The following comments should be addressed in the attached draft proposal: 1) The first section of..

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The following comments should be addressed in the attached draft proposal: 1) The first section of your proposal is quite extended. I need you to make it a bit more focused highlighting the need for the research. – In the research methodology section you need to provide more information regarding the study participants and the sample population. Please address all these minor issues mentioned in the attachement and re-submit your proposal in order to be able to approve it. NOTE It should be Plagiarism free.
So i want you people to look at the modification required and effect it within the shorts possible time and if approved, i will come to you people for the detail write up
None. The attached work is ok just the sections mentioned are to be looked into by the writer.
The issue is that i am not after the words but just to look into the attached work done and correct the comment rises by the instructors.
It is 2 sections at for the whole
It is a Dissertation proposal on the Topic there. I have write it but he is asking me to correct the comments i add thereThe oil and gas global supply chain is affected by transportation technology, order
inventory, visibility, control, materials handling, facilitating import / export and
domestic and international information. The price of oil currently has no established
link with demand and supply. In the statement of Engdahl (2015), “60% of the crude
oil price is pure speculation operated and controlled by an elaborate system of
financial market, as well as major oil companies”. In addition, a report of the research
committee of the US Senate (2006) says no “substantial evidence backing the
deduction that the large amount of speculation in the current market has significantly
increased prices”. Oil Price in the usual free markets enterprise would perhaps be
dropping and not escalating. None of the supply predicament substantiates the
manner in which the world oil is being priced currently. Hence, the industry proposed
a classic model for executing supply chain management techniques. In a supply
chain, companies are reliant on providers of raw materials; intermediary providers,
information and capital stream via the supply chain (Christopher, 2007). Growth and
consumption of global economic yield has led to the spread of potential suppliers of
the world's oil and gas industry. This permit oil and gas establishments to cut costs of
exploration and production, procurements of products and services from low-wage
countries like China; though this had little or no effect on the extremely specific core
area as drilling services. In recent years, several international oil and gas concerns
have supply chains more than ever developed. Nevertheless, the necessity for risk
management approach enhanced the value chain thus, was amplified. Oil and gas
establishments must be unequivocally certain of the quality of products and services
they procure and to compensate their vendors within social and legal standards and
ethical company specifics. Thus, taxing procedures are essential to pre-qualify
buyers and businesses that oversees their supply chain – and have very specific
standards. Systems and hosting process, and upholding information providers play a
fundamental role in guaranteeing the integrity of data. Customarily, the buyer long-
term affiliations and trust is built with suppliers. With supply chains becoming
gradually global in scope, there are many new contractors, unverified and untested to
consider many of that can be subcontracted or being awarded to expand the chain.
Data collection and this pre-qualification of supplier’s country are inexpensive yet a
complex challenge. One of the issues of globalization is a contract with suppliers,
including those who had the arena with the will of the international companies of oil
and gas. Companies accept long-term contracts with suppliers that were not
available five years ago. This helps buyers to hedge against the risk of rising costs
and in some cases a possible shortage of products and services.
The aim of this work is to investigate the role of managing the supply chain contracts
in the oil and gas industry. The main challenge facing the oil and gas industry
according to Steven (2013) “is not the availability of oil and gas resources, but
putting these reserves into production and delivering the final products to consumers
at the minimum cost possible”. In the same line, there is a high degree for Supply-
chain actors to act in their personal interests to enhance their profit. The objective of
fulfilling fundamental client needs is effortlessly misplaced and prospects that might
come up from coordination of decisions athwart phases of the supply-chain are not
certain. Hypothetically, should suppliers be made to be superfluous trustworthy, the
necessity “…for inventories of raw materials, quality inspection systems, rework, and
non- value enhancing actions, will be less required if not eliminated completely,
resulting in lean production” (Hussain et al. 2006) Consequently, there is need to
guarantee that every operator down the supply-chain web react swiftly to the precise
requirements of its clients while shielding itself from hitches with suppliers and
cushion its operations from the volatility of demand and supply. Thus, a solid supply-
chain management program will enhance this goal. Fundamentally, every strategy
involved in collaboration and integration is a means to strengthen its position in
relation to competitive supply chains (Sollish et al. 2011).
Research Question
? What are the challenges in managing the supply chain contracts in the oil and gas
industry? This research question will explore the issues, problems, and barriers in
functions of supply chain contracts. The difficulties in the management and operations
of implementing the contracts will be investigated.
? What are the legal and business factors that account for the effective
management of supply chain within contracts? This question will investigate
the key performance indicators in relation to legal and business context to see
how contracts can be implemented effectively. The research question will aim
to suggest the different methods to effectively manage the contracts.
Aim and Objective
The aim of this work is to investigate the role of managing the supply chain contracts
in the oil and gas industry. The key task confronting the oil and gas industry is
utilizing her reserves and offering the end products to clients at the bare minimum
cost possible. The research is aimed to find out the contracts implementation
considering supply chain factors within oil and gas industry. Impacts of factors like off
shoring, cost pressures, geographic clustering, modern communications, and
dependence on multiple suppliers will be studied in lieu of contracts of oil and gas
industry. This research is formulated to understand, explain, and predict the
phenomena within existing knowledge of supply chain contracts.
Feasibility of the study
The study is helpful in studying the supply chain coordination between parties. The
different co ordinations that affect the contracts are coordination by standardization,
coordination by planning, mutual adjustment, and team arrangement. The study will
help to develop the mechanism to ensure that the relationship stays healthy and
vibrant. Equally, to achieve competitive advantage, a partnership relationship with
suppliers must be adopted. This can only be possible when integration, coordination
and collaboration are implemented (Spekman et al. 1998). It will offer the platform for
problem resolution and fleet the continuous improvement goals achieving value for
both parties. It will also help in developing the performance measurement objectives
of the contracts within the supply chain of oil and gas industry.
Literature review
The work Chim (2007) is the study of the management of the supply chain role in oil
and gas. The paper applied document analysis. It performed a secondary research to
look into the stated objectives. The article also examined the relevance of Uniform
Commercial Code (UCC) in the management of supply chain problems.
Subsequently, strings of strategies look at on how to develop the supply chain in oil
and gas.
Chim (2007) account that dealings between suppliers and customers are
hostile in nature; based on the terms set, every parties is under obligation to comply
with the conditions of the agreed contract. Conversely, a company can establish a
long-term strategic partnership with suppliers through a collaboration process.
Similarly, the Authors discussed the topic of sole sourcing. He viewed it has a
practice whereby a firm commitment to purchase every bit of her goods or services
from a single provider. It is as well acknowledged as part of a contract requirement.
In return, the supplier develops into an associate in the design of new products and
associated services. It is discussed that supplier experience and knowledge can be
shared and leveraged for products and process improvements. Therefore, contract
negotiation and administration costs can be considerably cut down.
On vertical integration, Chim (2007) sees it as an agreement among company
to buy or sell the same from input to output. Contemporary developments underscore
the necessity to handle an establishment's supply-chain in an integrated and
organized way. Diminishing current oil and gas assets is compelling several
establishments to search for new oil and gas in fresh borderlines. These new
borderlines are perhaps discovered in very challenging environments, thus
compelling companies to drill deeper and advance offshore. These developments
have amplified not just the technical and operational complications, however equally
the costs and risks connected to the development of fresh assets. To address these
revolutions, cutting-edge oil establishments are shifting from just oil drilling firms to
reservoir developer and resource management corporations. Backing up this
indispensable and essential swing in strategy require the need to envisage, connect,
and manage the acquirement, exploration, and production tasks of an oil
establishment in a very integrated, organized, and well-adjusted way.
Philip (2010) applied the survey research method to collecting data from
production / manufacturing firms. This data combined the oil sectors with every other
sector still; it is more effective for oil and gas industry. Philip (2010) detailed that
establishment’s gain more overall from outsourcing, if it is determined that it involved
higher risk. Once this is determined, the contract can be divided into high, medium or
low risk category, and can be managed appropriately. The High-risk contracts tend to
be in a constant appraisal cycle. Since, they offer products or services with mission-
critical or high dollar volume. While the Medium risk contracts may have proactive
monitoring occurrence, which is not continuous; conceivably on periodical basis. Low
risk contracts are not for proactive monitoring contract.
According to Philip (2010) the study stresses that three risks effectively
manage outsourcing contracts, and supplier performance, which include:
1) Vendor performance and compliance,
2) The Company and the role of suppliers
3) Establishment of performance feedback loop and control.
These are critical to the effective control of outsourcing. The performance and
consistency of supervision, effective and efficient control should be instituted. Note
the Outsourcing team ought to have clearly defined procedures, reporting medium,
and a meeting plan, and document the roles and responsibilities of the actors
implemented regularly in detailed. Effective contractWhile the Medium risk contracts may have proactive
monitoring occurrence, which is not continuous; conceivably on periodical basis. Low
risk contracts are not for proactive monitoring contract.
According to Philip (2010) the study stresses that three risks effectively
manage outsourcing contracts, and supplier performance, which include:
1) Vendor performance and compliance,
2) The Company and the role of suppliers
3) Establishment of performance feedback loop and control.
These are critical to the effective control of outsourcing. The performance and
consistency of supervision, effective and efficient control should be instituted. Note
the Outsourcing team ought to have clearly defined procedures, reporting medium,
and a meeting plan, and document the roles and responsibilities of the actors
implemented regularly in detailed. Effective contract management process is not
always utilized. Thus, significantly increase the risk of failure. Subcontracting
agreements, negotiation, management control and well planned should be executed.
The purpose of Muhindo et al. (2014) studies was to scrutinize “the impact of
the strategy of outsourcing of logistics in the oil and gas industry in Uganda”.
(Muhindo et al. 2014) The key advantage of this is that concerns outsourced logistics
undertakings so as to reorganize their distribution arrangement, and gain competitive
edge. To this end, the purposive sampling method was employed and data were
qualitatively collected and interpreted. The raw data on the other hand was collected
through questionnaires and the quantitative methods for the presentation and
analysis of “the impact of the strategy of outsourcing of logistics in the oil and gas
industry. Muhindo et al. (2014) state that utilizing logistics outsources strategy in the
oil and gas industry comes with many benefits as well as challenges confronting both
oil and gas companies and logistics service suppliers in the course of implementing
commercial contracts. The solution is to pursue the creation of the oil and gas
industry logistic service provider environment of others, in order to achieve common
goals. The results show that it is a key part of the total logistics activities in achieving
competitive edge. Muhindo et al. (2014) found that logistics outsourcing strategy is
key in business because it reduces operating costs and spread the risk among the
parties in the contract. Consequently, it is vital for companies to review their strategy
and ensure logistics undertakings are positioned.
Key arguments and findings, describing the application of the topic and
specific research questions, and potential implications.
It was well known that information distortion is likely to transpire; because big
corporations find it challenging to totally supervise the activities of logistics service
suppliers in the long run. Nevertheless, the key should be to consider on-going policy
in order to mitigate the challenges associated with sustained attention between large
enterprises and service suppliers.
For the changing relationships between logistics firms and oil and gas service
providers’ can only be successful in this industry if they must do things that try to
arrange a close true transactional collaboration in a third-party logistics association
and demonstrate a further essence than reality. Certain issues that has to do with
buyers unwillingness to share information with providers and true commitment is lost,
mainly if the contract terms are not totally specified. (Siddharth et al. 2006)
Research methodology and methods
According to Kothari (2006) Research methodology is a systematic means to
resolving research problems. He equally stated that as a fragment of the
methodological design of research, it is vital to establish the method of data collection
and type of instrument to be utilised. Obviously, a research method is a means
through which relationship can be established, the research subject for collecting
data set and of course the achievement of the objectives proposed in the research.
The instrument is the mechanism used by the researcher to collect and record the
information obtained. Speaking of methods and tools for data collection the primary
and secondary sources exists; information gotten through direct contact with the
research subject via observation, interview and questionnaire. Secondary data is
obtaining information through documents, publications, abstracts etc.
A research design in the view of Perry (1998) is the reasoning that connects the data
to be collected and the deductions to be pinched to the original questions of a study,
which must be logical. It is to these ends that the Case Study and Survey Method
will be adopted. In context, the case study is to elevate the enquiry from a descriptive
justification of ‘what happens’ to a piece of investigation that can obviously
worthwhile. Thus, at the initial stage, oil-producing companies will be selected for
case study and then surveys will be conducted within them. The essence of the
survey is for validation of data for accuracy and free from any bias. Equally, it is
utilised so as to generalise its find to all other companies of the same type. Note too
that the method is selected on basis of variables and research questions stated as
the survey is necessarily to gather the data from a large pool of population yet all
producing companies cannot be approach in short span of time thus specific cases
The survey is a method technique of obtaining information about a part of the
population or sample, provided by themselves, on opinions, attitudes or suggestions.
There are two ways to get information with this method and / or technique, using the
questionnaire or interview. In this research, questionnaire will be the main source of
data collection. The survey research design will be adopted for this purpose.
The questionnaire is a technical piece of information used in online or printed form,
designed to get answers about the problem under study in which information is
obtained about the variables to be investigated. Questionnaire will be directly
administered and they will be LIKERT Scale. It can be applied in person or by mail,
and individually or collectively. Questionnaire design must be based on the
theoretical framework, hypotheses its variable and the research objectives. Each
question to be included will be related to the indicator variables, it is desirable that
when the questionnaire is designed, it will have on hand the working of the variables,
to ensure that all indicators are being investigated.
According to Gomm, et al. (2000) it is a rich resource for examining, categorising and
tabulating proof to evaluate whether the proof backs or otherwise the early intentions
of the study. As regards this study, data will be scrutinized with the aid of content
analysis and descriptive statistics. The descriptive statistics will assist in evaluating
the central tendencies and dispersions. Pictorial representation of data through
histograms and bar charts will not be left out. SPSS or MS Excel will be suitable
software for the analysis of data collected through questionnaire. Likert Scale
questionnaire will be used to collect the data from participants.
Political and Ethical Challenges
Consent will be gotten before conducting the surveys. Personal details of participants
will not be disclosed. This is because, according to Easterby-Smith, (2012), the
fundamental principals of a research ethics is to guarantee that participants will be
cherished and obeyed. Thus, the work will be for academic purpose only and it will
not be published. All the participating firms will be contacted before conducting the
surveys and official permission will be gotten so that political challenges can be
NB: You must reach Stage 8 at least 4 weeks before your deadline. A 30-
day contingency provision is also advisable to allow for potential
slippages. This will enable your DA to give you sufficient feedback on your
You should produce a final Proposal for submission to the DA for approval within
1 to 2 months from your module start date. However, please aim for 7 weeks
from your start date at the latest, to ensure time for any necessary revisions and
final approval by the 8-week cut-off.
Milestone Description Due date Remarks
1 Stage 1: Area of interest
2 Stage 2: Specific topic selected 21/01/2015 Completed
3 Stage 3: Topic refined to
4 Stage 4: Proposal written and
5 Stage 5: Collection of data and
6 Stage 6: Analysis and
develop dissertation proposal
submitted
information
interpretation of collected
data/information
7 Stage 7: Writing up
8 Stage 8: Final draft prepared—
9 Final Deadline—9 months from
submission of dissertation
module start date.
Chen, I. J., & Paulraj, A. (2004). Towards a Theory of Supply Chain Management:
The Constructs and Measurements. Journal of operations management, 22(2), 119-
Chim M. C. (2007) ‘Supply-Chain Management Issues In The Oil And Gas Industry’,
Journal of Business & Economics Research 5(6), pp. 27-36
Christopher, M. C. (2007) ‘Supply-Chain Management Issues In The Oil And Gas
Industry’, Journal of Business & Economics Research, 5(6)
Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. & Jackson, P. (2012) Management Research. 4rd ed.
Engdahl, F. W. (2015) Oil and Energy, Centre for Research on Globalization [Online].
Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/perhaps-60-of-today-s-oil-price-is-pure-
speculation/8878 (Accessed 15 February 2015)
Gomm, R., Hammersley, M. & Foster, P. (2000) Case Study Method: Key Issues,
Key Texts. London: Sage Publications.
Hussain, R., Assavapokee, T. & Khumawala, B. (2006). ‘Supply Chain Management
in the Petroleum Industry: Challenges and Opportunities’, International Journal of
Global Logistics & Supply Chain Management, 1(2), 90-97.
Kothari, C. R. (2006) Methodology: Methods and Techniques. New Age International
(P) Limited, Publisher: New Delhi.
Lambert, D. M. & Cooper, M. C. (2000). Issues in Supply Chain Management.
Industrial marketing management, 29(1), 65-83.
Muhindo, A., Zhou, J. & Mzuza, M. (2014). Impact of Logistics Outsourcing Strategy
in Oil and Gas Industry in Uganda. International Journal of Business and
Perry, C. (1998) “Processes of a case study methodology for postgraduate re- search
in marketing.” European Journal of Marketing, 32 (10), pp.785- 802.
Philip, O. (2010) Managing the Risks of Outsourcing: A Survey of Current Practices
and Their Effectiveness, APICS and Protiviti
Siddharth, V., Subhash, W. & Deshmukh, S.G. (2006) "Implementing supply chain
management in a firm: issues and remedies", Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and
Logistics, Vol. 18 Iss: 3, pp.223 – 243
Sollish, F., Semanik, J., Morris, P.W. & Pinto, J.K. (ed.) (2011). Planning and
Administering Project Contracts and Procurement. Laureate Education, Inc., custom
ed. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Spekman, R, Kamauff, J. & Myhr, N. (1998). ‘An Empirical Investigation into Supply
Chain Management: A Perspective on Partnerships’. International Journal of Physical
Distribution and Logistics Management, 28 (8).
Steven, R. K. (2013) Solutions to overcome salient logistics challenges in the Oil and
Gas industry, 2nd Annual Oil & Gas Logistics Summit Abu Dhabi 27 March 2013.
Retrieved from: http://www.fleminggulf.com/conferenceview/2nd-Annual-Oil—Gas-
Logistics-Summit—Strategizing-OPEX-in-oil-and-gas-logistics/373 (Accessed: 20
United States Senate Subcommittee on Investigations (2006), The Role of Market
speculation in Rising Oil and Gas Prices: A Need to Put the Cop Back on the Beat,

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