Normative Age-Graded Influences
· Occur in a similar way for most people in a given group
· Affect most people within a given culture at about the same age (this age may vary, though, in different cultures)
· Examples: entering and finishing school, parenthood, marriage, entering the workforce, death of parents, retirement, etc.
Normative History-Graded Influences
· Common to a particular cohort: a group of people who share a similar experience
· These are generally major historical events so large in scope that they affect the lives of virtually everyone (may have some differences, though, across cultures/geography)
· The impact, however, may vary depending upon the age at which they are experienced…
· Examples: World War II, the Vietnam War, 9-11, etc.
Non-Normative Life Events
· Experiences that most people do not have, or that occur at times other than the ‘norm’
· Generally unusual occurrences that have a major impact on one’s life
· Examples: Death of a parent when the child is young, death of children before oneself, certain illnesses, abuse, divorce, … but can also be positive life events as well (perhaps the opportunity to experience another culture when young, the birth of a sibling once you are older, embarking upon a second career, etc.
Bonus: Sociocultural-graded influences
· Different effects depending on race, age, economic status, location, etc…
TIPS & REMINDERS:
~ Be SURE that you include both Part I (your timeline) and Part II (your analysis/paper). See the examples provided for different ways these can be presented.
~ In addition to the above influences on development, which you are required to identify for each life event, consider also exploring those events within the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s theory (way back in Chapter 1 as well) in exploring the various systems at play in your life at these points in time. Remember to connect each event with various developmental theories appropriate to the stage and to cite your sources/provide evidence from the literature! Consider the influences of gender, culture, sexuality, nature vs. nurture, developmental tasks, etc. There is so much to pull from – your challenge is going to be focusing on just a few pieces and doing that well
~ Finally – don’t forget to include support in both your introduction section and conclusion! These are specific items on the rubric and points will be lost for failing to include these as well-formulated sections or if they are lacking in theoretical support.