Mobile and Pervasive Computing

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Task 3:
Broadband wireless networks offers and alternative solution to the problem of information accessing in the areas where wired connection is not practical or economical. In addition, a major driving force towards the broadband wireless network adoption is due to the demand of accessing corporate network remotely form any place, anywhere and anytime. Further, the people want communication and the sharing of informations by eliminating the limitation of distance and location. Commonly the broadband wireless networks technologies can be classified into two types named (1) fixed and (2) mobile wireless broadband. The fixed broadband wireless network technology, provide internet connectivity to the user specific or permanent locations such like home and office. While in comparison in the mobile wireless broadband, the services are provided via smart phones and other wireless devices at any place at any time. With respect to the above extract, provide a detailed report on the following aspects of the broadband wireless network.
a) Critically evaluate the fixed and mobile broadband wireless network
b) Elaborate the strength and weakness of the fixed and mobile broadband wireless network
• Note : I want the same answer as the information and images change so that the cheating rate does not apper
Answer : TASK – 3
Broadband wireless network is divided into two parts. A fixed wireless network and a mobile wireless network. The fixed broadband wireless network contains multiple categories. For instance, we have Wi-Fi and Wi-Max. the mobile broadband wireless network contains two technologies which are, the third generation of networks and the fourth generation.
Broadband integrated services digital network provides the broadband networking for all users. It is a set of concepts, services, and a continuous developing standards which are integrated in a network of fiber optic and radio. This services are implemented by the Internet Service Provider or the Network Service Provider for the purpose of maintaining an internet speed of transmission higher than 155 Mbps. The network is formed of wires and cable that are connected to multiple telephone poles. Those wires and cables are beneath the city streets it also includes frame relay services for high speed data transaction, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), and Synchronous optical network (SONET). It also supports the transmission rate of 2 Mbps and above. Also referred as wireless network, is a technology that addressed the problems of customers who are in an isolated environment. Without the need of dedicated T – 1 physical cables, high speed copper cables, or the fiber optic cables. The customer can connect to the ISP wirelessly. It refers to a fixed wireless connection that can be used by business enterprises or homes. The users can move freely from one place to another. The concept of this technology is to make a point to point connection with the users to provide them high speed and capacity. (Nandini mishra, 2012)
Fixed Broadband Wireless Network:
The fixed broadband wireless network is considered as high speed network that is intended to serve huge number of users. There are two categories under the fixed broadband network. Wi – Fi and W—Max. the Wireless Fidelity was introduced on 1997 as the first high speed wireless technology that crashed the fixed wireless market. First the IEEE 802.11a was introduced with a speed rate of 2 Mbps, and by 1999 IEEE approved the 802.11b standards. Later on through the years, multiple standards of the IEEE were introduced like 802.11a, b, g, n. (Ramia Babiker Mohammed Abdelrahman, 2015)
IEEE Standards Comparison Table:
IEEE 802.11 a 802.11 b 802.11 g 802.11 n
Released In 1999 In 1999 In 2003 In 2009
Frequency 3.7 GHz or 5GHz Band 2.4 GHz Band 2.4 GHz Band 2.4 GHz, 5GHz bands
Data Speed Up to 54 Mbps Up to 11 Mbps Up to 54 Mbps Up to 150 Mbps
Bandwidth 20 MHz 22 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz – 40 MHz
Range From 35 m – 125 m From 35 m – 140 m From 38 m – 140 m From 75 m – 250 m
IEEE 802.16 working group has created a new standard on 2003 that they named it as Wi-MAX, it was mainly made for the broadband wireless network for high speed connectivity and low cost. It can offer a great coverage for 5 miles with a Line of Sight transmission that makes the Bandwidth reach up to 70 Mbps. The original release of Wi-MAX had a licensed bandwidth in the frequency range 10 – 66 GHz. the Worldwide Interoperability Microwave access (Wi-Max) is a fixed broadband technology used mainly for the connection of customers which are in isolated places. It’s said that the coverage range always depends on the Line on sight of a base station. It provides great mobility for the users and high speed applications more than the Wi-Fi. The advantages that can benefited from the Wi-Max is, it supports high speed data rates, the operation range is wider than Wi-Fi, and can support the interfaces of wired or wireless technologies. (Omerovic, 2010)
IEEE 802.16a is standard used within WiMAX to enable users to connect to the base station without the need of direct line of sight. It introduces three air interfaces which are: 1) wireless MAN – SC, 2) Wireless MAN – OFDM, and 3) Wireless MAN – OFDMA. Usually a Wi-MAX system consists of two parts. (Omerovic, 2010)
1) WiMAX Tower: same as the towers used for cellular phones. The Wi-MAX tower can cover a very large portion of area that reaches up to 8000 square KM.
2) Wi-MAX Receiver: which can be either a small box device to receive the signal from the tower or it can be an interface card that can be installed into a laptop.
The tower station can be connected directly to the internet by the use of cables or the use of line of sight (microwave links). The wireless services Wi-MAX can provide are two: 1) line of sight services. 2) non- line of sight services.
1) Line of sight services: a fixed disk Antenna will be placed in the rooftops and it will be directly points at the tower. This service is stronger, much stable, less interference, more bandwidth available, and there is the ability to send numerous data with few errors. It uses high frequencies that can reach up to 66 GHz.
2) Non-Line of Sight Services: this services is considered like a Wi-Fi service, a small antenna is placed on the computer and it connects to the tower. Here the Wi-MAX will use the lower frequency range which is from 2 GHz – 11 GHz, because this ranges are not disrupted by physical obstacles easily and it can move around the obstacles. (Omerovic, 2010)
Mobile Broadband Wireless network:
1st Generation:
The mobile broadband network had the evolution since the 1980s. the first analog generation of the network systems was deployed in Chicago. It was based on the Frequency Division Multiple Access band (FDMA) and they used two separated frequencies, one for the transmitting and one for the receiving. 1G consists of AMPS, NMT-900, and TACS. (TechDifferences, 2016).
2nd Generation:
Then came the second generation in the early 1990s. The second generation introduced the circuit switched data communication services, and the transmitting speed is low. After an enhancement in the compatibility and other system services 2.5G was introduced. GSM started in Germany as a fully digital frequency which operated 124 channels on 900 MHz frequency. and after four years high performance radio LAN was introduced a new type of standards working on 5.15 to 5.30 GHz, 5GHz, and 17GHz. This enhanced the 2G version and provided much more data capacity in the network and introduced the General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) and the Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). 1G didn’t support the internet at all, while 2G provided a narrowband internet services. Also 1G had limitation in the channels capacity, voice quality, and battery life. 2G enhanced most of 1G limitations. (TechDifferences, 2016)
3rd Generation:
Later on, in the year 2000 came the third generation of the network systems and the aim of 3G was to provide a set of standards in order to provide a high speed universal access across the entire world and also to meet a wider range of wireless applications. The third generation was expected to increase the capacity of the network, increase the quality of voice, and the data rates of mobile services. the information carried by the third generation includes voice, data, and video. 3G uses the Broadband – ISDN to access to the network information. Such information can be provided either from the internet, public database, or privates databases. (Nandini mishra, 2012)
4th Generation:
in 2010, the fourth generation of the network systems was introduced. It improved the bit rate services of the third generation to be a very high bit rate. Also the coverage of the IP world became extended. 4G introduced new concepts in the mobility. These concepts are four. The first concept, Mobile IP: the mobile IP includes Voice Over Internet Protocol, IP Tunnels, flexibility in IP Addresses, and the intelligent internet. The second concept is Presence Awareness Technology which includes the feature of presence or in other words the status of the other end, whether he is available, away, or busy. Meanwhile, the third concept was Radio Router that introduced IP in the base stations. And at last, the smart antennas. (Nandini mishra, 2012)
Comparison Table: Properties 1st Generation 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th Generation
Deployed 1970 – 1980 1990 – 2001 2001 – 2010 2011
Technology FDMA FDMA, TDMA, and CDMA CDMA2000, WCDMA, and IWC-136 MC-CDMA, OFDMA
Data rates 2Kbps 9.6 – 384Kbps Up to 2Mbps 100Mbps – 1Gbps
Bandwidth Analog 25MHz 5 – 20MHz 100MHz
Compatibility ———————– Not compatible with 3G Compatible with 2G and Bluetooth Compatible with 3G
Services Analog Voice calls only A higher clarity Digital Voice calls and data. (SMS, MMS.) Enhanced audio Voice, data, and video streaming. video conferencing feature and IP TV support. Enhanced 3G audio and video streaming. Also the IP Telephony. HD mobile TV.
Frequency Band Narrow Band Tri Band (800, 1800, 1900 MHz) 1800 – 2400 MHz 2 – 8 GHz
Handoff Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal and vertical Horizontal and vertical
Internet services No Internet Narrowband Broadband Ultra Broadband

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