
 
  bell-shaped line.
  jagged line.
  horizontal line.
  vertical line.

 

 

 

9.  When comparing two normal distributions with the same mean but different standard deviations, the one with the smaller standard deviation would:
 
  be shifted to the right.
  have a bell shape that is narrower and taller.
  be shifted to the left.
  have a bell shape that is wider and shorter.

 

1.  A ______ shows two variables combined as individual points on a graph.
 
  scatterplot
  positive correlation
  negative correlation
  frequency distribution

 

 

 

2.  Professor Rossi wants to represent the data she collected on age and income as single points on a chart. She can accomplish this using a:
 
  negative correlation.
  frequency distribution.
  positive correlation.
  scatterplot.

 

 

 

3.  Professor McManus shows a scatterplot of data that show that grades increase as the number of hours spent studying increases. Professor McManus has shown that:
 
  a positive correlation between studying and grades.
  a negative correlation between studying and grades.
  studying causes grades to increase.
  not studying causes grades to decrease.

 

 

 

4.  A positive correlation:
 
  indicates that one variable causes an increase in the other variable.
  indicates that one variable causes a decrease in the other variable.
  indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases.
  indicates that as one variable increases, the other variable increases.

 

 

 

5.  Michael notices that the plants in his garden that are in the shade most of the day are smaller than the ones that are in the sun. What can Michael conclude about the relationship between sunlight and plant growth?
 
  that plants in the shade get less food from the soil.
  a negative correlation between amount of sunlight and plant growth.
  that plants in the sun get more food from the soil.
  a positive correlation between amount of sunlight and plant growth.

 

 

 

6.  Professor Gliserman is studying the effect of alcohol on response time. Professor Gliserman will likely find _____ between the two variables.
 
  no relationship
  negative correlation
  a scatterplot
  positive correlation

 

 

 

7.  An upward sloping scatterplot indicates:
 
  a correlation coefficient that is less than zero.
  negative correlation.
  positive correlation.
  no relationship.

 

 

 

8.  A downward sloping scatterplot indicates:
 
  no relationship.
  a correlation coefficient that is greater than zero.
  negative correlation.
  positive correlation.

 

 

 

9.  The correlation coefficient is represented by:
 
  r.
  c.
  k.
  d.

 

 

 

10.  Which of the following correlation coefficients may represent a strong positive correlation?
 
  0.80
  0.10
  1.20
  -0.80

 

 

 

11.  Correlation coefficients can range from:
 
  -2 to 2.
  0 to 1.
  -1 to 1.
  -1 to 0.

 

 

 

12.  Professor Hartwick finds that people who tend to score low on one variable tend to score low on another variable. Professor Hartwick has found:
 
  a positive correlation.
  no relationship.
  a negative correlation.
  a correlation coefficient that is less than zero.

 

 

 

13.  Which of the following is a correct representation of a strong negative correlation?
 
  r = -0.22
  c = -0.82
  r = -0.82
  c = -0.22

 

 

 

14.  Which of the following correlation coefficients would you expect to see between month of birth (1 through 12) and scores on an intelligence test?
 
  r = 0.52
  r = -0.62
  r = -0.02
  r = 0.72

 

 

 

15.  Scatterplots show:
 
  the frequency of individual test scores.
  bars representing different variables.
  two scores represented as individual points on the graph.
  causal relationships between two variables.

 

 

 

16.  Professor Andrews found that as the number of days absent increases, students grades decrease. Professor Andrews has found:
 
  that days absent causes grades to decrease.
  that attending class causes grades to increase.
  a positive correlation between days absent and grades.
  a negative correlation between days absent and grades.

 

 

 

17.  If high values in one variable are associated with both high and low values of the other variables, the variables are:
 
  positively correlated.
  negatively correlated.
  a correlation coefficient.
  uncorrelated.

 

 

 

18.  Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the weakest negative correlation?
 
  -0.20
  -0.80
  -1.01
  0.10

 

 

 

19.  Dr. Velasquez found a correlation of r = 0.02 in a recent study. The two variables in his study are:
 
  uncorrelated.
  downward sloping.
  negatively correlated.
  positively correlated.

 

 

 

20.  Professor Zhang found a correlation of -0.76. What data could this correlation represent?
 
  the relationship between month of year and anxiety
  the relationship between antidepressant dose and depressive symptoms
  the relationship between depressive symptoms and gender
  the relationship between depressive symptoms and age

 

 

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