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The first step of the EBP process is to develop a question from the nursing practice problem of interest.

Select a practice problem of interest to use as the focus of your research.

Start with the patient and identify the clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care.

Following the PICOT format, write a PICOT statement in your selected practice problem area of interest, which is applicable to your proposed capstone project.

The PICOT statement will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study).

Conduct a literature search to locate research articles focused on your selected practice problem of interest. This literature search should include both quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed research articles to support your practice problem.

Select six peer-reviewed research articles which will be utilized through the next 5 weeks as reference sources. Be sure that some of the articles use qualitative research and that some use quantitative research. Create a reference list in which the six articles are listed. Beneath each reference include the article’s abstract. The completed assignment should have a title page and a reference list with abstracts.

Suggestions for locating qualitative and quantitative research articles from credible sources:

  1. Use a library database such as CINAHL Complete for your search.
  2. Using the advanced search page check the box beside “Research Article” in the “Limit Your Results” section.
  3. When setting up the search you can type your topic in the top box, then add quantitative or qualitative as a search term in one of the lower boxes. Research articles often are described as qualitative or quantitative.

To narrow/broaden your search, remove the words qualitative and quantitative and include words that narrow or broaden your main topic. For example: Diabetes and pediatric and dialysis. To determine what research design was used, review the abstract and the methods section of the article. The author will provide a description of data collection using qualitative or quantitative methods.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.


When you begin to formulate a PICOT statement/question there are 5 components that you need to identify. First identify your Population, then you will determine what your Intervention will be, then the Comparison, what your predicted Outcome will be, and finally, how long the proposed study will last. (P) Population of Focus (adult males, 40-70 years of age, with co-morbidities) (I) Intervention (this is what you are going to propose as a practice change – in detail) (C) Comparison (this is your control group – those that will not receive the practice change; how will this group treatment be different – be specific) (O) Outcome (what you believe will occur) (T) Time (this is generally the time period that you will conduct your study – usually no longer than 6 months) Then you will write your PICOT Question/Statement in a sentence format. You would Not include the “breakdown” (as shown above) in your PICOT statement. See the Example below: Example of a PICOT question/statement: For adult male surgical patients, ages 40-70 with multiple co-morbidities (P), will the use of a preoperative Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) protocol that includes medication and application of either a Sequential Compression Device (SCD) or TED hose (I), compared to patients who are treated with SCD or TED hose only (C), reduce the risk of the development of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) (O) in the postoperative recovery ICU phase over a 6 month period (T).
Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1 Literature Review Your Name Grand Canyon University: NRS 433V Paper due date (in written form – April 24, 2017) Remember: You MUST include either the URL address to the FULL TEXT article, OR the doi number for the article in your Reference. Articles Must be scholarly research articles (a total of 6 research articles; 3 qualitative & 3 quantitative) and have been published between 2010 and present. The introductory paragraph (a paragraph is at Minimum 4 complete sentences) for this assignment should be descriptive of your practice problem or issue of interest, why you chose this topic, and why it is important to Nursing. Paper should be in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double spacing between lines. *****Note: anything in Red font on this template should be deleted prior to paper submission. Literature Review Practice Problem/Issue and PICOT Question Write a Clear description of the nursing practice problem (include supporting information from reliable sources) and conclude with your PICOT question written in correct PICOT format (see my example in Resources for this Module). All content should be in Times New Roman, 12-point font (inclucing your Abstracts) and true double-spacing between lines. References (see examples below – and in Alphabetical order) Cook, J., Copeland, M., Floyd, C., Jonikas, J., Hamilton, M., Razzano, L., . . . Boyd, S. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of effects of wellness recovery action planning on depression, anxiety, and recovery. Psychiatric Services, 63(6), 541–547. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100125 Actual article Abstract here. Farrugia, P., Petrisor, B., Farrokhyar, F., & Bhandari, M. (2010). Research questions, hypotheses, and objectives. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 54(4), 278-281. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2912019/ Actual article Abstract here.
SOME THINGS TO REMEMBER: You should Never use the webpage copyright date as a “publication date” – you will use the term “n.d.” if no publication date for the article/publication is listed. When you use a direct quote in your citation, you Must provide the page number or the paragraph number where the quote was found after the publication date. (Jones & Smith, 2016, p. 12) [or 2016, para. 4] How to document a Lecture from GCU or any university: Grand Canyon University. (2011). Essentials of baccalaureate education [Lecture 1]. (2011). In Professional dynamics. Retrieved from https://lc-ugrad1.gcu.edu/learningPlatform/user/ When the university is the producer of a video/power point presentation: Grand Canyon University (GCU). (Producer). (2014). Foundations for professional nursing practice: The nursing pyramid. Retrieved from http://lc.gcumedia.com/zwebassets/courseMaterialPages/pyramid_pyramid.php How to document an article from a Journal: Carman, M. J., Wolf, L. A., Henderson, D., Karnienski, M., Kazoil-Mclane, J., Manton, A., & Moon, M.D. (2013). Developing your clinical question: The key to successful research. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 39(3), 299-301. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/science/article/pii/S0099176713000135 In-text citation (6 or more authors) – (Carman et al., 2013) – When you have six or more authors, you can use the term “et al.” the first citation and all subsequent ones. In-text citation (3-5 authors) – (Carman, Wolf, & Henderson, 2013) – If there are three to five authors, you list them all the first time used in the body of the paper or in an in-text citation. In subsequent citations you can use the term “et al.” Green, A., & Jordan, C. (2004). Common denominators: Shared governance and work place advocacy – Strategies for nurses to gain control over their practice. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 9(1). Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenu Categories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume92004/No1Jan04/SharedGovernanceandWorkPlaceAdvocacy.html In-text citation (2 authors) – (Green & Jordan, 2004) – You will always provide both author names in the citation each time when there are only two. How to document an article from a Journal that is an Advance online publication or ‘In press’: Huntley, A. L., King, A. J., Moore, T. H., Paterson, C., Persad, R., Sharp, D., & Evans, M. (2017). Methodological exemplar of integrating quantitative and qualitative evidence – supportive care for men with prostate cancer: What are the most important components? Journal of Advanced Nursing. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/jan.13082 von Baeyer, C. L., & Pasero, C. (in press). What nurses’ work-arounds tell us about pain assessment. International Journal of Nursing Studies. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S002074891630181X? How to document an article from an Online Newspaper: Snowbeck, C. (2015, March 18). United Healthcare goes for yuks with new ad campaign. Star Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.startribune.com/unitedhealthcare-goes-for-yuks-with-new-ad-campaign/296665211/ How to document an article/publication from a Government Agency/ National Organization/University: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Injury Prevention & Control: Division of Violence Prevention. (n.d.). Introduction to evidence-based decision-making. Retrieved from http://vetoviolence.cdc.gov/apps/evidence/#&panel1-2 In-text citation (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d.). – You must cite the full name and abbreviated initials of the organization/agency in the body of the paper or in an in-text citation the first time used. You can then use the initials only in subsequent citations (CDC, n.d.). American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). (2014, April 24). Nursing shortage [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/nursing-shortage Mayo Clinic Staff. (2015, December 22). Alzheimer’s disease. In Diseases & conditions. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alzheimers-disease/home/ovc-20167098 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2013, June). Improving patient access to high-quality care: How to fully utilize the skills, knowledge, and experience of advanced practice registered nurses. Charting Nursing’s Future, 20. Retrieved from http://www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/issue_briefs/2013/rwjf405378 Yale University – Cushing/Whitney Memorial Library (n.d.).Evidence-based practice: Asking the clinical question. Retrieved from http://www.med.yale.edu/library/nursing/education/clinquest.html How to document an article/publication from a Website (if there is an author listed for the article, you will place the author first, publication date next, and then the title): Health promotion model. (2011, April 15). In Nursing theories: A companion to nursing theories and models. Retrieved from Current Nursing website: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/health_promotion_model.html In-text citation (“Health promotion,” 2011). When you are citing an article that does not have an author, the title (shortened to no more than two or three words of the entire title) is in quotation marks. Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Qualitative approaches. In Measurement – Qualitative measures. Retrieved from Research Methods Knowledge Base website: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/qualapp.php In-text citation (Trochim, 2006) How to document a publication (i.e. ‘grey paper’) from a corporation: Banner Good Samaritan Medical Center. (2012). 2012 Nursing Division Annual Report. Retrieved from https://www.bannerhealth.com/NR/rdonlyres/533916E5-70E6-48AB-AC2E-25407227AF9F/65312/nursingreport2012.pdf How to document from Hoover’s Company Records website: Banner Health. (2016, May 15). In Overview. Retrieved from Hoover’s Company Records website: http://cobrands.hoovers.com/company/Banner_Health_/rffxxxi-1-1njhxf.html In-text citation (“Banner Health,” 2016) How to document a Book: Grove, S., Gray, J., & Burns, N. (2015).  Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Saunders. Retrieved from http://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/9781455770601/pages/177890842 (Note: if the book is located on PageBurst, you will include the URL address). Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2010). Essentials of nursing research: Methods, appraisal, and utilization (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams, and Wilkins Publishing. How to document a Chapter from a Book/booklet: Rath-Rentfro, A. (2014). Gordon’s functional health patterns: Assessment of the individual. In C. L. Edelman, E. C. Kudzma, & C. L. Mandle (Eds.), Health promotion throughout the life span (8th ed., pp. 129-142). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby. Retrieved from http://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978-0-323-09141-1/pages/184033926 Keele, R. (2011). Quantitative versus qualitative, or both? In R. Keele (Ed.), Nursing research & evidence-based practice (pp. 35-47). Sudbury, MA: Jones Bartlett Learning. Retrieved from http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763780586/80586_CH03_Keele.pdf Clarke, S. P., & Donaldson, N. E. (2008, April). Nurse staffing and patient care quality and safety. In R. G. Hughes (Ed.), Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses (Chapter 25). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: https://archive.ahrq.gov/professionals/clinicians-providers/resources/nursing /resources/nurseshdbk/index.html How to document an article/publication from a Conference: Jones, O. C. (2009, April 28). Leadership theories and styles. Paper session presented at the IAAP 2009 Administrative Professionals Week Event, Orlando, Florida. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/6610048/LeadershipTheories_andStyles_IAAP_2009AdministrativeProfessionalsWeek_Event_Event How to document an article/publication from a Master’s theses or Doctoral dissertation: Chase, L. K. (2010). Nursing manager competencies [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Retrieved from http://ir.uiowa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2762&context=etd How to document an online reference work, no author or editor and authored Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic Lewkowicz, M. A. (2010). Purpose statement. In N. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 1143-1144). Retrieved from http://srmo.sagepub.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/view/encyc-of-research-design/n346.xml?rskey=zXK8Kw&row=2&p=emailPQUn0ndGM.jcM&pid=354 How to document a web BLOG page/video blog post/TV episode/Motion Picture: (Original Blog post) Myers, P.Z. (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://…….. (Response to an original Blog post) MiddleKid. (2007, January 23). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://…….. (Video blog post) Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs (TV episode) Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting. (Motion Picture) Surname, First Initial (Producer(s)), & Surname, First Initial (Director(s)). (Year). Title of movie [Format e.g. Motion picture or DVD]. Country where movie was produced: Name of Studio. Johnson, M., Pacheco, C., Goldman, S. (Producers), & Cassavetes, N. (Director). (2009). My sisters keeper [Motion picture]. United States: New Line Cinema Pictures In-text citation (Paraphrase or Quotation) – (Producer(s) Surname & Director(s) Surname, Year) (Johnson, Pacheco, Goldman, & Cassavetes, 2009) first in-text citation (Johnson et al., 2009) subsequent in-text citations


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