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18 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY Abstract Technology in the modern workplace has drastically changed how businesses operate, allowing them to become more agile and efficient. This paper looks at the role of technology in organizational communication, including conflict management and motivating employees. Factors such as security, user-friendliness, compatibility, cost, and training get considered when implementing technology in touch. Technology can streamline processes, reduce costs, and even improve customer service. It can also provide real-time feedback and enable organizations to quickly make changes based on customer feedback. With the exemplary implementation of technology, organizations can benefit from increased communication, conflict management, and employee motivation. Keywords: employee motivation, security, organizational communication, cost Introduction Technology in the modern workplace has completely revolutionized the way businesses operate. Modern technology has enabled companies to work smarter and faster, from automated processes and cloud computing to data-driven analytics. The introduction of technology in the workplace has been a game-changer, letting businesses streamline operations, improve efficiency, and minimize costs. Technology has enabled companies to become more agile, allowing them to respond more quickly to changes in the market. In this paper, the role of technology in enabling organizational communication to thrive will be assessed, including conflict management and strategies for motivating employees. Organizational communication is an essential part of any successful business. It is how information gets exchanged between different members of a company. From communication tools such as email and instant messaging to collaborative software and even social media, there are several different ways technology can be used to enhance organizational communication. Technology can help organizations communicate more quickly and effectively with their employees, customers, and other stakeholders. It can help reduce costs, streamline processes, and enhance customer service and many other business areas. Modern technology can also provide real-time feedback, allowing organizations to quickly make changes and adjust their strategies based on customer feedback. Literature Review This literature review will draw upon various communication studies, organizational theories, and research conducted in business, technology, and communication to provide an in-depth review of the current knowledge and understanding of technology’s role in corporate communication. The findings from these studies were organized into seven themes. Theme 1: Factors Considered in the Implementation of Technology in Organizational Communication List of Factors When implementing technology in organizational communication, several factors must be considered. They include: Security. It is essential to ensure that any technology implemented is secure to protect the organization’s data and communication from unauthorized access (Hasan et al., 2022). Encryption should be used to protect data, and organizations should also ensure that any communication software or applications are secure and regularly updated. User-friendliness. Technology should be implemented in a way that is user-friendly for all members of the organization (Silva-C, 2019). It includes ensuring that it is easy to use and understand and that the user interface is intuitive. Compatibility. It is crucial to ensure that the technology implemented is compatible with the organization’s other systems and applications. It will help ensure that the technology can easily integrate into the organization’s existing processes. Cost. Organizations should consider the cost associated with implementing technology and ensure that it is cost-effective and within the budget. Organizations should look for ways to reduce costs related to implementation, such as using open-source technology or existing hardware and software. Training. Organizations should ensure that all technology users get adequately trained in its use (Kinicki & Fugate, 2016). It includes providing training materials, tutorials, and support as needed. It will help ensure that users understand how to use the technology and can effectively use it to support the organization’s communication. Theme 2: Best Practices for Utilizing Technology in Business Communication Ensuring that technology gets used efficiently and effectively is vital. Adherence to specific best practices when utilizing technology in business communication; otherwise, gaps and inconsistencies are inevitable. According to Wike et al. (2020), companies should create a framework that outlines how technology should get used in communication. This framework should include guidelines for using technology to optimize communication and effectively share information. It should also provide a plan for how to manage data, including how to keep it secure. Companies should choose the right technology for the job. It means selecting the most appropriate tools and platforms to facilitate communication. Companies should consider the size of their team, the information they will share, and their budget when selecting the right tools. The author also advises all communication technology to get properly tested and maintained. Testing can help identify any technical issues or bugs that could cause communication disruptions. Maintenance is also vital to ensure that technology is up-to-date and running optimally. Lovari & Bowen (2020) illustrate that companies should prioritize security when utilizing technology for communication. Encryption and two-factor authentication can help protect confidential data from unauthorized access. Companies should also ensure that employees are trained to use technology securely. Companies should also monitor and evaluate their communication technology. It means keeping track of how the technology gets used, how effective it is, and how it can be improved. Companies should also use analytics to measure the performance of their communication technology. Technology can be a powerful tool for businesses, but it should always be used responsibly and with the right objectives. Ali (2020) also advises the proper training and support to ensure that employees use technology effectively. It includes providing tutorials, troubleshooting guides, and other resources to help employees understand how to use the technology. By following these best practices, companies can ensure they make the most of their communication technology. Theme 3: Challenges for Leveraging Technology in Business Communication In today’s digital world, leveraging technology for business communication is becoming increasingly important. While using technology for business communication offers many advantages, it can also present some challenges. Harborth & Kümpers (2022) illustrates that the biggest challenge of leveraging technology in business communication is securing the technology. Cybersecurity threats are a significant concern for businesses, and any technology used for communication must be secure and not vulnerable to data breaches. The author explains that companies must ensure that their chosen technology complies with relevant regulations and laws, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). The need to keep up with the latest advances has become vital if technology is to integrate effectively with organizational communication. Technology is constantly evolving, and businesses must ensure they are staying caught up by relying on outdated tools and systems. Furthermore, new technologies can be challenging to implement and require time and resources. It can be a challenge for smaller businesses needing more financial resources or personnel to keep up with the latest advances. Wirtz (2019) explains that businesses should consider the cost of technology when leveraging it for communication. Software and hardware can be expensive, and companies must ensure they are getting value for money. Businesses may need to factor in the cost of training personnel to use the technology effectively. Businesses must also consider the user experience when leveraging technology for communication. Any technology used for communication must be user-friendly and intuitive. Employees may need help to be able to use it effectively. Businesses must also consider the scalability of the technology and ensure that it can grow with the company as it expands. Theme 4: Conflict Management through Organizational Communication Lande et al. (2018) investigated the relationship between climate for conflict management, work engagement, and exposure to workplace bullying. The study used a sample of 463 employees from the Norwegian Navy and found a moderated mediation effect. Specifically, the study found that a favorable climate for conflict management positively affected work engagement, but only when employees had gotten exposed to low levels of workplace bullying. In other words, when employees got exposed to high levels of workplace bullying, the positive effect of a favorable climate for conflict management on work engagement was not observed. A favorable environment for conflict management acted as a buffer, reducing the negative impact of workplace bullying on work engagement (Lande et al., 2018). The study found that the mediating effect of work engagement was more substantial for employees exposed to low levels of bullying than those exposed to high levels Organizational communication is a powerful tool for resolving conflicts. Establishing a sound communication system within a company is essential to resolve disputes quickly and effectively. When open and transparent communication, employees can share their perspectives and feelings, express their concerns, and find solutions that benefit all parties. Proper communication helps to create an environment of mutual respect, which is essential for resolving any conflict. The main finding of the research by Paliszkiewicz & Döngül (2022) on digital conflict management in the workplace is the need for organizations to develop effective techniques to manage digital conflicts. The authors state that digital conflicts get caused by a lack of clarity in communication, inadequate processes for setting expectations, and an inability to manage interpersonal dynamics. They also identify the need for organizations to create a culture of trust and respect, which allows for open and honest dialogue. To facilitate effective digital conflict management, the authors suggest that organizations establish clear guidelines and expectations, provide digital communication and conflict resolution training, and create a safe and supportive environment for employees to voice their concerns. They suggest that organizations use existing technologies to facilitate digital conflict resolution, such as video conferencing, chatbots, and artificial intelligence. They emphasize the need for organizations to create a culture of trust, respect, and collaboration where employees feel valued and respected. Organizational communication helps to identify the root cause of a conflict and address it directly. Understanding the source of the competition makes it possible to create acceptable solutions for all parties. Regular communication helps to ensure that any issues get addressed promptly, reducing the possibility of further conflict. Organizational communication can help to create a culture of collaboration (Van Osch et al. 2015). When individuals are encouraged to work together, they are more likely to devise creative solutions to resolve conflicts. Collaborative communication allows employees to share their different perspectives, which can benefit the entire team. Theme 5: Strategies of Conflict Management Conflict management entails identifying and dealing with disputes in a constructive way. It is an essential skill for anyone in a leadership position, and it can apply to various situations, from interpersonal disagreements to international disputes (Todorova et al., 2022). There are several strategies for conflict management, and the best approach to use in any given case will depend on the context, the parties involved, and the desired outcomes. The first strategy is avoiding conflict altogether. It can be done by compromising, diffusing, or bypassing the issue. This approach is often practical when the competition could be more important or when the parties involved need more resources or motivation to resolve it (Lande et al., 2018). The second strategy is accommodating, which involves one party yielding to the wishes of the other. It can be a good option when the conflict is minor, and one party is willing to sacrifice some of their needs to maintain the relationship. The third strategy is competing, which involves trying to win or dominate the other party. It can be effective in high-stakes situations, such as disputes between nations, but it can also lead to further animosity and damage relationships. The fourth strategy is collaborating, which involves both parties working together to find a mutually beneficial solution. It is often the most effective, as it allows both parties to feel heard and respected and can lead to more creative and innovative solutions (Paliszkiewicz & Döngül, 2022). The fifth strategy is problem-solving, which involves both parties identifying the issues, exploring options, and working together to develop a joint solution. It is often the most effective in business settings. It allows both parties to express their viewpoints, consider potential solutions, and reach an agreement. Theme 6: Negotiation in Organizations Huang (2021) illustrates that negotiations in the workplace are a standard tool to resolve conflicts and reach agreements between two or more parties. Negotiations can get used to hammer out solutions to various issues, such as wages, working hours, job duties, and benefits. Negotiations also get used to resolve disputes between employees and management and negotiate new contracts. The most common cause of negotiations in the workplace is a disagreement between two or more parties over an issue. It can be as simple as a disagreement over working hours or as complex as a dispute over a proposed contract. Both sides may disagree over the terms of the agreement, and negotiations get used to reaching an agreement that both parties can accept. Another reason talks occur in the workplace is due to changes in the market or the company’s operating environment. For example, if a company faces financial difficulties, it may need to negotiate wages and other benefits with its employees. Negotiations can also occur due to changes in the law or regulations. For example, suppose a new law requires employers to provide specific benefits or job protections. In that case, negotiations may be necessary to ensure both parties can meet their obligations under the new law. Similarly, if a company expands, it may need to negotiate with its employees over job duties and other aspects of their employment. Huang (2021) found that second-generation Asian American professionals face a unique set of challenges in the workplace, including a perceived lack of support from their managers, an inability to fit in with the majority white culture, and a need to negotiate their cultural identity to be successful. Second-generation Asian Americans will likely encounter discrimination, stereotyping, and micro-aggressions in their careers (Ahn et al., 2022). The research found that there is a lack of knowledge among employers about the unique needs of second-generation Asian Americans and that there is a need for increased professional development and support to help these individuals succeed. The research found that second-generation Asian American professionals often feel isolated and struggle to find mentors and role models in the workplace. Therefore, there is a need to negotiate a new working environment and culture. Theme 7: Motivation and Feedback Motivation and feedback are essential components of any thriving working environment. Employees can better understand what is expected of them and how they can improve by providing meaningful feedback. It will help employees to develop their skills, become more productive and be more satisfied with their job. Positive reinforcement and recognition for good work will help boost motivation and morale (Kumari et al. 2021). For example, managers can reward employees for exceeding or meeting a goal. It will help to create a culture of excellence where employees feel valued and appreciated for their hard work. Regularly scheduled performance reviews and open dialogue between employers and employees can help ensure that everyone is on the same page and that any issues or concerns can get addressed quickly and effectively. Mahmoud et al. (2020) found that the main findings of this study were varying levels of workplace motivation across the X, Y, and Z generations. The X generation, or Baby Boomers, were motivated primarily by job security, good benefits, and loyalty. The Y generation, or Millennials, were motivated more by career development opportunities, work-life balance, and recognition. The Z generation, or Generation Z, was motivated primarily by autonomy, creativity, and purpose. The study found that the varying life experiences of each generation could explain generational differences in workplace motivation. X-generation workers had typically experienced more traditional, hierarchical work environments and were more focused on stability and security. Y-generation workers shared more collaborative work environments and were more focused on career growth and development (Mahmoud et al., 2020). Z-generation workers had experienced more technology-driven work environments and were more focused on autonomy, creativity, and purpose. Conclusion Organizational communication is essential for the success of any business, and technology has played an integral role in helping organizations achieve that success. Technology has enabled organizations to communicate more effectively and efficiently, which has improved collaboration, increased productivity, and allowed organizations to reach new markets. Technology has also enabled organizations to create more targeted messages, as well as to create a more personalized experience for customers. As technology evolves, organizations can take advantage of more opportunities to engage with their customers and build strong relationships. Technology has become an invaluable tool for organizational communication and will continue to be so. References Ahn, L. H., Keum, B. T., Meizys, G. M., Choudry, A., Gomes, M. A., & Wang, L. (2022). Second-generation Asian American women’s gendered racial socialization. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 69(2), 129 –145. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000575 Ali, W. (2020). Online and Remote Learning in Higher Education Institutes: A Necessity in light of COVID-19 Pandemic. Higher Education Studies, 10(3), 16. https://doi.org/10.5539/hes.v10n3p16 Einarsen, S., Skogstad, A., Rørvik, E., Lande, Å. B., & Nielsen, M. B. (2018). Climate for Conflict management, exposure to workplace bullying and work engagement: a moderated mediation analysis. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09585192.2016.1164216 Harborth, D., & Kümpers, K. (2022). Intelligence augmentation: Rethinking the future of work. By leveraging human performance and abilities. Virtual Reality. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10055-021-00590-7 Hasan, M. K., Ghazal, T. M., Saeed, R. A., Pandey, B., Gohel, H., Eshmawi, A. A., … & Alkhassawneh, H. M. (2022). A review of security threats, vulnerabilities, and counter measures of 5G enabled Internet‐of‐Medical‐Things. IET Communications, 16(5), 421-432. https://doi.org/10.1049/cmu2.12301 Huang, T. J. (2021). Negotiating the workplace: Second-generation Asian American professionals’ early experiences. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369183X.2020.1778455 Kinicki, A., & Fugate, M. (2021). Organizational behavior: A practical, problem-solving approach (Third). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. http://ecommerce-prod.mheducation.com.s3.amazonaws.com/unitas/highered/changes/kinicki-orgbehavior-3e.pdf Kumari, K., Barkat Ali, S., & Abbas, J. (2021). Examining the role of motivation and reward in employees’ job performance through the mediating effect of job satisfaction: An empirical evidence. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 10(4), 401-420. Lovari, A., & Bowen, S. A. (2020). Social media in disaster communication: A case Study of strategies, barriers, and ethical implications. Journal of Public Affairs, 20(1), e1967. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pa.1967 Mahmoud, A. B., Fuxman, L., Mohr, I., Reisel, W. D., & Grigoriou, N. (2020). “We aren’t your reincarnation!” workplace motivation across X, Y, and Z generations. International Journal of Manpower. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJM-09-2019-0448/full/html Paliszkiewicz, J., & Döngül, E. S. (2022). Digital conflict management in the workplace. In Managing the Digital Workplace in the Post-Pandemic (pp. 93-102). Routledge. Silva-C, A. (2019). The attitude of managers toward telework, why is it so difficult to adopt it in organizations? Technology in Society, 59, 101133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2019.04.009. Syakur, A., Susilo, T. A. B., Wike, W., & Ahmadi, R. (2020). Sustainability of communication, organizational culture, cooperation, trust, and leadership style for lecturer commitments in higher education. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Sustainability-of-Communication%2C-Organizational-and-Syakur-Susilo/60f981fbb4de0cbec129ec308418c2e3de990c35?p2df Todorova, G., Goh, K. T., & Weingart, L. R. (2022). The effects of conflict type and conflict expression intensity on conflict management. International Journal of Conflict Management, 33(2), 245-272. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCMA-03-2021-0042 Van Osch, W., Steinfield, C. W., & Balogh, B. A. (2015). Enterprise social media: Challenges and opportunities for organizational communication and collaboration. In 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 763-772). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2015.97 Wirtz, J. (2019). Organizational ambidexterity: cost-effective service excellence, service robots, and artificial intelligence. Organizational Dynamics, 49(3), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2019.04.005
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PowerPoint (or Prezi) Presentation: Research Paper (15% toward final grade) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVYwKXPBb7w http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QadFvf3D8P8 Prepare a PowerPoint (or Prezi) presentation (minimum of 20 slides with speaker notes section included) to present your Research Paper findings to the class. Your presentation should last 10-15 minutes with a 5 minute Q/A period following the presentation. PowerPoint Presentation Rubric CATEGORY Meets Expectations 15-20 Proficient 10-14 Needs Improvement 5-9 Incomplete/Nonexistent 0-4 Content – Accuracy (20 slide minimum) and Sequencing of Information All content throughout the presentation is accurate. At least 20 slides. Information is organized in a clear, logical way. It is easy to anticipate the next slide. Most of the content is accurate but there is one piece of information that seems inaccurate. Most information is organized in a clear, logical way. One slide or piece of information seems out of place. The content is generally accurate, but one piece of information is clearly inaccurate. Some information is logically sequenced. An occasional slide or piece of information seems out of place. Content confusing or contains more than two factual errors. Fewer than 20 slides. There is no clear plan for the organization of information. Notes (bottom of PowerPoint slides) Project includes all notes needed to give a good understanding of the topic. Project is lacking in one or two key areas of notes. Project is missing more than two key notes. Project has no notes at the bottom of the PowerPoint slides. Use of Graphics All graphics are attractive (size and colors) and support the topic of the presentation. A few graphics are not attractive but all support the topic of the presentation. All graphics are attractive but a few do not support the topic of the presentation. Several graphics are unattractive AND detract from the content of the presentation. Text – Font Choice & Formatting and Spelling and Grammar Font formats (color, bold, italic) have been carefully planned to enhance readability and content. Presentation has no misspellings or grammatical errors. Font formats have been carefully planned to enhance readability. Presentation has 1-2 misspellings, but no grammatical errors. Font formatting has been carefully planned to complement the content. It may be a little hard to read. Presentation has 1-2 grammatical errors but no misspellings. Font formatting makes it very difficult to read the material. Presentation has more than 2 grammatical and/or spelling errors. Links to Textbook or Research Text/Research concepts are mentioned at least 6 times Approximately 3-5 links to text/research within paper Brief, but unsubstantial links to text/research No mention of any information from the text/research Tips for Effective PowerPoint Presentations Preparing Your Slides: Presentation Design Don’t overload your slides with too much text or data. Let the picture or graphic tell the story. Avoid too much text! Type key words in the PowerPoint Notes area listing what to say when displaying the slide. The notes are printable. Number your slides and give them a title. Use the “summary slide” feature in slide sorter view to prepare an Agenda or Table of Contents slide. Prepare a company logo slide for your presentation, if you wish. You can add a logo and other graphics to every slide using the slide master feature. Proof read everything, including visuals and numbers. Keep “like” topics together Strive for similar line lengths for text. Visual elements A font size of 28 to 34 with a bold font is recommended for subtitles. The title default size is 44. Use a san serif font for titles. Use clear, simple visuals. Don’t confuse the audience. Use contrast: light on dark or dark on light. Graphics should make a key concept clearer. Place your graphics in a similar location within each screen. The drawing toolbar is extremely useful You can: Insert clip art Insert pictures Use Word Art Use text boxes Insert charts and diagrams Insert arrows, banners, and thought balloons. To temporarily clear the screen press W or B during the presentation. Press Enter to resume the presentation. Text Font size must be large enough to be easily read. Size 28 to 34 with a bold font is recommended. It is distracting if you use too wide a variety of fonts. Overuse of text is a common mistake. Too much text makes the slide unreadable. You may just as well show a blank slide. Stick to a few key words. If your audience is reading the slides they are not paying attention to you. If possible, make your point with graphics instead of text. You can use Word Art, or a clip art image of a sign, to convey text in a more interesting way. Numbers Numbers are usually confusing to the audience. Use as few as possible and allow extra time for the audience to do the math. Numbers should never be ultra precise: “Anticipated Revenues of $660,101.83” looks silly. Are your numbers that accurate? Just say $660 thousand. “The Break Even Point is 1048.17 units. Are you selling fractions of a unit? Don’t show pennies. Cost per unit is about the only time you would need to show pennies. If you have more than 12-15 numbers on a slide, that’s probably too many. Using only one number per sentence helps the audience absorb the data. Use the same scale for numbers on a slide. Don’t compare thousands to millions. When using sales data, stick to a single market in the presentation. Worldwide sales, domestic sales, industry sales, company sales, divisional sales, or sales to a specific market segment are all different scales. They should not be mixed. Cite your source on the same slide as the statistic, using a smaller size font. Charts/Backgrounds Charts need to be clearly labeled. You can make more interesting charts by adding elements from the drawing toolbar. Numbers in tables are both hard to see and to understand. There is usually a better way to present your numerical data than with columns and rows of numbers. Get creative! PowerPoint deletes portions of charts and worksheets that are imported from Excel, keeping only the leftmost 5.5 inches. Plan ahead. Backgrounds should never distract from the presentation. Using the default white background is hard on the viewer’s eyes. You can easily add a design style or a color to the background. Backgrounds that are light colored with dark text, or vice versa, look good. A dark background with white font reduces glare. Colors appear lighter when projected. Pale colors often appear as white. Consistent backgrounds add to a professional appearance. For a long presentation, you may want to change background designs when shifting to a new topic. Slides should be visually appealing!