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Psychology: The Science of the Mind/ The Mind At Work
1. If you adopt the _______ perspective, you’ll reject an emphasis on what goes on in people’s minds in favor of focusing on measurable behaviors that can be objectively measured. A. neuroscience B. behavioral C. psychodynamic D. cognitive
2. Agatha maintains that people are capable of freely making voluntary choices. Constance is mainly focused on how aggression is caused by genetic inheritance. It seems reasonable to assume that Constance is not much interested in environmental factors impacting behavior while Agatha rejects A. determinism. B. introspection. C. mental processes. D. heredity.
3. A clinical experiment is designed in such a way that neither the researchers dispensing a treatment nor the persons in the experimental or control groups know if they’re getting a sugar pill or a new drug. This sort of experimental design is employing a/an _______ procedure. A. experimenter expectations B. placebo C. double-blind D. reverse psychology
4. In conducting an experiment, the experimenter divides a sample group of 60 children into two groups of 30 called group A and group B. To make sure the two groups are similar in terms of age, IQ, and so on, the experimenter will assign people to either group A or B using a/an ________ assignment procedure, such as a coin toss, where heads sends a subject to group A and tails sends a subject to group B. A. random B. experimental C. independent D. subjective
5. Lorraine and Albert are discussing neurotransmitters, getting ready for an exam. Lorraine maintains that neuronal dendrites sort excitatory and inhibitory messages through a process of elimination dictated by reuptake activity. Albert, on the other hand, argues that inhibitory messages always cancel out excitatory messages. Who is correct? A. Neither Lorraine nor Albert is correct. B. Albert is correct. C. Lorraine is correct. D. Both Lorraine and Albert are correct.
6. I study a sample of 100 high school students and find that student IQ scores increase significantly as the level of reported parental income increases. I can conclude from this that A. there’s a positive correlation between parental income and children’s IQ scores. B. higher parental income causes an increase in children’s IQ scores. C. students get smarter when their parents earn more money. D. there’s a negative relationship between parental income and children’s IQ scores.
7. Dr. Lombard’s research is focused on the capacity of the human mind to store and retrieve information. Her colleague, Dr. Fry, is a clinician who strives to help his clients be “the best that they can be.” As a fly on the wall listening to the two psychologists’ friendly disputes during coffee breaks, which of these assertions would you most likely expect from Dr. Fry? A. A person’s basic assumptions about themselves are inevitably false. B. If biology is destiny the concept of free will can be only an illusion. C. People can’t be held responsible for their life choices. D. Mental confusion is best compared to a deficiency in short-term memory.
8. You’ll need to select a sample that represents a larger group when you’re conducting A. naturalistic observation. B. archival research. C. a case study. D. survey research.
9. Under Weber’s law, we’ll notice a stimulus difference such that it will be a constant proportion of the intensity of the initial stimulus. Thus, for weight, we’ll notice a one-ounce difference in a weight of 50 ounces. Weber’s law applies most directly to the concept of A. absolute threshold. B. perceived stimulus. C. sensory adaptation. D. difference threshold.
10. In the ear, the basilar membrane and hair cells are found in the A. cochlea. B. anvil and stirrup. C. auditory nerve. D. oval window.
11. A reflex, like automatically removing your hand from a hot stove, involves pain messages sent to the spinal cord by way of _______ neurons, while the movement of your hand is controlled by _______ neurons. A. motor; sensory B. sensory; motor C. somatic; sensory D. somatic; sympathetic
12. Which of the following statements regarding taste and smell is true? A. Taste buds wear out and are replaced about every 25 days. B. Women tend to have a better sense of smell than men. C. So-called supertasters may be inclined to obesity. D. People often have a very short memory of smells.
13. According to a Gestalt principle called _______, when we’re looking at a crowd of people, we tend to perceive people grouped close together as belonging to a common or related group. A. simplicity B. closure C. expectancy D. proximity
14. The left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is more specialized in language functions and processing information sequentially. The right hemisphere tends to specialize in spatial perception and distinguishing patterns. These are examples of cortex A. adaptation. B. neuroplasticity. C. evolution. D. lateralization.
15. Which of the following statements regarding depth perception is true? A. Experience teaches us to perceive relative size as an indicator of the color of an object. B. Motion parallax is detected because we perceive binocular disparity. C. The change in position of an object relative to the retina is a binocular cue. D. Texture gradient is a monocular cue.
16. Within the cerebral cortex, the _______ area is found in the occipital lobe. A. main auditory B. visual C. association D. somatosensory
17. Which of the following statements regarding processing is true? A. Top-down processing allows us to fill in the gaps in an incomplete or ambiguous pattern. B. Top-down processing is a process of recognizing and processing components of a pattern. End of exam C. Bottom-up processing is guided by experience, expectations, and motivations. D. Bottom-up processing allows us to fill in the gaps in an incomplete or ambiguous pattern.
18. You could locate receptor sites involved in transmitting a nerve impulse by finding the A. synapse. B. endorphins. C. neural regulators. D. myelin.
19. Among the advanced technologies used to study the brain’s structure and functions, which one provides detailed three-dimensional images of the brain’s structures and activities? A. Electroencephalogram B. Functional magnetic resonance imaging C. Positron emission tomography D. Transcranial magnetic stimulation
20. In his research, Dr. Caulfield wants to compare levels of test anxiety among high school students in grades 10 and 12. His hypothesis is that seniors will have higher levels of test anxiety than sophomores will. His _______ definition of test anxiety for each person in his sample will be a self-reported test-anxiety level, marked in a questionnaire as “high,” “moderate,” or “low.” A. theoretical B. functional C. subjective D. operational ———————————————————————–
1. Which of the following statements regarding hypnosis is the best response? A. People who are most susceptible to hypnosis are unable to concentrate on anything for very long. B. Not all psychologists feel that hypnosis is a distinct altered state of consciousness. C. All people are susceptible to hypnosis. D. In general, today’s researchers have concluded that hypnosis is distinct from ordinary waking consciousness.
2. Which of the following statements regarding REM sleep is true? A. REM sleep occurs during stage 3 sleep. B. Dreaming causes major muscle contractions and tossing and turning. C. Roughly 20 percent of adult sleep time is accompanied by REM. D. REM sleep occurs only during state 4 sleep.
3. Trying to make sense of an article in the world events section of the Daily Mirror, Matlock turns to Thomas and asks, “Where’s Khartoum?” Thomas, looking up from his coffee, says, “Africa. It’s the capital of Sudan.” If you hold with the idea that long-term memory includes distinct modules, what sort of memory does Thomas’s reply indicate? A. Procedural—episodic B. Declarative—episodic C. Declarative—semantic D. Procedural—semantic
4. I’m having some trouble recalling what I’ve previously learned about the Battle of Gettysburg because I’ve just read a new book offering new information on that Civil War battle. This sort of phenomenon is referred to as _______ interference. A. passive B. proactive C. retroactive D. distractive
5. A particular kind of neuron, called a _______ neuron, fires when we observe someone else’s behavior. A. modeling B. reflective C. mirror D. cognitive
6. Natasha has been living Philadelphia for several months and is rapidly mastering the English language. However, she often turns to her American friend, Emily, when she is uncertain about a concept. One day, Natasha turns to Emily and asks, “What are you meaning when you say this word ‘vehicle’?” If you were Emily, which of these prototypes would be most likely to point to feel fairly certain that Natasha “gets it”? A. An automobile B. An escalator C. An elevator D. A jet liner passing overhead.
7. You deprive your six-year-old of dessert each time he fails to eat his spinach. In this sort of _______, you weaken a response through taking away something pleasant or desired. A. positive reinforcement B. positive punishment C. negative reinforcement D. negative punishment
8. A common repetitive technique for moving new information from short-term memory to long-term memory is called A. elaboration. B. selective reduction. C. reduction. D. rehearsal.
9. I reward your behavior after I observe you correctly following a product assembly procedure six times. In operant conditioning, this kind of partial reinforcement is based on a _______ schedule. A. fixed-interval B. variable-ratio C. variable-interval D. fixed-ratio
10. In a lab devoted to sleep disorders Julio points to the brain wave monitor, turns to Laura and says, “Subject is going into non-REM Stage 2.” Laura looking at the monitor, says, “Got it; I’m recording the time.” What would Laura and Julio see on the monitor to assure them that the subject has entered Stage 2 sleep? A. Sleep disturbance is indicated by sharp wave spikes. B. Brain waves are irregular and episodic. C. Sleep spindles appear. D. Brain waves are getting slower and more regular.
11. After taking the drug, Rupert reported vivid hallucinations, altered perception of sounds and colors, and distorted time perception. It’s most likely that the drug Rupert took was A. MDMA. B. LSD. C. marijuana. D. cocaine.
12. As a volunteer subject in a sleep research lab, Conrad is routinely awakened each time he shows physiological signs of entering REM sleep. As a result, we would not be surprised to discover that, during Session 19, when Conrad is left undisturbed all night, A. The content of Conrad’s dreams tends to reflect concern with excretive functions. B. Conrad exhibits more time spent in REM sleep. C. The content of Conrad’s dreams is significantly more focused on threat or violence. D. Conrad exhibits less time spent in REM sleep.
13. A _______ reinforcement is one that satisfies a biological need. A. positive B. neutral C. primary D. conditional
14. Professor Dore maintains that language develops through the interplay of genetically determined factors and environmental influences that shape how language is learned. Professor Dore supports the A. interaction approach to language development. B. linguistic-relativity hypothesis. C. nativist approach to language development. D. learning theory approach to language development.
15. In an instance of _______ recovery, a conditioned response that has been extinguished reappears when a person is exposed to a related stimulus. A. automatic B. spontaneous C. generalized D. incomplete 16. Methadone can be used to treat heroin addiction. However, the main drawback in this sort of treatment is that methadone A. is very expensive to produce, since it’s derived from rare tropical plants. B. is psychologically addictive. C. provides the same sort of “high” the addict experiences with heroin. D. is biologically addictive.
17. I want to condition a pet pig to come running for a food reward when I blow a whistle. In the process of this conditioning effort, the main idea is to A. teach the pig to pay attention to the sound of a whistle. B. pair a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. C. pair a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. End of exam D. teach the pig to expect food when it’s hungry.
18. I help Cameron learn to play a guitar by guiding him through a sequence of reinforced behaviors, such as holding the guitar, tuning the guitar, and properly fingering simple chords. In the operant conditioning perspective, this is called A. graded reinforcement. B. shaping. C. latent learning. D. gradual reinforcement.
19. Knowing that Dr. Mallet, a clinical psychologist, is interested in the latent and manifest content of his client’s dreams, it’s safest to suspect that Dr. Mallet embraces _______ theory. A. activation-synthesis B. unconscious wish-fulfillment C. repressive-activation D. dreams-for-survival
20. Which of the following best illustrates a negative reinforcer? A. Carmine changes his major to English lit after failing a math exam. B. Nancy learns that she prefers chocolate over vanilla. C. Copland gives up candy to stave off chronic acid indigestion. D. On a hot day, Lindberg always drinks lemonade.