Journal of Universal Excellence

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

* Korespondenčni avtor / Correspondence author 232 Prejeto: 28. maj 2019; revidirano: 28. maj 2019; sprejeto: 28. maj 2019. /

Received: 28th May 2019; revised: 28th May 2019; accepted: 28th May 2019.

 

Motivation for Social Responsibility in Nuclear Power Plants

 

Milan Simončič*

Nuklearna elektrarna Krško, Vrbina 12, 8270 Krško, Slovenija

milan.simoncic@nek.si

 

 

 

Abstract: Research Question (RQ): What motivates owners and operators of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

for socially responsible acts?

Purpose: This research identifies the dominant motives for the social responsibility of owners and

operators of NPPs.

Method: After reviewing the relevant literature of the presented field of interest, we included the

owners and operators of the NPPs in the research. They are members of the international

organization World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), with a regional centre in Paris. As

an instrument for obtaining the information, we used a developed questionnaire. For the evaluation

of data, we used descriptive and frequency statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon rank test,

and Kruskal-Wallis test.

Results: 43 representatives of operators and 3 owners of NPPs cooperated in the research.

Motivational factors for socially responsible activities include intrinsic elements, in particular

personal ethical and moral values and personal satisfaction. We did not find statistically significant

differences in motivation between operators and owners. In most cases, these differences were not

statistically significant, considering their function in the organization. Operators and owners of

NPPs demonstrated a high willingness to meet the expectations of a wider society.

Organization: The results help NPPs in establishing and consolidating the positive image of a

socially responsible organization.

Society: The wider society is aware that the owners and operators of the NPPs obviously

demonstrate that they want to act socially responsibly. It affects the acceptability of the NPPs and

the quality of life of individuals and different groups in modern society and the environment in

which nuclear facilities are located.

Originality: This research is the first one as known to the author that is aimed at studying the

motivational factors of the owners and operators of the NPPs for socially responsible actions. The

results are directly applicable and relevant in Slovenia and other countries with NPPs. They

contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between society and nuclear facilities.

Limitations / further research: The responsiveness of the owners of the NPPs was not as good as

the responsiveness of the operators; therefore, the sample is less representative of the owners. This

research also focused on the inspirations that influence the motivation for establishing partnership

relations with the NPPs, of the external stakeholders of the NPPs (local communities, political

public, NGOs, journalists and others).

 

Keywords: intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors, coexistence with the nuclear power plant,

social responsibility.

 

 

1 Introduction

The members of management in organizations play an important role in the implementation of

social responsibility, as well as other individuals in organizations. Understanding and

implementing the obligations of each individual, knowledge, responsibility, ethics and

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

233

organizational capability of the management in organizations are a prerequisite for a socially

responsible environment. Social norms more or less dictate the actions of the involved actors.

The following article focuses on the subject of the social responsibility of nuclear power plants

(NPPs) – particularly the operators and owners of nuclear facilities. As operators, we are

referring to people who directly handle with a nuclear power plant. The socially responsible

actions of owners and operators of NPPs depend on their own personal motivation and their

understanding of the influences of nuclear facilities on the wider society.

This research identifies the dominant motives for the social responsibilities of owners and

operators of NPPs which significantly influences the understanding of the coexistence of

external stakeholders with the NPP. It is important for NPPs and for the wider society.

Nuclear safety is in strong correlation with high safety culture standards and the fulfilment of

social responsibilities. Today’s understanding of the social responsibility of NPPs includes

sustainable functioning and is based on safety culture as the highest value and behavioral pattern

of operators and owners. It includes respect for ethical and moral principles, and considers the

interests of wider society. An important condition for NPP’s acceptance in society is trust that

the organization creates through public relations, good business results, stable and safe

operations, inclusion of the public, respect for international norms, ethical principles and

regulatory obligations. (Simončič & Žurga, 2016, p. 658)

2 Theoretical framework

2.1 The impact of social responsibility on the acceptability of NPPs and quality of life

Organizations and governments already implemented various aspects of corporate social

responsibility at the end of the 19th century and in some cases even earlier (ISO 26000, 2010,

p. 29). Matten and Moon (2008, p. 405) note that the concept of social responsibility is not

uniquely defined, something which we have recognised ourselves. We are referring to Štrukelj

and Mulej (2017), that the social responsibility of organizations expresses the social and

personal needs, this is why everyone takes into account their influence on people and nature,

i.e. on the society. The search for a way out of the current global socio-economic crisis is

supported by the fact that the guidelines for enforcing corporate social responsibility have been

accepted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), with ISO 26000. The

European Union (EU) has also endorsed it. The exposed properties indicate that it is the

enforcement of systemic behaviour, since the three central concepts are responsibility,

interdependence and integrity. Social responsibility is a serious and natural value for those with

more long-term and comprehensive ideas, and for those with more short-term and one-sided

ones it is an obstacle for profit. The direction a certain organization chooses depends on its

business strategy (p. 292–303).

Document on Social Responsibility ISO 26000 (2010, p. 17) provides guidance for seven

principles of social responsibility: accountability, transparency, ethical behaviour, respect for

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

234

stakeholder interests, respect for the rule of law, respect for international norms of behaviour

and respect for human rights.

According to the International Atomic Energy Organization (IAEA, 2019) there were 452

nuclear reactors operating in the world, in 31 countries, with a total installed capacity of 399.354

MW in May 2019, while 54 NPPs were under construction. Nuclear energy remains a reality in

many countries even after the event in Fukushima NPP in Japan, in 2011 (Afgan, 2013, p. 308–

309; Goodfellow, Dewick, Wortley, & Azapagic, 2015, p. 72; Horvath & Rachlew, 2016, p.

38; Kato, Takahara, Nishikawa, & Homma, 2013, p. 818; Raja, Pesic, & Misra, 2015, p. 1;

Shadrina, 2012, p. 78; Truelove & Greenberg, 2013, p. 386). Program Harmony (2017),

managed by the World Nuclear Association, supports climate change mitigation efforts to limit

warming below 2 ˚C. Nuclear energy could be part of the solution to problems of air pollution

and climate change. This requires a large increase of all low-carbon energy sources, of which

nuclear is an important part. Achieving this means nuclear energy generation must triple

globally by 2050. According to the European Commission, nuclear energy is expected to remain

an important component of the EU’s energy mix in the 2050 horizon (European Commission,

2017, p. 11).

International organizations manage the operation of the NPPs and try to achieve unification of

safety, technical and ethical standards at a global level. International organization World

Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO, 2013) states that the safety culture in the NPPs is

defined as a fundamental value. It originates from the collective commitment of leaders and

individuals to ensure the safety of people and the protection of the environment, with the

emphasis on safety while meeting the set goals. Nuclear safety is the collective responsibility

of each NPP. The concept of nuclear safety culture therefore applies to every employee in a

nuclear organization, from top management to all individual employees in the organization (p.

6–11).

The successful and stable operation of the NPP depends on the trust of a wider society in a

nuclear facility. Owners and operators of the NPPs have to meet the expected obligations

towards society and the environment. Respect for the interests of the wider society is a key

precondition for successful coexistence and acceptance of NPPs. Trufanov (2013) states that

organizations are influenced by different stakeholders in various fields. The importance of

individual interests differs for individual groups. (p. 931) Matuleviciene and Stravinskiene

(2015, p. 599) cite two basic factors that influence the trust of stakeholders, namely the

reputation of the organization and its credibility (organizational reliability). The principle of

respecting the interests of stakeholders involves cooperation with local communities and other

stakeholders. Bowen, Newenham-Kahindi and Herremans (2010) explore when, how and why

companies use different community strategies of integration. They set out three strategies of

engagement and cooperation with communities: transactional, transitional and

transformational. These actions have a long-term effect (p. 297).

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

235

Respect for the stakeholder interests of NPPs is one of the important socially responsible

principles, which can be demonstrated by owners and operators. Simončič and Žurga (2019, p.

199–200), using the SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) method, showed the hypothesis that

respecting the interests of stakeholders is a prerequisite for the acceptability of the NPPs in

society and the environment and strengthens the quality of their coexistence. Figure 1 shows

the main variables (grouped into 3 factors) of the structural model and relationships among the

three latent constructs, as a basis for the hypothesis test and interactions between them. In

general, 63 % of the quality of coexistence is explained by the acceptability of the NPPs in the

environment. The influence of respecting the interests of stakeholders (as part of the social

responsibility of the NPP) on the quality of coexistence is evident, and (even greater) on the

acceptability of the NPP in society.

 

Figure 1. Structural model for NPPs, relationships among the three latent constructs. Summarized by »Successful

Co-Existance of Nuclear Power Plants with Their External Stakeholders.«, M. Simončič & G. Žurga, 2019, Atw

– International Journal for Nuclear Power, 64(4), p. 200.

2.2 Motivation for social responsibility

Based on the analysis of 38 articles from the field of social responsibility, we can highlight the

essential advantages of socially responsible organizations: increasing trust in organizations and

products / services it offers, competitive advantage, long-term reputation, efficiency, incentive

for innovation, customer satisfaction / user satisfaction and the personal satisfaction of those

who carry out socially responsible actions. (Simončič, 2015, p. 122) The above facts could be

an important incentive for managers and other individuals in organizations, even in NPPs.

To be motivated means to be moved to do something, said Ryan and Deci (2000).

With motivation, the organizations promote work efficiency. The purpose of motivational

theories is to study the motives that people need. These theories are, for example, the theory of

Abraham Maslow (1954), McClelland (1961) and Herzberg’s theory (1959). Process

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

236

motivational theories are studying processes that influence the way people work in a given way

in given situations. Among these theories are known: the theory of Vroom (1964), Adams

(1965) and Lawler’s theory (1973). (Bexheti & Bexheti, 2016, p. 382)

In the Self-Determination Theory Ryan and Deci (2000) distinguish between different types of

motivation based on the different reasons or goals that give rise to an action. The most basic

distinction is between intrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something because it is

inherently interesting or enjoyable, and extrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something

because it leads to a separable outcome. Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an

activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence. When

intrinsically motivated a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than

because of external prods, pressures, or rewards, summarized by White (1959). Although

intrinsic motivation is clearly an important type of motivation, most of the activities people do

are not, strictly speaking, intrinsically motivated. (p. 54–60) Hetty, Schreus, Cuyper, Jawahar

and Peeters (2012, p. 113) argue that extrinsic motivation focuses on the results of an

organization, work is carried out by employees in order to achieve the goals of the organization,

in anticipation of the prize, and not because they would enjoy it or it seemed interesting to them.

People often assume that socially responsible acts are conditioned primarily by financial

motives (Orlitzky, Schmidt, & Rynes, 2003, p. 424; van Beurden & Goessling, 2008, p. 419).

Simcic Brønn and Vidaver-Cohen (2009, p. 96) with research study in Norway to demonstrate

that social responsibility can also significantly stimulate a different motivation. Graafland,

Mazereeuw and van der Schouten (2012) analyzed extrinsic and intrinsic motives that affect

their social responsibility on a sample of 473 executives in Germany, to take responsibility for

the labour, environmental and social aspects of their business. Financial incentives have been

identified as extrinsic as intrinsic ethical and moral incentives. The estimation results show that

for social aspects, executives are significantly more driven by intrinsic motives than by the

extrinsic motive. Further, for the environmental aspects of social responsibility intrinsic

motives provide stronger stimulus than extrinsic motives. (p. 377)

2.3 Basic research question and hypotheses

The development of social responsibility in different environments depends on the nature of the

participating local and global stakeholders and their interactions. Avetisyan and Ferrary (2012,

p. 130) state that differences in motivational factors in many organizations were found between

some countries. Ivanko and Stare (2007, p. 96) note that national culture influences

organizational culture, which was among the first to prove Hofstede. Reason (1998)

emphasized the cultural influences in the emergence of the accident, in the Chernobyl NPP, in

1986.

Given the extraordinary responsibility of NPPs to the wider society, we expect that the owners

and operators of NPPs, are motivated to perform socially responsible actions (that is, there are

no differences in understanding and readiness for such actions). This must apply regardless of

the geographical or cultural environment in which they are located.

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

237

In this study, we present the basic research question: »What motivates owners and operators of

NPPs for socially responsible actions?”. We developed the following two-part hypothesis:

“Motives which encourage the owners and operators of NPPs in different countries, to

implement social responsibility, are not different. The main motivation for the social

responsibility of owners and operators of the NPP are intrinsic factors.”

3 Method

3.1 Data collection

NPPs represent owners and operators. They are members of the International Organization of

the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), in four regional centres. Representatives

of 147 nuclear reactors are members of the Regional Centre in Paris (also among them the

Krško NPP). They are owned by 14 organizations in 13 countries. The management of WANO,

a regional centre in Paris, enabled us to invite the NPPs to participate in the survey through

their internal information system.

3.2 Questionnaire and data analysis

We have provided an objective measurement instrument, which is in function of the variables

we measure. For the purpose of this study, a questionnaire with closed type questions

(statements) was developed. It was consistent and would produce comparable results in

repeated measurements. Our purpose was to find the importance of the six motivational factors.

As intrinsic, we defined: personal ethical and moral values, personal satisfaction and the need

for charity. As extrinsic, we defined: recognition or praise, financial and other material

incentives and better career opportunities. In a pilot study, the Human Resources Manager at

the Krško NPP, as a representative of the management structure of the NPP, participated.

Owners and operators of NPPs expressed their impact of all six motivational factors: 1-

insignificant, 2-slight impact, 3-possible impact, 4-large impact or 5-very large impact. For

basic analysis, descriptive statistics methods were used. For analyzing the completed

questionnaires, we used descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and

the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

3.3 Time frame of the survey

Web based surveys were conducted in October 2017. The research was carried out at a time

when the next European concept of electricity supply was primarily oriented towards low-

carbon sources. The EU wants to provide technological leadership in the nuclear domain,

including the development of fusion through the International Thermonuclear Experimental

Reactor (ITER), so as not to increase energy and technology dependence, and to provide

European companies with business opportunities. This will in turn support EU growth, jobs and

competitiveness. (European Commission, 2017, p. 10–11)

This was also six years after the accident at the Fukushima NPP in Japan, which affected the

confidence in NPPs on a global scale.

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

238

4 Results

4.1 Structure of participants and descriptive statistics

In figure 2 the number and structure of the responding respondents are evident. There were 43

representatives of the NPP and 3 owners of them. Considering their function in the organization,

the majority of representatives were members of the top management, what we wanted to

achieve.

 

Figure 2. Number of participating members, and organizational function of respondents.

Table 1 summarizes some descriptive statistics for all six motivational factors. Owners and

operators have expressed great importance for “Personal ethical and moral values”, also for

“Need for charity” and (especially operators) “Personal satisfaction”.

Table 1. Descriptive statistics for six motivational factors.

Motivational factors Affiliation N M SD Mdn Mo

Recognition or praise Operators 43 3,02 0,636 3,00 3

Owners 3 3,33 1,155 4,00 4

Financial and other material incentives Operators 43 2,42 0,879 2,00 3

Owners 3 2,67 0,577 3,00 3

Personal ethical and moral values Operators 43 4,67 0,522 5,00 5

Owners 3 4,67 0,577 5,00 5

Personal satisfaction Operators 43 4,60 0,583 5,00 5

Owners 3 3,67 1,155 3,00 3

Need for charity Operators 43 3,88 0,793 4,00 4

Owners 3 3,67 2,309 5,00 5

Better career opportunities Operators 43 2,37 1,001 3,00 3

Owners 3 2,33 1,155 3,00 3

Note. N= total number of responses; M=sample mean; SD=standard deviation; Mdn=median; Mo=mode.

 

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

239

We illustrated the median values graphically in figure 3.

 

Figure 3. Median values, impact of motivational factors for operators and owners.

4.2 Test of hypotheses

The first part of the hypothesis (“The motives which encourage the owners and operators of

NPPs in different countries, to implement social responsibility, are not different.”) tested by the

Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results of both tests were summarized in tables 2

and 3.

Table 2. Mann-Whitney test, operators and owners of NPPs.

Motivational factors Affiliation N Average rank U p

Recognition or praise Operators 43 23,12

48,000 0,411 Owners 3 29,00

Financial and other material incentives Operators 43 23,24

53,500 0,603 Owners 3 27,17

Personal ethical and moral values Operators 43 23,53

63,000 0,934 Owners 3 23,00

Personal satisfaction Operators 43 24,28

31,000 0,080 Owners 3 12,33

Need for charity Operators 43 23,21

52,000 0,550 Owners 3 27,67

Better career opportunities Operators 43 23,50

64,500 1,000 Owners 3 23,50

Note. N= total number of responses; U= Mann-Whitney test statistics; p=statistical significance (p <0.05 means

statistically significant difference).

 

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

240

Table 3. Kruskal-Wallis test, function in organization (top management, representative in WANO, public relation).

Motivational factors df H p

Recognition or praise 2 0,397 0,820

Financial and other material incentives 2 5,075 0,079

Personal ethical and moral values 2 0,090 0,956

Personal satisfaction 2 0,809 0,667

Need for charity 2 0,207 0,902

Better career opportunities 2 8,828 0,012

Note. df=degrees of freedom; H= Kruskal-Wallis test statistics; p= statistical significance (p <0.05 means

statistically significant difference).

 

We confirmed that the differences in the motives for carrying out socially responsible actions

among owners and operators are not statistically significant. At the same time, in most cases (5

of 6), there are no statistically significant differences in the motives for performing socially

responsible acts. We took into account the function of the organization.

The second part of the hypothesis (“The main motivation for socially responsible actions for

owners and operators of the NPP are intrinsic factors.”) was tested by the Wilcoxon signed-

rank test. From the two new variables median (Mdn) were determined, one for intrinsic and one

for extrinsic motivational factors. We summarized the results of the test in table 4.

Table 4. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, intrinsic& extrinsic factors.

Motivational factors N

Extrinsic_Mdn < Intrinsic_Mdn 41

Extrinsic_Mdn > Intrinsic_Mdn 0

Extrinsic_Mdn = Intrinsic_Mdn 5

Note. N=total number of responses.

The difference between the two types of factors is statistically significant (Z = -6,247, p <0.001).

In motivating socially responsible actions for owners and operators, personal ethical and moral

values, personal satisfaction and the need for charity are predominant.

5 Discussion

We can be socially responsible in various ways – as individuals in society or in various

organized groups, including organizations. The social responsibility of organizations promotes

competitiveness, existence and enables sustainable development.

According to the great responsibility of NPPs to the wider society, we expect that the owners

and operators of the NPPs were highly motivated to perform socially responsible actions. In

this research to determine the motivational factors that dominate the implementation of social

responsibility, we included several operators of NPPs and their owners, taking into account

geographical and cultural diversity. We have shown that owners and operators of the NPPs are

motivated for socially responsible activities, regardless of the geographical and cultural

environment. Differences in the motives for carrying out socially responsible actions between

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

241

owners and operators are not statistically significant. In most cases, there are no differences in

motives, considering the function in the organization (top management, representatives in

WANO or public relations).

It is also expected that the main motivation of the owners and operators of the NPPs for social

responsibility derives from their personal ethical and moral values, personal satisfaction and

the need for socially responsible actions. This means that a material incentive in the form of

salaries or rewards, public praise and career goals (extrinsic motives) for owners and operators

of the NPPs are not a dominant motivational factor. We have confirmed the high motivation for

carrying out socially responsible actions of the owners and operators of the NPPs. Personal

ethical and moral values, as well as personal satisfaction (intrinsic factors), dominate.

Taking into account the above facts and based on the presented results, we confirmed the

hypothesis.

Motivation for social responsibility supports the appropriate working environment which

contributes to the organizational culture. The organizational culture represents the values and

behaviour of employees in the nuclear industry. This is closely linked to the personal

development of each individual in NPPs. The development of the organizational and safety

culture in the NPPs is significantly influenced by international organizations, in particular the

WANO organization, which places special importance on this field. WANO organization

participated indirectly in the research; with its support (use of internal communication process)

we persuaded and invited participants to the survey. In this way, WANO demonstrated their

social responsibility and understanding of the issues we have been researching.

Coexistence with NPPs depends on the trust of stakeholders into the NPP, the perception of

their quality of life, the awareness of the impacts on coexistence, and the willingness to respect

the interests of stakeholders of NPPs, which the power plant should implement with socially

responsible practices. ISO 26000 (2010) addresses impacts, interests and expectations; it

requires that the organization must take into account and understand the three types of

relationships between the organization and society, between the organization and its

stakeholders, and between stakeholders and society (p. 49).

NPPs want to meet the challenges ahead. They want to co-create a trusted environment, which

enables them to operate in the long term and achieve their economic goals. Motivational factors

that we have found confirm that owners and operators of NPPs, besides the economic, are also

aware of ethical responsibilities to the wider society. In a constantly changing and critical

environment, NPPs can only provide its existence with an effective response in the electricity

market together with respect of different stakeholders. In this way, it is possible to establish a

partnership with the wider community and trust in a nuclear facility. The coexistence with NPPs

depends on the respect, consideration and response of owners and operators to the interests of

their stakeholders.

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

242

The social responsibility of NPPs is an important part of competitive electricity supply and the

quality of life for wider society.

6 Conclusion

In this research, 46 participating WANO members in regional Paris group were identified, as

the owners or operators of the NPPs. At the time of survey, 147 nuclear reactors were included

in the group, owned by 14 organizations from 10 European, one Asian and two South American

countries (WANO, 2017). Assuming that we have captured the probability sample of the

owners and operators of the JE, we have confirmed that there were no statistically significant

differences in the motives for carrying out socially responsible actions between owners and

operators, irrespective of the geographical or cultural environment. Taking into account their

function in the organization (top management members, representatives in WANO and public

relation personnel) we confirmed the same. Participating owners and operators of the NPPs

clearly expressed the dominance of intrinsic motivational factors. They have proven their

ethical responsibility and a pattern of behaviour that seeks to contribute to a socially responsible

contribution to general well-being of wider society.

The results help NPPs in establishing and consolidating a positive image of a socially

responsible organization. Owners and operators are able to consider aspects and challenges of

the new paradigms of shared coexistence and are aware of the positive effects of socially

responsible actions.

The wider society is aware that owners and operators of the NPPs obviously demonstrate that

they want to act in a socially responsible manner. This is a good starting point for the choice

and implementation of appropriate strategies of non-governmental organizations, the

organization of local communities, political parties and other stakeholders, and for responding

to expressed environmental issues and sustainable development. It affects the acceptability of

NPPs and the quality of life of individuals and different groups in modern society and the

environment in which nuclear facilities are located.

The responsiveness of the owners of the NPPs was not as good as the responsiveness of the

operators; therefore, the sample is less representative for the owners. It would also make sense

that further research focus on the inspirations that influence the motivation for establishing

partnership relations with the NPPs, of the external stakeholders of the NPPs (local

communities, political public, NGOs, journalists and others).

 

 

 

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

243

References

1. Afgan, N. H. (2013). Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma. Thermal Science, 17(2), 305–321. doi:

10.2298/TSCI121022214A

2. Avetisyan, E., & Ferrary, M. (2012). Dynamics of stakeholders’ implications in the

institutionalization of the CSR field in France and in the United States. Journal of Business

Ethics, 115(1), 115–133. doi: 10.1007/s10551-012-1386-3

3. Bexheti, L., & Bexheti, A. (2016). The Impact of Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory and Efficiency

at Work. European Journal of Multidiscipliary Studies, 1(2), 379–386.

4. Bowen, F., Newenham-Kahindi, A., & Herremans, I. (2010). When suits meet roots: The

antecedents and consequences of community engagement strategy. Journal of Business Ethics,

95, 297–318. doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0360-1

5. Goodfellow, M. J., Dewick, P., Wortley, J., & Azapagic, A. (2015). Public perceptions of design

options for new nuclear plants in the UK. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 94, 72–

88. doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2014.12.008

6. Graafland, J., Mazereeuw, C., & Van der Schouten, D. (2012). Motives for corporate social

responsibility. De Economist, 160(4), 377–396. doi: 10.1007/s10645-012-9198-5

7. Hetty, I. J., Schreus, B., Cuyper, N., Jawahar, I. M., & Peeters , M. C. (2012). The route to

employability. Career Development International, 17(2), 104–119.

8. Horvath, A., & Rachlew, E. (2016). Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and

possibilities. Ambio, 45(1), 38–49. doi: 10.1007/s13280-015-0732-y

9. IAEA. (2019, maj 10). International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved from International Atomic

Energy Agency: http://www.iaea.org/PRIS/

10. Ivanko, Š., & Stare, J. (2007). Organizacijsko vedenje. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za upravo, Univerza

v Ljubljani.

11. Kato, T., Takahara, S., Nishikawa, M., & Homma, T. (2013). A case study of economic

incentives and local citizens’ attitudes toward hosting a nuclear power plant in Japan: Impacts of

the Fukushima accident. Energy Policy, 59, 808–818. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2013.04.043

12. Matten, D., & Moon, J. (2008). “Implicit” and “explicit” CSR: A conceptual framework for a

comparative understanding of corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review,

33(2), 404–424.

13. Matuleviciene, M., & Stravinskiene, J. (2015). Identifying the factors of stakeholder trust: a

theoretical study. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 213, 599–604.

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.456

14. Orlitzky, M., Schmidt, F. L., & Rynes, S. L. (2003). Corporate social and financial performance:

a meta-analysis. Organization Studies, 24(3), 403–441. doi: 10.1177/0170840603024003910

15. Raja, K. S., Pesic, B., & Misra, M. (2015). Nuclear Energy and Environmental Impact. New

York: Springer Science+Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6431-0_30-2

16. Reason, J. (1998). Achieving a safe culture: theory and practice. Work & Stress, 12(3), 293–306.

17. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new

directions. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 54–67. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1020

18. Shadrina, E. (2012). Fukushima fallout: gauging the change in Japanese nuclear energy policy.

International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 3(2), 69–83. doi: 10.1007/s13753-012-0008-0

19. Simcic Brønn, P., & Vidaver-Cohen, D. (2009). Corporate motives for social initiative:

legitimacy, sustainability, or the bottom line? Journal of Business Ethics, 87, 91–109. doi:

10.1007/s10551-008-9795-z

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

244

20. Simončič, M. (2015). Zakaj in kako biti družbeno odgovoren? Revija za univerzalno odličnost,

4(3), 110–129.

21. Simončič, M., & Žurga, G. (2016). Social responsible communication of nuclear power plant

with external stakeholders. Atw – International Journal for Nuclear Power, 61(11), 653–659.

22. Simončič, M., & Žurga, G. (2019). Successful Co-Existance of Nuclear Power Plants with Their

External Stakeholders. Atw – International Journal for Nuclear Power, 64(4), 197–202.

23. Slovenski standard SIST ISO 26000:2010. (2010). Ljubljana: Slovenski inštitut za

standardizacijo.

24. Štrukelj, T., & Mulej, M. (2017). Strategija podjetja in družbena odgovornost. Revija za

univerzalno odličnost, 6(3), 292-307.

25. Truelove, H. B., & Greenberg, M. (2013). Who has become more open to nuclear power because

of climate change? Climatic Change, 116, 389–409. doi: 10.1007/s10584-012-0497-2

26. Trufanov, V. V. (2013). Modeling development options of electric power systems in conditions

of multiple stakeholders. Thermal Engineering, 60(13), 931–937.

27. Van Beurden, P., & Goessling, T. (2008). The worth of values – A literature review on the

relation between corporate social and financial performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(2),

407-424. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9894-x

28. WANO. (2013). Traits of a healthy nuclear safety culture. Atlanta-London&Hong Kong-

Moscow-Paris-Tokyo: WANO.

29. WANO. (21. 9. 2017). WANO. Retrieved from WANO, Members: http://www.wano.info/en-

gb/members/members

30. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered. Psychological Review, 66, 297–333.

31. World Nuclear Association. (2017, 05 30). World Nuclear Association. Retrieved from The

Harmony programme: http://world-nuclear.org/getattachment/Our-Association/What-we-do/The-

Harmony-programme/2017-05-Harmony.pdf.aspx

 

 

Povzetek:

Motivacija za družbeno odgovornost v jedrskih elektrarnah

Raziskovalno vprašanje (RV): Kaj lastnike in operaterje jedrskih elektrarn (JE) motivira za

izvajanje družbeno odgovornih dejanj?

Namen: Z raziskavo ugotoviti prevladujoče motive za družbeno odgovornost lastnikov in

operaterjev JE. Ugotoviti, kako so pripravljeni zadovoljevati pričakovanja širše družbe.

Metoda: Po pregledu relevantne literature predstavljenega interesnega področja, smo v raziskavo

vključili lastnike in operaterje JE, tj. članice mednarodne organizacije World Association of Nuclear

Operators (WANO), regionalnega centra v Parizu. Kot instrument za pridobivanje potrebnih

informacij uporabljamo smo za ta namen razvili vprašalnik. Za vrednotenje podatkov, poleg opisne

in frekvenčne statistike, smo uporabili Mann-Whinteyev test, Wilcoxonov test predznačenih rangov

in Kruskal-Wallisov test.

Rezultati: V raziskavi se sodelovalo 45 predstavnikov operaterjev in trije lastniki JE. Glavna

motivacija za družbeno odgovorna dejanja so za lastnike in operaterje JE intrinzični dejavniki,

predvsem osebne etične in moralne vrednote ter osebno zadovoljstvo. Dokazali smo, da se motivi,

ki lastnike in operaterje JE motivirajo za izvajanje družbene odgovornosti, statistično značilno ne

razlikujejo. V večini primerov te razlike niso bile statistično značilne, niti upoštevajoč funkcijo v

organizaciji. Izkazali so visoko pripravljenost za zadovoljevanje pričakovanj širše družbe.

Organizacija: Za JE rezultati krepijo vzpostavitev in utrjevanje pozitivne podobe družbeno

odgovorne organizacije.

Družba: Širša družba se seznani, da lastniki in operaterji JE izkazujejo jasno namero, da želijo

delovati družbeno odgovorno. Vpliva na sprejemljivost JE in na kakovost življenja posameznikov

ter različnih skupin v sodobni družbi in okolju, v katerega so umeščeni jedrski objekti.

 

 

Revija za univerzalno odličnost / Journal of Universal Excellence, Članek / Article

September 2019, leto / year 8, številka / number 3, str. / pp. 232–245.

245

Originalnost: Izvedena raziskava je prva, ki je ciljno usmerjena v proučevanje motivacijskih

dejavnikov, ki lastnike in operaterje JE nagovarjajo k družbeno odgovornim dejanjem. Rezultati so

neposredno uporabni in relevantni v slovenskem in mednarodnem prostoru. Prispevajo k boljšemu

razumevanju interakcij med družbo in JE.

Omejitve/nadaljnje raziskovanje: Odzivnost lastnikov JE ni bila tako dobra kot odzivnost

operaterjev, zato je za lastnike vzorec manj reprezentativen. Raziskave je smiselno usmeriti tudi na

dejavnike, ki vplivajo na motivacijo za vzpostavitev partnerskega odnosa z JE na strani zunanjih

deležnikov JE (različnih interesnih skupin – od lokalnih skupnosti, politične javnosti, nevladnih

organizacij, novinarjev in drugih).

 

Ključne besede: sobivanje z jedrsko elektrarno, družbena odgovornost, intrinzični in ekstrinzični

motivacijski dejavniki.

 

***

Milan Simončič graduated from the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology in Maribor. With the

dissertation “Model of integrating external stakeholders in the implementation of the principles of social

responsibility of nuclear power plants”, advocated in 2018 at the Faculty of Organisation Studies in Novo mesto,

he achieved the title of doctor of science in the field of quality management. He works in the Nuclear Power Plant

Krško as a lead engineer of analytical chemistry and radiochemistry. He has published several papers, actively

works in professional forums in Slovenia and international organizations, especially on the area of degradation

mechanisms of materials in nuclear power plants, quality management systems – in particular implementation of

the SIST ISO/IEC 17025, organizational excellence, the concept of social responsibility and the challenges of

energy in sustainable society.

***

 

 

 

Copyright (c) Milan SIMONČIČ

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

 

 

 

Copyright of RUO: Revija za Univerzalno Odlicnost is the property of Fakulteta za Organizacijske Studije v Novem mestu and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

"Is this question part of your assignment? We can help"

ORDER NOW