Lab 4 Create your own taxonomic key for a set of 24 butterflies. See the pages on the butterflies pics cutouts. • The butterfly pictures are all labeled with their scientific names. • Note how to form

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Lab 4

Create your own taxonomic key for a set of 24 butterflies. See the pages on the butterflies pics cutouts.

• The butterfly pictures are all labeled with their scientific names.

• Note how to format scientific names using standard naming criteria (Genus species, in Latin, and so forth).

Important: Here is a link that discusses the taxonomic process, using nuts and bolts. Direct link:

You might start with a flow chart and then convert to the key. Watch this to see what I mean: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BY6Dyz52J6g

Extra useful link: https://robertostaxonomyproject.weebly.com/dichotomous-key.html

Lab 4 Create your own taxonomic key for a set of 24 butterflies. See the pages on the butterflies pics cutouts. • The butterfly pictures are all labeled with their scientific names. • Note how to form
Survey of Genetic Traits (Individual and Family Level) Special Note: This laboratory is designed with the expectation that you will work alone and then share the data. Equipment (Lab/Post -Lab) 1) Copie s of karyotypes . 2) Graph paper and paper for taking laboratory notes 3) Ruler 4) Completed Pre -Lab family genetic data (Under the “Share Your Data” link on Canvas) Part 1: Karyotyping Procedure 1) You are given a karyotype sheet and a set of printed chromosome sheet s. [Caution: be organized or you will get bogged down during this component of the laboratory.] 2) Hint: You may need to print 1+ extra chromosome sheets to complete this portion of the exercise. 3) For your set of chromosomes, c orrectly place these chromosomes onto the blank sheet to complete the karyotype for your individual . Hints: a. Of course, use the Chromosome Key handout as a guide. b. I have found that an initial sort by overall size, then the shape at the centromere, the color at the centromere is a good start. c. Just like a puzzle, identity the most obvious first and then work with those “tougher” ones. • You can find the blank sheet here (print 4 copies): http://www.cynthia clarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Blank_boa rd.pdf • Here are copies of jumbled chromosome sheets: http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Paper_chr omosomes.pdf 4) You will be needing to create 4 karyotypes: 1) Turner syndrome 2) Patau syndrome, 3) Klinefelter’s syndrome; and 4) Down’s syndrome . 5) Scan o r photograph each karyotype and submit with lab work. You may attach these to the data collection form or attach separately. 6) Be sure you label each. Part 2: Pedigrees/Punnett Squares (Ideally, done during lab; if not completed finish outside lab) Proced ure 1) Obtain a copy of the Pre -Lab data from one member of y our lab group , and use this as the basis of the work performed in Part 2. This data should be available under the “Share Your Data” link. 2) If needed, use one or more Punnett Squares to determine the genotype of individual family members 3) Next draw a pedigree tha t one of the traits , as documented for his/her family (pick one of these traits for which there is variability in the family ). a. Use the template and graphing paper. Genetics – Family Procedures 2 b. Be sure to properly label each member of the pedigree, either with name or a letter . 4) Repeat this process for at least two additional tra its . 5) Be sure to attach the photocopy of this person’s Pre -Lab data collection sheet when you submit your work. Part 3: Baby Genetics 1 Background Students will work individually in the lab to produce a baby from the random mixing of genetic traits. Part 3A: Procedure Step 1: Determining the gen etic makeup of the egg and the sperm . 1) You will use a coin and Table 2 to determine the gen etic make -up of the parents ’ sperm or egg . 2) First you need to determine if the sperm contains an X or a Y chromosome. Heads is X and tails is Y. 3) Then d etermine the ge netic makeup of the sperm for each trait listed in Ta ble 2. a. Each side of a coin represents a n allele . Heads represents a dominant trait (left column of Table 2) and each tails represents the recessive trait (right column of Table 2). i. There are 4 autosomal chromosomes (Chromosomes 1-4) ii. There is 1 sex chromosome . b. Toss your coin for each trait listed in Table 2. i. Example: My first coin toss is heads for the eyebrow shape. I record A in Table 3 ii. Example: my second coin toss is tails for eye color. I record b in Table 3. 4) I continue down the list of traits unti l I have recorded data for each of the father’s traits found in father’s sperm in Table 3. 5) Repeat this same process for the mother’s egg . Step 2: Making a baby 1) Combine the genetic materials of both parents and record as the baby’s genotype. a. Exam ple: Father’s sperm contained the A trait, and the mother’s egg did too. Record AA. b. Example: Father’s sperm contained the b trait, and the mother’s egg contained the B trait. Record Bb c. Continue to combine until all traits are recorded. d. Careful. So me traits are sex. -linked. 2) Next determine the phenotype of the baby. a. It is important to determine the baby phenotype at birth. b. For the offspring’s phenotype use Table 2 as your guide. c. Remember that a CAPITAL letter is dominant over a small letter [recessive] unless the decoding chart indicates those traits are co -dominant, sex -linked, or sex -limited. Part 3B: Questions 1) Complete the debriefing questions found on the Data Collection handout . 2) Use the data from Part 3A to help you answer the questions. 1 Based on an exercise by Dr. Pamela Esprivalo Harrell, University of North Texas, developed an earlier version of “Dragon Genetics” which is described in the January 1997 issue of Science Scope, 20:4, 33 -37.Copyright 2005, Bob Farber, Central High School, Philadelphia, PA [With pe rmission.] Genetics – Family Procedures 3 Table 2: Decoding of the genes Special Note: Remember: This gene scenario does NOT represent the actual human genome. Chromosome # Dominant genes (HEADS) Recessive genes (TAILS) Chromosome 1 A. Arched eyebrow shape B. “Brown” eyes C. Cleft chin D. [DD/Dd] 2 Male: Long eye lashes [DD/Dd] Female: Short eye lashes a. Curved eyebrow shape b. “Blue” eyes c. No cleft chin d. [dd] Short eye lashes (Both sexes) Chromosome 2 F. Freckles G. “Dark” hair H. No hitchhiker’s thumb I. Large eyes J. Flat feet f. No freckles g. Red -haired h. Hitchhiker’s thumb i. Small eyes j. Arched feet Chromosome 3 K. No patterned balding 3 L. [LL/Ll] Male: High forehead4 [LL/Ll]Female: No high forehead M. No middle finger hair N. Normal chin k. [kk] Males: Patterned balding [kk] Females: No patterned balding l. [ll] Male/Female: No high forehead m. M iddle finger hair n. Receding chin Chromosome 4 P. Wide mouth (side -to-side) R. [RR/Rr] No tongue rolling 5 S. [SS] Blue spots forehead [Ss] Green spots on forehead T. Taster p. Narrow mouth r. [rr] Males: Tongue roller [rr] Females: No tongue rolling s. [ss] Yellow spots t. Non -taster Sex Chromosomes [X chromosome] [Y chromosome ] U. Unattached earlobe V. Snoring W. Widow’s peak Z Non -fire breather 6 u. Attached earlobe v. No snoring w. No widow’s peak z. Fire breather Special notes : The egg will have 3 genes (U or u, V or v, and W or w) but no Z or z. The sperm will carry Z or z, if it is populated with a Y chromosome , The spe rm will carry will have 3 genes (U or u, V or v, and W or w) if it is populated with an X chromo some. Differences between sex -limited, sex -influenced, and sex -linked trait: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eek0KpV8jUo 2 Sex -limited trait (expressed in males only ; fe males can carry genes) 3 Sex -influenced trait 4 Sex -limited trait 5 Sex -limited trait 6 Sex -linked trait ; only found on Y chromosome. Name __________________ ______________________ _______________________ Anthropology &215 Special Note: This laboratory is designed with the expectation that you will work alone and then share the data. Grading : For each, use X if completed, P if partially completed, and 0 if not attempted. ___ Table 1: Karyotyping (4 points) ___ Part 2: Three pedigree charts (6 points) ___ Part 3A: Table 3 (4 points) ___ Part 3B: De -briefing questions (3 points) ___ Post -lab baby picture (3 points) _____________________________________________________________________________________ Data Collection (Lab) • Data on these pages are to be completed during the 2 -hour laboratory. • The laboratory is designed with the expectation that you will work alone and then share the data. • Perhaps you might even anticipate the work and pre -plan the teams (hint!) Part 1: Karyotyping Table 1: Karyotype Data (4 poin ts) • You can find the blank sheet here (print 4 copies): http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignments/3_Genetics_Family/Blank_board.pdf • Here are copies of jumbled chromosome sheets: http://www.cynthiaclarke.com/anth215/215_Assignment s/3_Genetics_Family/Paper_chromosomes.pd f Once you complete the 4 karyotypes, scan or photograph and submit with lab work as part of your data collection. Part 2: Pedigrees/Punnett Squares Procedure (6 points) 1) Obtain a copy of the Pre -Lab data f rom a classmate (on Canv as under the link called “Share Your Data ”) Use these dat a as the basis of the work performed in Part 2. 2) If needed, use one or more Punnett Squares to determine the genotype of individual family members 3) Next draw a pedigree that one of the traits, as documented for his/her famil y (pick one of these traits for which there is variability in the family). a. Use the template and graphing paper. b. Be sure to properly label each member of the pedigree, either with name or a letter. 4) Repeat this process for at least two additional traits. 5) Be sure to attach the photocopy of this person’s Pre -Lab data collection sheet when you submit your work. Genetics – Family Data Collection 2 Offsp ring’s Genotype : ______ ____ _____ __________________________________ Offsprin g’s Phenotype: _________ ____ __ __________________________ ____ ____ __________________________ ___ _____ __________________________________ Sperm : ____ __ ___ _______ ______________ ____________________________________ Egg :___ _____________ _______ __________ _____________________________________ Offsp ring’s Genotype : _______________ __________________________________ Offsprin g’s Phenotype: _______________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Sperm : ____ __ ___ _______ ______________ ____________________________________ Egg :___ _____________ _________________ _____________________________________ Offsp ring’s Genotype : _______________ __________________________________ Offsprin g’s Phenotype: _______________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Sperm : ____ __ ___ _______ ______________ ____________________________________ Egg :___ _____________ _________________ ______________________ _______________ Offsp ring’s Genotype : _______________ __________________________________ Offsprin g’s Phenotype: _______________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Sperm : ____ __ ___ _______ ______________ ____________________________________ Egg :___ _____________ _________________ _____________________________________ Offsp ring’ s Genotype : _______________ __________________________________ Offsprin g’s Phenotype: _______________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Sperm (X or Y) : ___ _______ ______________ ____________________________________ Egg (X) : ___ _________ ___________ ______ _____________________________________ Part 3 A: Making a baby Table 3: Making Sperm, Egg, and a Baby (Part 3A) (4 points ) Source of Traits: Chromosome 1 Source of Traits: Chromosome 2 Source of Traits: Chromosome 3 Source of Traits: Chromosome 4 Source of Traits: Sex Chromosome Genetics – Family Data Collection 3 Part 3B: Laboratory Debriefing Questions Karyotype questions (Select any one of the genetic defects identified during the lab and answer Qu estions 1-2). 1) What percentage of the population exhibits this defect? (0.5 point) [Computer work; cite your source in APA format] 2) What are the main symptoms of this defect? (0.5 point) [Computer work; cite your source in APA format] Baby questions 1) What is the sex of your baby? _______________ (no points) 2) Complete the table below (2 points) Type of trait Example from scenario ACTUAL example [Computer work ] Sex -influenced trait Sex -linked trait Sex -limited trait ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Draw the Baby 1) This part of the laboratory is worth 3 points . 2) Create a “photo” of the new offspring , which shows the phenotype of the child at birth. You can use the blank pho to or create one from scratch. 3) Any trait which would appear lat er in life and/or those phenotypic traits could not be portrayed , indicate in notes separately .
Lab 4 Create your own taxonomic key for a set of 24 butterflies. See the pages on the butterflies pics cutouts. • The butterfly pictures are all labeled with their scientific names. • Note how to form
SeaWorld/Busch Gardens Primates 4-8 Classroom Activities October 2002ACTION 1.Explain that the students will be constructing a primate dichotomous key. A dichotomous key is a biological tool used to classify organisms into distinct categories. It is constructed of several couplets (a set of two statements). Each statement of the couplet describes a certain characteristic of the organism being clas- sified. Then a choice is made between the two statements that best fits the organisms. The initial couplets are constructed with statements that contain broad characteristics of the organisms being classified. For example: apes vs. monkeys. As couplets progress in the dichotomous key, the characteristics become more specific. For example: weight (under one pound) vs. (over one pound). 2.Write the primate list on the chalkboard or copy on an overhead. Explain that these primates will be classified by the dichotomous key. 3.Divide the class into groups of four. Each group will be responsible for constructing a unique primate dichotomous key for the primates listed on the board. 4.Allot time for the student groups to research the primates on the list (internet, library, or other resources). Explain that students must research each primate on the list to complete the dichotomous key. 5.Give the students the following hint to begin their dichotomous key. The first couplet should be “apes vs. monkeys.” This will divide the list of ten primates into two groups of five. The students will then have to determine the differences between apes and monkeys and sort the primate list into their designated categories. 6.Remind students that the main purpose of a dichotomous key is to make it user friendly. Therefore the keys should be constructed so that an anonymous person or group can yield the same results or classification using the key. This will require that each statement of the couplets have an explanation underneath it. continued….Primates • 4-8 Activities • page 3Primate Dichotomous Key OBJECTIVE The student will research and evaluate ten primate species. The student will construct a dichotomous key to classify ten primate species into distinct categories. MATERIALS Per student: • copy of Primate Dichotomous Key list and flow chart • pencil or pen Per class: • copy of Primate Dichotomous Key answer guide • Recommended Reference Sources Rowe, Noel. 1996. The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates.East Hampton, New York: Pogonias Press. PRIMATE LIST FOR DICHOTOMOUS KEY 1.Bonobos or Pygmy Chimpanzee (Pan paniscus) 2.Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) 3.Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) 4.Guinea Baboon (Papio hamadryas papio) 5.Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) 6.Spider Monkey (Ateles fuscieps robustes) 7.Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri scioreus) 8.Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) 9.Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) 10.White-handed Gibbon (Hylobates (Hylobates) lar) DEEPER DEPTHS Once all the primate dichotomous keys have been checked for accuracy using the teacher guide sample, instruct stu- dents to trade their key with another group. Next, the students will try to classify the primate list using the other group’s dichotomous key. Primates • 4-8 Activities • page 4© 2002 Busch GardensFor example: apes vs. monkeys, the students should write the defining characteristics of an ape underneath the ape statement and the defining monkey characteristics underneath the monkey statement. This will ensure that the dichotomous key is user friendly. A sample dichotomous key has been included for teacher reference. 7.Instruct students to present their dichotomous keys to the class. Primates • 4-8 Activities • page 5© 2002 Busch GardensPrimate Dichotomous Key Using the following funsheet and the lines below, classify the these primate species. gorilla, gibbon, bonobo, chimpanzee, orang-utan, baboon, marmoset, spider monkey, mandrill, andsquirrel monkey 1.Primate has a tail………………………………………………………………..go to 2: (monkeys) –Primate doesn’t have a tail……………………………………………………go to ____: (apes) 2. Monkey _________________________……………………………….go to 3 — Monkey __________________________……………………………..go to ________ 3. __________________________________……………………………..go to ________ — __________________________________……………………………..____________ 4.__________________________________……………………………._____________ –__________________________________…………………………….._____________ 5. __________________________________…………………………….._____________ –__________________________________…………………………….._____________ 6. __________________________________…………………………….._____________ — __________________________________……………………………..____________ 7.__________________________________……………………………._____________ –__________________________________…………………………….._____________ 8. __________________________________…………………………….._____________ –__________________________________…………………………….._____________ 8. __________________________________…………………………….._____________ –__________________________________…………………………….._____________ Primates • 4-8 Activities • page 6© 2002 Busch Gardens Primates • 4-8 Activities • page 7Sample Primate Dichotomous Key Using the following funsheet and the lines below, classify the these pri mate species. gorilla, gibbon, bonobo, chimpanzee, orang-utan, baboon, marmoset, spide r monkey, mandrill, andsquirrel monkey 1.Primate has a tail……………………………………………. …………………. go to 2: (monkeys) –Primate doesn’t have a tail…………………………………. ……………….. go to 6: (apes) 2. Monkey from Americas…………………………………………. ………….. go to 3 — Monkey from Africa or Asia……………………………………. ………… go to 5 3. Monkey eats meat…………………………………………….. ……………….. go to 4 — Monkey eats fruit and plant matter…………………………….. ………… spider monkey 4.Monkey weighs under 1 lb………………………………………. …………. marmoset — Monkey weighs over 1 lb………………………………………. …………… squirrel monkey 5. Monkey endangered under CITES I……………………………….. ….. mandrill — Monkey endangered under CITES II………………………………. …… baboon 6. Ape from Africa……………………………………………… ………………. go to 7 — Ape from Asia……………………………………………….. ………………… go to 9 7. Ape eats meat ………………………………………………. …………………… go to 8 — Ape eats plants …………………………………………….. ……………………. gorilla 8. Ape with limited distribution ………………………………… ………….. bonobo — Ape with wide distribution……………………………………. …………… chimpanzee 9. Ape of large size……………………………………………. …………………. orang-utan — Ape of small size……………………………………………. ………………… gibbon Primates • 4-8 Activities • page 8 © 2002 Busch Gardens How to sort your butterf lies 1) You can use a number of physical traits to sort yo ur butterflies , such as dif ferences in the number and shape of these traits : 2) Y ou can use win g c olor, shape and patterns 3) You can do a Google se arch fo r a butterf ly if yo u want to use traits, such as be hav ior al or reproductive. 4) You can do a Google se arch for the habitat of your butterf lies.

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