proofreading strategies

proofreading strategies

Proofreading Experiment 1 Introduction & method

Psych 311 lab

 

1

Can You Read This?

Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, olny taht the frist and lsat ltteres are at the rghit pcleas. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by ilstef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

 

Read the following sentence slowly…

FROZEN FOODS ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF REFRIGERATION

3

Now count the F’s in the sentence. Count only once.

 

How many F’s did you find?

?

How many F’s did you find?

Four?

Correct answer is seven!

FROZEN FOODS ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF REFRIGERATION

Proofreading

Many people required to proofread something they have written

 

As students, we do this OFTEN!

Even word processors and spell check don’t catch everything.

 

Very few people can do with 100% accuracy

 

 

Why Can’t We Proofread Accurately?

Simultaneous occurrence of two complex tasks

Reading AND detecting errors is difficult

 

Perceptual factors

Frsit Eamxlpe

 

Social media does not place an emphasis on proofreading

 

Exposure to perfect copies causes us to take them for granted

(Wong, 1973)

7

Perceptual factors

If comprehension id satisfied we move one. Only when it is not do we stop.

Proofreading

What factors influence our proofreading abilities?

 

External/Personal

noise level, fatigue, spelling ability, eyesight

 

Internal/Cognitive factors

Perception:

Visually closer

o instead of c

Phonetically closer

werk instead of work

 

Mistakes that are visually closer to the correct spelling are easier to miss

 

 

Other research on proofreading strategies?

Riefer (1991;1993)

 

Backwards reading

Actually worse than normal reading

But, reading speed might be a factor

 

Team proofreading

One person reads out loud to a partner who follows along silently

 

Results showed more mistakes were found in the team condition

 

However, two people working separately on the same passage vs. one person looking at the passage gave same results

 

 

 

Our current study

Reading out loud vs. reading silently

 

Advantages of reading out loud

 

Slows you down

 

Recite every syllable

 

Will help detect phonological anomalies

 

 

Hypothesis

Reading out loud vs. reading silently

Which one is the effective proofreading strategy?

Specifically, in detecting spelling errors –

Aloud > Silent

Participants

Recruitment process

The convenience sampling method

Total sample size,

Demographic information – (report whatever data were collected)

Gender, age (report the M and SD for each category, if available)

(Ethnicity) (report %)

English-proficiency – (report %)

E.G., “Among participants, 30% identified as Latino, 25% ….”

No incentives were offered to participants in this study.

All participants were treated according to the ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002)

What did you use?: Materials

Two sets of booklets consisted of 4 materials:

Informed Consent – for permission

Demographic information sheet – what did you collect here?

General instruction – what does this explain?

Four passages (describe the content and the alteration made here)

Where did it come from?

What were there?

What was the order?

Why change in order? (counterbalanced to reduce carryover effect.)

Debriefing Statement – what was this?

Describe each material thoroughly.

 

 

13

What did you do?: Procedure

Describe step by step (story) of the data collection

The Participants vs. Participants (don’t use a participant or my participant)

Participants were individually tested in a quiet setting.

Given the consent

Collected demographic information

Read general instruction

Provided four testing passages

Debriefed and thanked

 

14

Design and Data Analysis

A within subject design

The independent variable was … with two levels: ______ and _____.

The dependent variable was…

Analysis – correlated t-test at p < .05

Your Responsibility

Each student will be responsible for collecting data from one individual (family, friend, coworker)

 

Conduct your experiment in a quiet place, free from distractions and interruptions

 

Choose a participant who will take it seriously and perform to the best of their ability

 

Read all instructions to the participant carefully, and allow the participant to have any questions answered before they begin

 

Provide a writing utensil

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