Institutional theory

Institutional theory

1)

True or False. The research clearly indicates that social media has a significant influence on voters decisions about candidates and political issues.

(1pts)

True  False

2)

​__________ is the social institution through which power is acquired and exercised by various groups and individuals.

(1pts)

 

Politics

 

Religion

 

Government

 

Economics

3)

British kings and queens historically traced their authority from God. Weber called this __________.

(1pts)

 

coercive authority

 

rational–legal authority

 

traditional authority

 

charismatic authority

4)

​__________ authority is held by elected or appointed government officials, but authority is invested in the office, not in the person who holds the office.

(1pts)

 

Rational-Legal

 

Traditional

 

Coercive

 

Charismatic

5)

​__________ is a political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance.

(1pts)

 

Totalitarianism

 

Communism

 

Monarchy

 

Democracy

6)

​__________ result when military officers seize power from the government, as has happened in recent decades in Argentina, Chile, and Haiti.

(1pts)

 

Dictatorships

 

Absolute monarchies

 

Military juntas

 

Direct participatory democracies

7)

Citizen groups such as the American Conservative Union and Zero Population Growth are examples of __________.

(1pts)

 

power elites

 

special interest groups

 

ruling class

 

political action committees

8)

The __________ make(s) up the middle level of C. Wright Mill’s pyramidal model of the power elite.

(1pts)

 

executive branch of government

 

legislative branch, special interest groups, and local opinion leaders

 

corporate rich

 

unorganized masses of the citizenry

9)

William Domhoff used the term __________ to refer to a small, fixed, privileged group of people with the power to constrain the political system and serve the interests of capitalism.

(1pts)

 

ruling class

 

political action committee

 

power elite

 

special interest group

10)

Political __________ is the process by which people learn political attitudes, values, and behavior.

(1pts)

 

persuasion

 

conformity

 

participation

 

socialization

11)

Even in Presidential election years, voter turnout can be low. For example, in the 2012 presidential election, approximately __________ of eligible voters cast ballots.

(1pts)

 

30%

 

50%

 

25%

 

60%

12)

​The U.S. government employs about __________ people, excluding the U.S. Postal Service.

(1pts)

 

2.1 million

 

100,000

 

250,000

 

1.3 million

13)

​__________ is an economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, from which personal profits can be derived through market competition and without government intervention.

(1pts)

 

socialism

 

imperialism

 

capitalism

 

democracy

14)

True or False. Illness is a social construction; definitions may change over time and between cultures.​

(1pts)

True  False

15)

At one time, health was considered to be simply the absence of disease. However, today the World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as the __________.​

(1pts)

 

absence of sickness, viruses, and physical pains

 

state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being

 

state of equilibrium, with all the parts in balance

 

absence of infection

16)

__________ is the term for an institutional system concerned with the scientific diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness.​

(1pts)

 

Holistic Medicine

 

Health care

 

Scientific Medicine

 

Medicine

17)

__________ is the study of the causes and distribution of health, disease, and impairment throughout a population.​

(1pts)

 

Social medicine

 

Sociology of medicine

 

Social health

 

Social epidemiology

18)

Which of these is an example of a chronic disease?​

(1pts)

 

infection

 

diabetes

 

stroke

 

pregnancy

19)

A child born in the United States in 2013 has a life expectancy of __________.​

(1pts)

 

67

 

71.8

 

78.7

 

53.2

20)

Which of these is not a condition that has been attributed to long-term chronic heavy drinking or alcoholism?​

(1pts)

 

nutritional deficiencies

 

alcoholic cirrhosis

 

cardiovascular problems

 

hearing impairment

21)

What is the world’s leading infectious killer?​

(1pts)

 

Ebola

 

HIV/AIDS

 

cancer

 

SARS

22)

Throughout its history in the United States, payment for medical care has been __________.​

(1pts)

 

through the federal government

 

on a fee-for-service basis

 

taken care of by health maintenance organizations

 

through a third-party provider

23)

​__________ is a nationwide public health insurance program that is a jointly funded federal–state–local program established to make health care more available to the poor.

(1pts)

 

Medicare

 

Social Security

 

Medicaid

 

Social health insurance

24)

In 2012, __________ of all full-time workers in the United States lacked health insurance.​

(1pts)

 

25%

 

10%

 

15%

 

5%

25)

In Great Britain, the government sets health care policies, raises funds and controls the medical care budget, owns health care facilities, and directly employs physicians and other health care personnel. This is an example of a(n):

(1pts)

 

managed care system

 

fee-for-service health care system

 

universal health care system

 

socialized medicine system

26)

True or False. In most areas of the world today, women are having fewer children than they have in the past.

(1pts)

True  False

27)

True or False. Capitalism and innovative technologies are successfully solving the problems of overpopulation.​

(1pts)

True  False

28)

__________ is a subfield of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution.​

(1pts)

 

Ecology

 

Popography

 

Demography

 

Statistics

29)

The level of fertility in a society is based on biological and social factors, the primary biological factor being __________.​

(1pts)

 

the roles available to women in a society

 

the general health and nutrition of women

 

the number of women of childbearing age

 

the prevalent viewpoint regarding what constitutes the “ideal” family size

30)

According to the categories defined by the United Nations, the United States is a __________ country.

(1pts)

 

high-fertility

 

low-fertility

 

intermediate-fertility

 

fertility-neutral

31)

The __________ is considered an important reflection of a society’s level of preventive medical care, maternal nutrition, childbirth procedures, and neonatal care for infants.​

(1pts)

 

crude death rate

 

fecundity minus actual fertility rate

 

life expectancy

 

infant mortality rate

32)

​__________ refers to the physical location of people throughout a geographic area; __________ is the term for the number of people within a given geographic area.

(1pts)

 

Migration; distribution

 

Distribution; density

 

Immigration; distribution

 

Density; distribution

33)

In the United States, after the Civil War, thousands of African Americans moved from the South to the North. This is an example of __________ .​

(1pts)

 

emigration

 

cross-national migration

 

international migration

 

internal migration

34)

One measure of population composition is the __________, which is the number of males for every hundred females in a given population.

(1pts)

 

rate of gender composition

 

sex ratio

 

demographic transition

 

gender gap

35)

English economist Thomas Malthus argued that the population would increase in a geometric (exponential) progression whereas the food supply would increase only by an arithmetic progression; thus, a __________ occurs.

(1pts)

 

limit to growth

 

negative check

 

doubling effect

 

preventive check

36)

During the demographic transition stage of __________, very little population growth occurs because both birth rates and death rates are low.​

(1pts)

 

early industrialization

 

agriculturalism

 

advanced industrialization and urbanization

 

preindustrial societies

37)

​__________ suggests that as the natural resources, land, and workforce in low-income countries with little or no industrialization have come under the influence of international markets, there has been a corresponding flow of migrants from those nations to the highly industrialized, high-income countries.

(1pts)

 

Network theory

 

Institutional theory

 

World systems theory

 

Split-labor-market theory

38)

__________ is the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment.​

(1pts)

 

biology

 

demography

 

geography

 

human ecology

39)

Collective behavior lacks the organizational structure of other forms of behavior.​

(1pts)

True  False

40)

True or False. Collective behavior is very contemporary; it began with the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s.​

(1pts)

True  False

41)

Sociologists define __________ as the alteration, modification, or transformation of public policy, culture, or social institutions over time.​

(1pts)

 

social innovation

 

social change

 

social divergence

 

culture wars

42)

__________ is voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values.​

(1pts)

 

Collective behavior

 

Social change

 

Institutional behavior

 

Organizational behavior

43)

__________ crowds provide opportunities for the display of some strong emotion (such as joy, excitement, or grief). People release their pent-up emotions in conjunction with other persons experiencing similar emotions.​

(1pts)

 

acting

 

expressive

 

instrumental

 

conventional

44)

A(n) __________ is a highly emotional crowd whose members engage in, or are ready to engage in, violence against a specific target (such as a person, a category of people, or physical property).​

(1pts)

 

riot

 

mob

 

aggregate

 

brawl

45)

The looting and other behavior that took place in Los Angeles after the Rodney King trial and celebrations that turn violent after some sporting events are both examples of __________.

(1pts)

 

mobs

 

riots

 

collectivities

 

aggregates

46)

A(n) __________ is a form of crowd behavior that occurs when a large number of people react to a real or perceived threat with strong emotions and self-destructive behavior.​

(1pts)

 

aggregate

 

mob

 

panic

 

collectivity

47)

Sometimes acts of civil disobedience become violent, as in a confrontation between protesters and police officers. In this case, a protest crowd becomes a/an __________ crowd.

(1pts)

 

conventional

 

expressive

 

acting

 

casual

48)

From the perspective of __________, individuals with similar characteristics or attitudes seek others who are similar with whom they can express their predispositions to behave and feel in different ways.​

(1pts)

 

mob psychology

 

emergent norm theory

 

circular reaction

 

convergence theory

49)

Not all collective behavior takes place in face-to-face collectivities. __________ behavior is collective behavior that takes place when people who may be geographically separated from one another respond to the same event in much the same way.​

(1pts)

 

riot

 

mob

 

mass

 

panic

50)

Tabloid newspapers and magazines such as the National Enquirer and People, and television entertainment “news” programs that present “inside” information on the lives of celebrities, are sources of contemporary __________.

(1pts)

 

mass hysteria

 

hearsay

 

gossip

 

panic

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