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22 PROPOSAL FOR RESEARCH ON THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL ENTITIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Name Of The Student: School: Professor: Submission Date: Abstruct Over the last few decades, the global economy and global commerce have seen significant change, expansion, and development. The growth of multinational companies (MNCs), which have emerged as a key source of employment and worldwide commerce, is one of the noticeable shifts (Cray, et.al 1998). Human capital, the most significant intangible asset of multinational corporations, is what drives their success and dictates how they evolve. Many academics, practitioners, and business professionals have shown and accepted that excellent human resource management policies and practices inside an organization may frequently provide a corporation with a competitive advantage over its competitors. Because of the abundant prospects for cross-border collaboration and internal learning, management at MNEs seems to approach human resource management in accordance with best practices. This field of study has recently gained a lot of attention and significance due to the highly organized coordination of management practices in MNEs, substantiating the claim that multinational corporations have significantly contributed to the development of international standards for best practice in human resource management (Cray, et.al 1998). MNEs have been acknowledged for their contributions to the development of a range of processes, including The proposed research will explore how multinational enterprises are presently managed before evaluating the strategic view on human resource management and its role in the expansion of MNEs and global HRM (Cray, et.al 1998). The proposal would briefly examine the effects of market globalization, the emergence of multinationals, and MNEs’ evolving human resource management strategy, which reflects the fact that MNEs have a much more global perspective and higher levels of cross-national operation integration, management practice coordination, and the emergence and development of internationally oriented management. Introduction Background of the Study Regardless of a company’s size, competent human resource management is critical to its efficient and successful operation (local, national, or international). It is commonly recognized that the quality of an organization’s human resources has a significant impact on its performance. This is true whether an organization operates on a local, national, or global scale (Cray, et.al 1998). When a company decides to grow into international or global markets, the HR management team’s work takes on even greater significance and intensity. This is done so that the HR management team may represent both the original organization’s and the foreign market’s two cultures while also bridging the gap. To effectively manage their human resources, MNEs must design an HR strategy that is compatible with their overall objectives and business plans. This must be considered at all organizational levels. The constant and continuous conveyance of information is acknowledged as one of the most crucial components of managing international enterprises (Cray, et.al 1998). The notion that the most effective knowledge transfer and other HRM practices should be accomplished has increased the importance of researching and evaluating HRM practices in global corporations (MNCs). As a result of this idea, the significance of these activities has expanded. As a result, one of the key fields of research in strategic HRMs has emerged, emphasizing the importance of HRM systems in producing and maximizing competitive advantage. This has reinforced the notion that human resource management systems are critical for developing and maximizing competitive advantage. The integration-response framework, according to research (Kidger, 1991), has made it more simpler to concentrate on standardization and the local adoption of HRM approaches in the subsidiaries of multinational firms from a global viewpoint. A company’s personnel is one of its most significant assets as a potential source of a competitive advantage, and it is becoming increasingly important for that workforce to be managed in accordance with (Guerci, et.al 2015). According to a number of studies, “high performance work practices” are positively correlated with a range of success indicators for businesses, including revenue growth and profit margins (Guerci et al., 2015). The existence of this association has been proven by numerous researchers. The idea that better outcomes might follow from aligning HR procedures with a company’s overall business strategy is supported by some empirical data. However, it is important to look into how these discoveries can affect multinational corporations. The vast majority of studies examining the relationship between human resource management and organizational performance have been conducted in the United States, with Europe and Asia accounting for a tiny minority of all studies (Black, 1999). This research was carried out by Ngo and associates. Up until now, much attention has been paid to the degree of standardization and/or localization of human resource management (HRM) procedures in international firms and the connection between HRM and company success (Black, 1999). Literature Review Globalization after internationalization: Changes in political, economic, social, and technical paradigms during the previous few decades have aided in the advancement of global integration. Contrary to the opinions held by the vast majority of academics and writers who have expressed their conviction that globalization is responsible for the rise of the global economy, this has been especially true over the course of the most recent few decades(Black, 1999). This is a result of internationalization rather than globalization. We still live in economies that are not fully globalized, they add, “despite the widely acknowledged existence of globalizing variables that have a significant impact.” (Black, 1999) believes that globalization is crucial and that the world’s economy are currently undergoing a major transformation. The research presented here supports this viewpoint as well. He uses the following three studies as support for his claims: 1. National markets that were previously considered to be large and major economic entities are now regarded of as being much smaller as a result of the enormous advancements that have been made in the field of technical development in recent decades. 2. The expansion of transnational strategic alliances has ushered in a change in the way that global economic transactions are structured, from markets and hierarchies to postmodern global networks. Over the past few decades, traditional organizational structures have played an important role in the growth of large-scale global economies, but the explosion of information technology and its widespread adoption in economies of all sizes has had a much greater impact. The logics of industrialization, together with commonly used technology, will eventually have an impact on the management strategies used by businesses around the world. (2010) Johnson et al. Most experts concur that science and technology have a significant influence on the industrialization process, and that this influence is largely unaffected by things like political systems or the cultures of different nations. Understanding the current position of Human Resource Management: A system known as “human resource management” (HRM) is made up of a number of interconnected subsystems, one of which is described as “the policies and procedures that are developed for optimal exploitation of their most prized intangible asset and resource, the human resource.” The organization’s requirements and objectives must be met by this system. Their strategy was predicated on the notion that human resources were a crucial factor in competitive success. Senior managers required to approach people management more strategically than was previously the case in the great majority of enterprises as a result (Black, 1999). The so-called HRM movement extended to nations like the UK, where it became the main subject of debate among academics and practitioners. The core tenet of human resource management is that a company’s level of competitive advantage is mostly determined by its employees. The idea was initially put up that everyone could generally access technology and money and that the only firm-specific resource that might allow enterprises to stand out from rivals was its employees. Because people were people first and technologies and resources came second. Understanding the Best Fit and Best Practice approach: a “ideal fit” Because of this, HRM strategy and HRM “best practices” may be distinguished (Johnson, et.al 2010) The idea that human resource policies should be internally consistent and linked to the organization’s strategy or objectives is known as strategic fit, or best-fit. This implies that HR regulations should change in response to the current state of a firm. In businesses with several divisions, HR practices may change to meet the requirements of each business unit, which uses a variety of strategies. (Black, 1999). On the other hand, “best practice” has a broader focus and contends that a certain set of FIR techniques may boost productivity and efficiency in any situation. As was already said, these best practices are often tied to employee engagement and may be traced back to the conceptual framework of HRM found in the Harvard map developed by Johnson et al. (2010). This presumption states that the human resources strategy should be centered on employee competency, cost-effectiveness, alignment with business goals, and employee loyalty to the company (Black, 1999). The four Cs would positively impact the company, its employees, and society at large. The scientific management paradigm, which had been influential in management thought this century, has allegedly been replaced by a commitment strategy, according to one of the Harvard writers Walton (1985b). Research aim, objectives and central research question: As was already said, these best practices are often tied to employee engagement and may be traced back to the conceptual framework of HRM found in the Harvard map developed by Johnson et al. (2010). This presumption states that the human resources strategy should be centered on employee competency, cost-effectiveness, alignment with business goals, and employee loyalty to the company (Black, 1999). The four Cs would positively impact the company, its employees, and society at large. The scientific management paradigm, which had been influential in management thought this century, has allegedly been replaced by a commitment strategy, according to one of the Harvard writers Walton (1985b). The aim of the empirical study is to tackle various issues connected to the field of study. In order to perform an analysis and offer answers to the following research questions, the researcher plans to use the results of this study to analyze the body of literature indicated above as well as the objectives of the research. • Do multinational corporations make efforts to promote the growth of organizational knowledge as a shared resource? • Do the many divisions of multinational firms share comparable human resources policies and practices? • To what extent is this the outcome of international cooperation or information sharing? Which position on staff in multinational firms is regarded as having the most global significance? • Is it typical for multinational corporations to reorient their strategy and business practices toward a global perspective? The answers to the research questions above will undoubtedly fill the gaps in the corpus of knowledge now available in this area of study (Johnson, et.al 2010). Businesses must see HRM from a strategic angle in order to promote total corporate growth, prepare the path for future revenues, and ensure current and emerging benefits. Businesses have incorporated internationalization into every area of their company strategy as a result of the fact that globalization has reached its zenith. Research Methodology The methodology, which outlines the main idea of the study as well as the techniques used to acquire the data, is one of the most crucial components of any research project. These techniques might be main, secondary, or a mix of the two (Cully, et.al 1998). Depending on the goals of the study, the methodology may describe a qualitative or quantitative approach; as a consequence, the methodology specifies the expected outcomes of the research. The following research methodology will be used for the proposed study: Research Philosophy The methodology, which outlines the main idea of the study as well as the techniques used to acquire the data, is one of the most crucial components of any research project. These techniques might be main, secondary, or a mix of the two (Cully, et.al 1998). Depending on the goals of the study, the methodology may describe a qualitative or quantitative approach; as a consequence, the methodology specifies the expected outcomes of the research. The following research methodology will be used for the proposed study: Positivism: The positivist philosophy can be discussed in the following ways, for example: The core idea of positivism is that the social world is an objective reality and that its characteristics should be measured rather than assumed based on perception, thought, or intuition. (Culley et al., 1998). Interpretivism: “This interpretivist view proposes that the world and reality are not objective but are socially constructed and given meaning by people, that the researcher is part of what is observed, and that research is driven by interests; assuming, therefore, that the social world is observed by seeing what meanings people give to it and interpreting these meanings from their own perspective, and social phenomena are observed by seeing what meanings people give to it and interpreting these meanings from their own perspective, and social phenomena are observed by seeing what meanings people (Cully, et.al 1998). The goal of the interpretivism philosophical school is to get a more personal understanding of the realities of research, with the researcher making an effort to establish relevant realities for the people who are the topic of the study (Cully, et.al1998). The illustration that can be seen below may be used to investigate these two ideas in the most comprehensive manner. The interpretivism philosophical school aims to provide a more intimate grasp of research realities, with the researcher attempting to construct meaningful realities for the study’s subjects (Cully, et.al1998). The most thorough investigation of these two concepts may be conducted using the graphic that is shown below. The researcher who is doing this particular study will use the positivist research paradigm or philosophy in order to conduct the investigation since, taking into account the nature and methodologies of the research topic that is being considered (Cully, et.al 1998). According to the philosophy chosen, the researcher would conduct the study using a deductive method. In order to do this, a theoretical framework would need to be developed using previously written theories and literature, and then the literature would need to be enhanced and reestablished using observations. Research Strategy The researcher intends to employ a technique known as a case study for the analysis. The case study approach is suited for studies with a limited scope, and it is particularly helpful in circumstances that demand for an in-depth look at a more circumscribed geographic region and a narrower variety of views, according to (Cully, et.al. 1998). (Cully, et al., 1998) goes on to explain that such an approach focuses on relationships and processes in order to understand how these establish a connection. Such research is thought to be conducted in a natural environment without control over the situations, and it gives the researcher the chance to investigate and use a variety of sources and methods. A case study approach would be the most suitable method to use for this research because the goal of the proposed study is to achieve a thorough understanding and analysis of a specific situation, and the goal of the research question is to determine how a case study approach would be most suitable for this study. Data Collection Techniques In this specific study, the utilization of secondary sources—which is a crucial aspect of the overall research strategy—is evident (Cray, et.al 1998). To help conceptualize the theoretical foundations of the study, data will be acquired from a range of secondary sources and then carefully reviewed. When performing secondary research, it’s critical to keep in mind that, in addition to gathering information from reputable academic sources and thoroughly analyzing that information, you’re also developing a theoretical framework for the whole scope of the study. This suggests that you are also compiling and critiquing prior research that has been conducted on the subject. The London School of Business and Finance’s student website provides access to scholarly journals, books, and online sources that provided the secondary data used in this study. The information they offer has more credibility because these sources are from academic institutions. Information that was previously obtained for another reason, maybe analysed, and then kept is referred to as “secondary data” (Cray,et.al 1998). All of these methods are built on the triangulation technique, which is used to ensure that the data and results are more reliable (Cray, et.al 1998). The evaluation of third-party data in Most often, analysis of data, either qualitative or quantitative, gathered by others is employed (Cray, et.al 1998). It is straightforward to incorporate a comparison component into the research design as a direct result of this. When rigorous and demanding procedures are implemented before data is published, the quality of the data is increased (Cray, et.al 1998). This part of the research is considered as having strengthened the validity of the study because the original sources of information were employed to gather and evaluate the main data. The process of gathering data has a variety of benefits despite the fact that it takes a lot of time and money. For the objective of this study, the researcher conducted primary research, and the main data sources were surveys and unstructured interviews. After the primary data was gathered, review and analysis were carried out in order to reach findings that were consistent with the prior study (Cray, et.al 1998). It is plain to see that this study placed a great deal of focus on primary research, which significantly influenced its findings. Since they are “the closest, one can approach to the truth,” primary data must be used in order to properly examine an event. However, as the distance from the event increases, distortions invariably happen. Without employing original data, it is impossible to research an event properly (Cray, et.al 1998). You must conduct in-person interviews with people in order to perform primary research, which takes time and money. However, because it is taken directly from the source, it is more reliable than secondary data because it is (Cray, et.al 1998). Sample Design The selection of the right sample size is the next most important decision in the research process for every specific study. During this phase, a suitable sample is picked in order to extract useful information from it (Cray, et.al 1998). The sample approach is crucial for identifying, creating, and understanding the research aims that need to be taken into consideration, according to (Cray, et. al. 1998). The data collection procedure will not include the right number and proportion of people if a reliable sampling technique is not utilized. It’s quite doubtful that the investigation’s findings will be of any use at this point (Cray, et.al 1998described a practical six-step approach that may be used to choose a sample from a population that is representative of the entire population. In light of the data previously supplied, the researcher developed the following example approach, which is displayed below: The audience must be clearly identified and should consist of both experts and practitioners in the field of human resource management as well as employees from large international enterprises (MNEs). The human resource managers and practitioners from ten different UK multinational companies will make up the sample frame for this study. Both in-person interviews and online questionnaires were utilized to gather information from the study’s participants (Black, 1999). 250 questionnaires and more than 10 interviews would be used to collect the data. Each of the ten firms would have exclusive component samples. It includes the method of data gathering, which in this instance would be deemed to be interviews. Research Approach Since this examination primarily focuses on human activities and behavioral patterns, qualitative research may show to be the most successful approach of data collecting, as noted by (Black, 1999). The distinctiveness of this research method, according to (Black, 1999), rests in the researcher’s capacity to produce their own interpretations and analyses of the data. (Black, 1999) asserts that qualitative research is frequently unstructured, carried out on a small scale, and focused on the viewpoints of a limited number of participants. This study’s goal is to gather qualitative information to learn more about people’s views, actions, and motivations. The researcher plans to conduct a qualitative analysis of the HRM practices and policies of the 10 multinational companies that will be the focus of the investigation in light of the aforementioned body of research. Data Analysis According to (Black, 1999), the researcher intends to use three different analytical procedures that are predicated on theoretical claims to examine the data that has been collected. Making a case description, contrasting secondary data with primary data, and taking into account other interpretations are some of these strategies. The researcher performing this study would analyze the data using the three elements stated below, in accordance with (Black, 1999). Data reduction, data display, and the steps used to derive and validate the conclusion Time Scale Month Day Activities 1-15 Exposition provides the rationale of the study area,sanalysing major literature in the form of practices, models,sconcepts and practices 20-30 Structuring the critical examination of the studied literature 5-30 Planning to complete the relevant approach and drawing the datacollection and evaluation procedures and instruments. 1-17 presenting the findings in the first draft of the research, which reflects data analysis from both primary and secondary sources, and discussing with the tutor for feedback and improvement in order to further develop the research. 17-30 Compilation and presentation of the final research findings, as well as the process of drawing conclusions and recommendations, along with identification of the scope of additional research. Note: Depending on how the research is coming along and how well its objectives are being met, its schedule and approach may alter. Conclusion A successful firm must have effective human resource management since it is now crucial to the expansion, operation, and development of companies on a global basis (Black, 1999). Businesses are expanding into new regions of the world as a result of globalization, one of many changes it has brought about. Many people believe that as MNEs have grown in size and influence, human resource management has become more challenging and important due to their ability to communicate, transmit, and implement global best practices within the industry. This is because it is possible to exchange international best practices. As a result of this growth, the role of MNEs in the globalization of HR practices and policies has enhanced (Black, 1999). The proposed study finds that, when seen from an international viewpoint, multinational firms (MNEs) play a key role in fostering the growth of novel organizational practices. The results of this study will allow the researcher to not only carry out a comprehensive review of the state of HRM practices and policies globally but also to make recommendations for how they may be improved. Reference Black, J. S. (1999). Globalizing people through international assignements. Addison-Wesley. Cray, D., & Mallory, G. (1998). Making sense of managing culture. Thomson Learning. Cully, M., Woodland, S., O’Reilly, A., Dix, G., Millward, N., Bryson, A., & Forth, J. (1998). The 1998 workplace employee relations survey: First findings. Department of Trade and Industry. Davenport, T. H., & Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know. Harvard Business Press. Kennedy, A. A. (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading, Mass.; Don Mills, Ontario: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.