Task The task culture is project driven, and it relies on putting teams of people with different skills together to work on assigned tasks (Sherwin, 2013). This type of organisation is more difficult to control, however the main control is carried out by senior managers who oversee the teams’ progress with the projects. However it can be very flexible when facing change and new tasks, as suitable teams can be assembled for these. The influence in this type of organisation depends on the individuals expertise in a certain field rather than their position or personal influence. Person In the person culture, individuals together come up with a consensus regarding the decision making of the organisation (Sherwin, 2013). This would suggest that everyone is equal and there is a lack of a management figure or a person to report to. This would suggest that this culture is unsuitable for businesses. …….
…. Types of Structure Another crucial element of the wellbeing of the company is choosing an organisational structure that suits it. This means that there has to be a clear layout of the chain of command in the organisation, so members know who to go to whenever they are facing an issue. Furthermore there has to be a clear and set span of control, so managers know exactly what part of the organisation they are responsible for. Depending on the number of levels of management, companies could either have a tall or flat organisational structure (Griffin, 2013). Tall This type of structure has many levels of management in its chain of command, and a small span of control on each level (Griffin, 2013). This would suggest that this type of structure is suitable for large companies which require many levels of hierarchy to cope with the management of the work process. Tall organisational structures allow closer control over employees and have a clear hierarchy with opportunities for promotion (Hartman, 2013) , this would motivate employees leading to better work outcomes. On the other hand if an organisation has many levels, it would suggest that communication would take longer, therefore causing slower decision-making. The Enterprise case study suggests that the organisation has a tall organisational structure as there are many clear levels of hierarchy such as Regional Managers, City Managers and Front Line Managers, with a clear span of control. This would enable the company to keep track of the working process of their different offices. A problem mentioned above in this type of structure is the communication, however Enterprise have resolved this by offering opportunities for employees to meet senior managers. Flat This type of structure has a short chain of command but a bigger span of control (Griffin, 2013). This suggests that they would give more freedom to their employees and empowering them to make decisions regarding their work and therefore motivating them (Lewis, 2011). However the big span of control would also suggest that it would be more difficult for managers to handle the workload and problems might arise because of this. The City College case study suggests that the College’s structure is flat as there are departments with a big span of control – teaching, HR and administrative, and there isn’t a clear levelled hierarchy. …….
…. Task 2 The relationship between Organisational Structure and Organisational Culture is determined by the fact that the both together determine the behaviour of the businesses employees (Conjecture Corporation, 2013). This means that they should both be suited to the needs and goals of the organisation in order to achieve the desired results. Looking at the City College’s mission statement and corporate objectives it can be seen that their goals are concentrated on improving the student experience, which would then probably lead to an increase of students and bring more income. These objectives are suggested to work well with the Team culture, as every department has their own set of responsibilities to look after therefore leading to efficiency in every team. The results of this can be seen from the growth of their North London branch, achieved by the team work of their Human Resource Department. Furthermore the flat structure is suggested to allow some freedom and creativity in the teaching departments, which would make the teachers feel more involved and therefore motivate them to achieve better results with students. It is seen that the relationship between their culture and structure hhas been successful, as they have won the number 1 college for education award and have managed to establish a working relationship with Westminster council. …….
…. Task 3 Both the Organisational Structure and Culture are important to the way employees behave, which is an important part of making the business activities run smoothly. Behaviour is the way in which people react in response to a stimulus (Sheldon, 2005), which can be anything that provokes a reaction. The factors which can affect employees behaviour could be both internal – from within the organisation or external – from outside of the organisation. Two of the internal factors that were already mentioned above are the company’s culture and structure. For example if an organisation’s structure doesn’t allow quick feedback and communication people might get frustrated which would lead to negativity and a bad working environment and vice versa. Furthermore if the environment is friendly and nice employees would behave in a better way which would suggest that more work would be done. Therefore people can be influenced by their colleagues’ or senior staff’s behaviour both in a positive and a negative way. External factors could be the way that customers treat them, as a disappointed customer might cause the employee to feel bad and therefore affect his behaviour throughout the day, or a happy customer might improve their behaviour. Other external factors could include economical or personal problems, which might not have anything to do with the organisation but should be considered as an influence on an individual’s behaviour. From the City College case study it can be seen that the main driver of influence on employee behaviour are the corporate objectives. It is said that they are “essential for helping them carry out their work” and guide them with their dealings with each other and with their customers. These objectives are: 1. Be reliable 2. Be responsive 3. Understand learners needs 4. Be straightforward These objectives are suggested to be a reflection of the new owner’s personal characteristics as they were put in place after the change in ownership. Furthermore it is suggested that the mission statement of a company is highly dependent on the owner (Vitez, 2013). The organisation also provides training and development to ensure that their employees follow the values of the business. This would allow control over their behaviour in certain situations in the workplace as it would prepare them for them. Also if there are any issues or the employees have any ideas they can put them forward to be reviewed and implemented by the Human Resource team, this would make them feel valued and therefore suggesting a better working atmosphere. Task 4 Another important factor that would affect employees’ behaviour is the leadership and management styles in the company. There are three main leadership styles according to psychologist Kurt Lewin: 1. Autocratic – This sort of leaders have clear expectations of their employees. They are the main decision-makers and things should be done the way they want them to be within the time frame given by them (Cherry, 2013). 2. Democratic – This type of leadership is suggested to be the most effective. Democratic leaders would set the rules but they would also be open to suggestions from the lower levels of hierarchy. Kurt Lewin’s studies furthermore show that people under a democratic leadership might not be as productive as the ones under an Autocratic one, but the product they produce would be of a much better quality (Cherry, 2013). 3. Laissez-faire–This type of leaders would let most of the decision making to be done by the organisation instead of taking on it themselves. This gives the employees more power over their own decisions and therefore motivating them suggesting a better outcome (Changing Minds, 2013). Looking at the City College study it can be seen that the new owner has a major influence on the decision making of the company and the way it operates. The employees however also have a say in the way the organisation operates. The College encourages the employees to come up with ideas and listens to what the employees have to say. This would suggest that the leadership style used by City College is Democratic. As stated above the Democratic style produces the highest quality product or in the case of City College – service, which is one of the main goals repeated throughout the case study – to provide high quality education. …….
…. Enterprise on the other hand includes a combination of the Autocratic and the Democratic styles. The Autocratic style can be seen in the leadership of the company as a whole. Important decisions such as the importance of leadership and decision making skills when recruiting new employees or big changes in the company such as the company’s diversity programme. However examples of the Democratic style can also be seen, as the organisation lets each business branch operate as a small business. This would mean that the manager of that branch would be entitled to make decisions about the way it should operate to meet the specific consumer needs, and create the best working environment. Therefore it is suggested that different branches would operate using different leadership styles within their “small business” as different managers would have different approaches. This combination is a good choice for Enterprise, as they can keep control over the more important decisions, while still giving employees the opportunity to have a certain amount of freedom and a chance of climbing into the hierarchy. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, this would motivate the employees as it would satisfy their need for personal development (Chapman, 2013) and therefore helping the company’s stated goal of encouraging the development of their employees. Task 5 Looking at the analysis above it can be seen that both City College and Enterprise have adopted the democratic management style, but have implemented it in different ways. In the case of City College the approach gives freedom to different departments of the organisation, reflecting its flat organisational structure. This lets the different departments work separately over their own tasks, while working together to maintain the goals set by the owner of the College. This would benefit the organisation by giving more creativity to specialists in their area, entrusting them to know what is best to the operation of their department, which could then lead to a nicer working environment in the individual departments, and overall.
On the other hand Enterprise implements the Democratic approach on different levels, depending on the personal preference of managers on these levels, reflecting the tall structure of the company. This allows different managers to decide how to approach the employees under their span of control, entrusting them to decide what would work best for the individual levels of management. This benefits the company as managers operate using an approach comfortable for themselves and their span of control, while still putting forward the requirements from the higher levels. This allows regional outlets to be tailored to match the specific consumer needs of the area, suggesting a better customer service and therefore suggesting improved profits (Huges, 2013) …….