level of physical dependence on nicotine

Exam 3

 

1. More people are treated for _______________ in the United States than for all other health conditions combined.

A) heart disease

B) cancer

C) obesity

D) stress-related disorders

 

2. The Glycemic Index ranks _______________ based on how quickly your body converts them to _______________.

A) carbohydrates; glucose

B) proteins; body fat

C) the fat in food; body fat

D) foods; calories

 

3. Which of the following is the unhealthiest type of fat?

A) polyunsaturated fat

B) trans fat

C) monounsaturated fat

D) All fats are unhealthy.

 

4. Omega-6 and omega-3 are two kinds of:

A) polyunsaturated fat.

B) trans fat.

C) monounsaturated fat.

D) saturated fat.

 

5. The so-called bad cholesterol is to _______________ as good cholesterol is to _______________.

A) HDL; LDL

B) HDL; LH

C) LDL; VMH

D) LDL; HDL

 

6. The best predictor of heart disease is the amount of:

A) serum cholesterol in the body.

B) HDL in the body.

C) LDL and triglycerides in the body.

D) monounsaturated fats in the body.

 

7. Which of the following is NOT one of the most prevalent multiple chronic conditions in women and men?

A) hypertension and diabetes

B) heart disease and diabetes

C) cancer and hypertension

D) hypertension and heart disease

 

 

8. Because our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible, some researchers have adopted the term:

A) homeostasis.

B) settling point.

C) BMR.

D) dynamic set point.

 

9. Obesity is defined as a BMI greater than:

A) 10.

B) 20.

C) 30.

D) 50.

 

10. Which of the following is most strongly linked to atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes?

A) having a “pear-shaped” body

B) female pattern obesity

C) the overall amount of body fat

D) abdominal obesity

 

11. A person with a BMI of 43 would be considered:

A) normal weight.

B) underweight.

C) obese.

D) morbidly obese.

 

12. Weight cycling is:

A) an unhealthy pattern of repeated weight gain and loss.

B) a healthy pattern of repeated weight gain and loss.

C) a person’s average weight over his or her lifetime.

D) the range of calories, from high to low, that will maintain the body’s settling point.

 

13. It is estimated that genes contribute approximately _______________ percent to obesity.

A) 10

B) 25

C) 50

D) 70

 

14. Research studies have demonstrated that African-American women generally have:

A) more positive attitudes toward their bodies, food, and weight than European-American women do.

B) more negative attitudes about their bodies, food, and weight than European-American women do.

C) a higher incidence of obesity and eating disorders than European-American women do.

D) decreasing incidence rates of both obesity and eating disorders.

 

15. Which of the following is true regarding obesity in the United States?

A) Obesity is less prevalent among African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, and other minority groups.

B) Obesity and income are inversely related.

C) Obesity is positively correlated with education level.

D) Two-thirds of people living below the poverty threshold are obese.

16. The diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa include all of the following EXCEPT:

A) refusal to maintain body weight above a BMI of 18.

B) intense fear of weight gain.

C) disturbance of body image.

D) lack of control over eating.

 

17. A person who engages in bouts of excessive overeating, followed by feelings of distress—but who does not binge, purge, fast, or exercise excessively—is said to have:

A) anorexia nervosa.

B) binge-eating disorder.

C) bulimia nervosa.

D) None of the answers is correct.

 

18. Twenty-two-year-old Shanta is slightly overweight and loves to eat, particularly junk food and high-calorie desserts. Fearful of gaining weight, Shanta often takes a laxative following an episode of binge eating. Shanta seems to suffer from:

A) binge-eating disorder.

B) bulimia nervosa.

C) anorexia nervosa.

D) unit bias.

 

19. Those most vulnerable to eating disorders are those who ___________ value thinness and have the ____________ body image satisfaction.

A) least; lowest

B) most; greatest

C) least; greatest

D) most; lowest

 

20. The first priority in treating anorexia nervosa is:

A) changing eating patterns.

B) helping the patient develop a more realistic body image.

C) restoring body weight.

D) boosting self-esteem.

 

21. Drug abuse is defined as:

A) ingestion of a drug, regardless of the amount of ingestion.

B) use of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user’s biological, social, or psychological well-being.

C) use of any illegal substance.

D) an emotional and cognitive compulsion to use a drug.

 

22. Drugs, pollutants, and other substances that cross the placental barrier and damage the developing person are called:

A) glial-destroying enzymes.

B) psychoactive.

C) teratogens.

D) astrocytes.

 

 

23. Agonist is to antagonist as _______________ is to _______________.

A) nicotine; LSD

B) LSD; nicotine

C) neurotransmitter enhancement; neurotransmitter blocking

D) neurotransmitter blocking; neurotransmitter enhancement

 

24. Withdrawal refers to:

A) the unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person stops using certain drugs.

B) a state in which use of a drug is required for a person to function normally.

C) a state of progressively decreasing responsiveness to a frequently used drug.

D) the effect of one drug to increase the effects of another.

 

25. Max has been smoking cigarettes so long that his body requires nicotine to function normally. A health psychologist would say that Max clearly has developed:

A) hypersensitivity.

B) dependence.

C) potentiation.

D) tolerance.

 

26. The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is an indication of:

A) dependence and tolerance.

B) potentiation.

C) psychological dependence.

D) All of the answers are correct.

 

27. Which of the following drugs does NOT belong with the others?

A) cocaine

B) amphetamines

C) nicotine

D) alcohol

 

28. Drug potentiation refers to:

A) the unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person stops using certain drugs.

B) a state in which use of a drug is required for a person to function normally.

C) a state of progressively decreasing responsiveness to a frequently used drug.

D) the effect of one drug to increase the effects of another.

 

29. The fact that people who are physically dependent on one substance (such as nicotine) are more likely to be addicted to others as well (such as alcohol) provides support for a(n) _______________ model of addiction.

A) social learning

B) cognitive

C) evolutionary

D) reward

 

 

 

30. According to the _______________ theory, the stronger a person’s attachment to family, school, and other institutions, the less likely he or she will be to use drugs.

A) behavioral disinhibition

B) social control

C) peer cluster

D) hypersensitivity

 

31. Korsakoff’s syndrome is sometimes suffered by chronic, heavy users of alcohol and is characterized by:

A) behavioral disinhibition.

B) the formation of fat deposits on the heart muscle.

C) a dramatic change in personality.

D) the inability to store new memories.

 

32. Alcohol use disorder is a:

A) state in which the use of alcohol is required for a person to function normally.

B) maladaptive drinking pattern in which drinking interferes with role obligations.

C) neurological state induced by excessive use of alcohol.

D) personality syndrome linked to alcohol dependence.

 

33. Research on smoking habits of Americans shows that over the past few decades:

A) the percentage of teenage smokers has steadily decreased.

B) smoking has decreased more rapidly among men than among women.

C) smoking has decreased more rapidly among women than among men.

D) the incidence and prevalence of smoking have remained quite stable.

 

34. Regarding the health hazards of exposure to secondhand smoke, most experts agree that:

A) the dangers are not nearly as great as popularly believed.

B) nonsmokers who are regularly exposed to passive smoke are more likely to die from cardiovascular disease and cancer than those who live with nonsmokers.

C) secondhand smoke is unhealthy, although it has a much lower concentration of carcinogens than smoke that is directly inhaled.

D) the hazards of environmental tobacco smoke are more than offset by eating a balanced diet and engaging in other healthy lifestyle behaviors.

 

35. Which of the following is most often cited as a reason that people start smoking?

A) situational factors such as peer influence

B) personality factors such as rebelliousness

C) the pleasurable feelings associated with nicotine use

D) self-consciousness

 

36. Cigarette smoking is rewarding in part because it:

A) lowers blood pressure.

B) decreases alertness.

C) reduces activity in the sympathetic nervous system.

D) induces relaxation in the skeletal muscles.

 

 

 

37. When the nicotine content of cigarettes is reduced, smokers tend to:

A) smoke more of the low-nicotine cigarettes.

B) smoke the same number of cigarettes.

C) smoke the same number of cigarettes, but only if they are long-term smokers.

D) experience potentiation.

38. The basic idea behind smoking inoculation programs is to:

A) educate adolescents regarding the dangers of smoking.

B) use peer models to persuade young persons not to smoke.

C) teach practical skills in resisting social pressures to smoke.

D) provide young adolescents with alternatives to smoking.

 

39. People who successfully quit smoking typically:

A) change their beliefs to see less psychological benefit and more health threat from smoking.

B) have not been smoking for very long.

C) lack a variant of a specific gene that promotes nicotine dependence.

D) have never tried to quit before.

 

40. Quitting smoking is determined by three interacting factors. Which of the following is NOT one of these factors?

A) motivation to quit

B) level of physical dependence on nicotine

C) barriers to or supports in remaining smoke-free

D) age of the smoker

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