HIS 1301 American History I Unit I Assignment

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Unit I Assignment

  • Weight: 10% of course grade
  • Grading Rubric
  • Due: Tuesday, 02/01/2022 11:59 PM (CST)

Instructions

In Unit I, you became familiar with not only some of the unique and amazing cultures of Paleo-America, but also the important opportunities we all have by studying the vast complexity of America’s past.

For this assignment, you will begin by selecting a tribal culture, event, or theory connected with Paleo-America that captures your interest.

Once you have selected your topic, you will go to the CSU Online Library and locate a peer-reviewed article about your topic.

After you have read your selected article, download and complete the Unit I Worksheet .

You will upload your worksheet once it is complete.

How to find peer-reviewed resources video

Resources

Unit I Worksheet

 

  1. Provide the following information about the article you selected:

 

Author:

Article Title:

Journal Title:

Volume Number:

Issue Number:

Publication Date:

Page Numbers:

Database:

Doi:

 

Provide the full APA reference for this article:

 

  1. In essay format, write a summary of the article. Your summary should be insightful and provide a thorough analysis of the content presented. Make certain to clearly identify (using APA guidelines), any paraphrased and directly quoted content from your article. First person narrative (i.e., your personal opinion) is not permitted in this section.

 

Your response must be at least 300 words in length.

 

  1. In essay format, write your personal reflection of the article. First personal narrative (i.e. your personal opinion) is permitted in this section. As you are constructing your personal reflection, address the following questions:

 

  1. Why did you select this topic?
  2. What interested you most about the article?
  3. What surprised you the most in the article?
  4. Is this topic important when studying American history? Why or why not?
  5. How is this topic connected to us today? What can we learn from it?

 

Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

 

 

 

 

Study guides and videos

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Identify pre-Columbian American cultures with an emphasis on distinctive tribal attributes. 1.1 Identify tribal cultures, events, or theories connected with Paleo-America. 1.2 Recognize historical cultures, events, or theories that are still applicable today. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 1.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 1: The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492 (4 sections) Article: “Why Study History?” Video Segment: “Eva: The First American” Video Segment: “Southern Route to North America” Video Segment: “Clovis People” Video Segment: “Centuries Before Clovis People” Video Segment: “Coastal Route”

 

Unit I Assignment 1.2 Chapter 1: The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492 (4 sections) Article: “Why Study History?” Video Segment: “Eva: The First American” Video Segment: “Southern Route to North America” Video Segment: “Clovis People” Video Segment: “Centuries Before Clovis People” Video Segment: “Coastal Route” Unit I Assignment Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Throughout this course, you will be provided with sections of text from the online resource U.S. History. You may be tested on your knowledge and understanding of the material listed below as well as the information presented in the unit lesson. This unit’s chapter/section titles are provided below. Chapter 1: The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492, Sections Introduction, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3. Stearns, P. N. (1998). Why study history? American Historical Association. https://www.historians.org/aboutaha-and-membership/aha-history-and-archives/historical-archives/why-study-history-(1998) The transcripts for these videos can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database. PBS (Producer). (2015). Eva: The first American (Segment 1 of 18) [Video]. In First Peoples: Americas. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=129844&loid=454202

UNIT I STUDY GUIDE

Paleo-America HIS 1301, American History I 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title PBS (Producer). (2015).

 

Southern route to North America (Segment 4 of 18) [Video]. In First Peoples: Americas. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=129844&loid=454205 PBS (Producer). (2015). Clovis people (Segment 5 of 18) [Video]. In First Peoples: Americas. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=129844&loid=454206 PBS (Producer). (2015). Centuries before Clovis people (Segment 8 of 18) [Video]. In First Peoples: Americas. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=129844&loid=454209 PBS (Producer). (2015). Coastal route (Segment 9 of 18) [Video]. In First Peoples: Americas. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=129844&loid=454210 Unit Lesson Why Study History? Why is it important to study history? Philosopher George Santayana’s famous adage, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it,” has justifiably stood the test of time; but in practice, this only scratches the surface. History, like our contemporary society, is tremendously complex. It allows us to gain an understanding of past situations so that we may learn from the brilliancy and continue on certain pathways or have the fortitude and knowledge to make needed changes so we dare not allow history to repeat itself. Unfortunately, the study of history is often associated with memorizing dates of significance. Rest assured that a mundane approach to history will not be our focus in this course. While identifying dates can be beneficial to situate events within time periods, it is more valuable to immerse yourself in the situation and be able to identify the key players of the events, the reasons why the event happened, the peripheral factors that influenced the event, and how the event impacted the future. This immersion into history through the analysis of historical events will be our focus, thus affording us the opportunity to see the brilliant connection of history in our lives. History and Information Literacy Throughout this course, you will have an opportunity to develop (or enhance) your information literacy skills by using past events as the basis for communication in an academic setting, applying cultural analysis using multiple academic methods, and honing the ability to evaluate the reliability of sources and information. The activities in this course will challenge you to embrace the settings and events of significance with a focus on discerning, analyzing, and learning how to interpret the world of the past using the methods of today. Information literacy is the ability to find and evaluate information to help make sound decisions in life, whether for academic, professional, or personal purposes. An individual who has information literacy skills will be able to: • recognize what information and how much information is needed; • create an effective and efficient search strategy for the needed information; • analyze the retrieved information and evaluate its sources; • enhance one’s own understanding with the selected information; HIS 1301, American History I 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title • use information effectively in order to achieve a desired outcome; and • use information ethically and legally, particularly with respect to recognizing intellectual property and acknowledging one’s sources. Information literacy skills are essential to the study of history. To develop information literacy skills as you conduct history research, follow the steps listed in the process below. This process is iterative, meaning that instead of moving through the steps sequentially, as in a checklist, you may repeat steps of the process as necessary in order to discover the best information to support your research goals.

1. Identify the information you need. Read your assignment instructions carefully. Check to see if a specific topic or type of information is assigned.

2. Find the best sources for the needed information. When searching for articles in the library, look for databases that match your research topic. For eBooks, the library’s eBook database may also be an option.

3. Search your chosen resources for your information. Use keywords and phrases taken from your topic statement. Enclose phrases in quotation marks.

4. Evaluate your retrieved information. Review your results to identify and select information that comes from a suitable and credible source, supports your writing purpose, and meets all criteria for your assignment.

5. Use your information to successfully complete your assignment. Reinforce and build on your own statements with your chosen research information in order to create effective writing that achieves its intended goal. Identify all information sources used with complete APA citations.

HIS 1301, American History I 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Information literacy skills will not only help you with your history research and other academic pursuits, but they will also transfer into the workplace and support career success. The Online Library provides you with resources to help you understand information literacy and develop your skills, and librarians are ready to assist you during each step of the research process. Reach out to your librarians for assistance today or visit the Online Library tutorials! Let the Journey Begin For our journey through American history, we will start with the earliest records and professional theories concerning Paleo-American civilization and continue through one of the most significant turning points in American culture and life—the American Civil War. As ancient Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu stated, “the journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” So, let us begin our journey. Ancient America Scientists and historians continue to discover new evidence and develop new theories about the movement and development of cultures.

 

Today, one popular hypothesis is that the subarctic region to the west of modern Alaska, known today as the Bering Straits, was once a solid mass of land that connected the modern continents of Asia and North America until approximately 14000 BCE. It is via this land mass, known as Beringia (see map image below), that the first native tribes are thought to have migrated into the Americas, eventually spreading through the north, central, and southern regions. HIS 1301, American History I 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title This 1590 theory is most commonly attributed to a Jesuit missionary named José de Acosta (d. 1600), whose scientific writings were among the most celebrated of his time. Acosta, however, was still subject to the social and political environments of his time, and because of this, his is not the exclusive hypothesis explaining the migration to this new world; however, his theory did eventually draw an audience. Explorations by the Russian Empire, led by Danish explorer Vitus Bering in 1724 and 1741 and a later expedition by Englishman James Cook in 1778 renewed the interest in human migration theories between Asia and North America. Today, the study of the Beringia Land Bridge theory continues, and as archeologists and historians continue their research, additional theories of ancient migration, like the coastal routes, are emerging (U.S. Department of the Interior, n.d.-b). Historians agree with the assumption that what motivated the first people in the Americas was the search for food and other basic necessities. In 2008, genetic testing suggested that a population did migrate across the Beringia Land Bridge as early as 30,000 years ago and had crossed into North America around 16,500 years ago, aligning with Acosta’s theory that the first migrants were in North America around 15000 BCE (Yes, that means that the population lived on the land bridge for about 10,000 years.).

 

Evidence also suggests that humans were living south of the Canadian ice sheet 15,000 years ago. Currently available artifacts, including tools, weapons, vegetation, and cultural markings, help to further illustrate this migratory movement (National Parks Service, n.d.-b). One example of an early Paleo-American culture is the Clovis culture, believed to have arrived in North America 13,000 years ago. Known today as Clovis points (see image below), these points are believed to be a mainstay of the Clovis culture. The points were discovered in New Mexico during the late 1920s and gave clear evidence of human activity in North America. Recognized for its unique shape as a hunting tool and, given their age, circa 10,000 to 9,000 BCE, the Clovis point could be considered the first American invention. Beringia. (n.d.). Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. at Austin.) HIS 1301, American History I 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title More than 10,000 Clovis points have been discovered in 1,500 locations across North America, reaching across the country from Florida to Washington State, up to Pennsylvania and down into Texas (Mann, 2013). With the discovery of agriculture and the use of pottery as a way to preserve and store excess materials and food (circa 4000 BCE) came settlements and population centers, and eventually the advent of semipermanent political, religious, and trade-influenced organizations of numerous families—what we now recognize as a tribe. Tribes would spread and appear throughout the Americas after 4000 BCE. Even with common ancestry, tribal cultures would adapt to the climate and resources available. Over time, this led to wide differences among tribes in religion, government, and social roles, specifically when looking in the North American Southwest, South, and Northeast. As complex and durable as these tribal societies had become, shortly before 1500 AD, their world was changed by European exploration. Tribes and Settlements Native American cultural maps show clearly distinguished cultural and tribal regions, some of which relied on each other for support in harsh climates, while others feuded over land and supplies (see image below).

 

Assuming the accuracy of two of the most common migration patterns, Beringia and similar boatdriven expeditions farther south, it is understandable why some of the oldest remains are found in what is now the American West and in the Great Plains. In the American Northwest, what was commonly seen in the pre-colonization period was a wide array of hunter-gatherer and craftsmen-led tribes, like the Haida, Ute, Shoshone, and Nez Perce tribes. Seen within this area was a land of many metals, almost unending resources, and great offerings from the rivers, lakes, and ocean, including fish and whale oil. However, as is true with any abundance, once word of such great promise was known, the tribal nations were not alone. As colonization and statehood erupted in the American East, the American West drew wide attention from people willing to brave the wild to secure their share of the resources. Clovis points from the Rummells-Maske Site, 13CD15, Cedar County, Iowa. Courtesy of the Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist and Bill Whittaker. (Whittaker, 2010) Map showing the cultural regions of Native Americans. (Spacenut525, 2010)

 

HIS 1301, American History I 7 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The American Southwest was the site of some of the oldest native markings and permanent settlements. In addition to the Clovis culture, tribal nations like the Pueblo, Navajo, and Hopi settled this land and boasted vibrant cultures with great reverence to the sky and sun. Compared to their northern and eastern neighbors, however, they were also wary of close neighbors because of the need for wide areas to hunt and limited natural resources. This region continues to be one of great permanence. Established in the 12th century, Acoma Pueblo is believed to be the oldest continually occupied city in what is now the United States. Identified now as a National Historic Landmark, Acoma Pueblo is located about 60 miles outside of present-day Albuquerque, New Mexico (National Parks Service, n.d.-a.). Colonization for tribes in this region were heavily influenced by the Spanish and tribal aggression and discovery, which are topics that will be revisited in later units. In the American Northeast, including what is now parts of Canada and the United States, there was a range of settlements, but two major cultures emerged: the Algonkian (Algonquian) and the Iroquois in the Northeast. As can be seen in the map above, the Algonquian settlements dominated much of the coastal regions, which saw the first English settlements. The Iroquois lands quickly became disputed territory between the settlers and ancient tribes, each looking for lands to extend and working to retain their culture. Though impossible to say everything here, some common aspects of these northeastern tribes were their hunting and fishing prowess as well as their sometimes hostile reaction to outsiders, especially surrounding land claims because of their farming needs to survive in the unforgiving climate. There is clear evidence that this culture descended from the Clovis tribes, as can be seen in their weapons and tools, but these tribes were also prosperous farmers of gourds, beans, corn, and even tobacco. Because of the agriculture, these tribes were not generally nomadic, meaning that their shelter was often sturdy enough for the harsh realities of the climate, and that any moves followed the need for agriculture. Finally, the American South proved to be another lush and highly prized region for its abundant natural resources and perfect soil. The tribes of this region, like those in the Pacific Northwest, thrived on hunting and gathering, and the climate did not require as much preparation for devastating seasons. Unlike the Pacific Northwest, however, these offerings were quickly be coveted by European explorers. The Native Americans, including the Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee/Creek, Chickasaw, and Seminole (see images below), faced one of the most devastating removals in American history during the early 1800s. Totem poles were often carved to honor a family’s history or an important individual within the tribal nation. (Judson, 1917) Sky City of Acoma Pueblo known as the Enchanted Mesa (Beyond My Ken, 2012) HIS 1301, American History I 8 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title A Closing Note This unit has briefly introduced the earliest accounts of recorded history within Paleo-America. We will build on this foundation of early cultural settlement as we pick up with European exploration and colonization in future units. As we move forward, it is important to remember that with much of historical study, especially with records and accounts as timeworn as these, differences in, and even arguments concerning interpretation are not rare; in fact, they are encouraged. The study of history is a living discipline, and for that reason, it is important to consider multiple perspectives, including your own interpretation, when reviewing for and preparing your assignments. Please be willing to challenge yourself to consider multiple views, perspectives, and points of view and to find the amazing connection of history to your world today. Known as the Five Civilized Tribes, the tribal nations’ leaders of the Southern tribal nations. Sequoyah (Cherokee); Pushmataha (Choctaw); Selecta (Muscogee/Creek); a traditional Chickasaw warrior; Osceola (Seminole). Portraits drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850. (Rob, 2008) HIS 1301, American History I 9 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title References Beringia. (n.d.). [Demographic map]. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/national_parks/beri_past95.jpg Beyond My Ken. (2012, November 17). Acoma Pueblo Enchanted Mesa [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:25_Acoma_Pueblo_Enchanted_Mesa.jpg Judson, K. B. (1917). Myths and Legends of British North America—Haida totem poles [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Myths_and_Legends_of_British_North_America_- _Haida_Totem_Poles.jpg Mann, C. C. (2013, November). The Clovis point and the discovery of America’s first culture. Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-clovis-point-and-the-discovery-of-americasfirst-culture-3825828/ National Parks Service. (n.d.-a). Acoma Pueblo, Acoma, New Mexico. U.S. Department of the Interior. https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/american_latino_heritage/Acoma_Pueblo.html National Parks Service. (n.d.-b). History of the Bering land bridge theory. U.S. Department of the Interior. https://www.nps.gov/bela/learn/historyculture/the-bering-land-bridge-theory.htm Rob. (2008, April 29). Five–civilized–tribes–portraits [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Five-Civilized-Tribes-Portraits.png Spacenut525. (2010, July 1). Native American regions [Image]. Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NativeAmericanRegions_map_1.jpg Whittaker, B. (2010, April 9). Clovis Rummells Maske [Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clovis_Rummells_Maske.jpg Suggested Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below. The transcripts for these videos can be found by clicking the “Transcript” tab to the right of the video in the Films on Demand database. What route did our ancient ancestors use in their early migrations from Africa to the Middle East? Watch this video to learn more. PBS (Producer). (2016). Out of Africa (Segment 6 of 14) [Video]. In Great Human Odyssey. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=151281&loid=511355 Watch the following video to learn more about how we, as Homo sapiens, are united by our past, our present, and our future. PBS (Producer). (2016). Rise of Homo sapiens (Segment 2 of 14) [Video]. In Great Human Odyssey. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=151281&loid=511351 Discover how witnessing the strategies of communities today, like the Saan, in Southern Africa’s Kalahari Desert, help anthropologists understand the evolution of the early hunter gathers ancestors. HIS 1301, American History I 10 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title PBS (Producer). (2016). Strategies of early hunters (Segment 3 of 14) [Video]. In Great Human Odyssey. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=151281&loid=511352 Continuing the story of the Skhul Cave skill, could a tooth hold a key to a mystery connecting the Skhul Cave people to Africa and thus the ancestors to the people of the world? Watch the video to learn more. PBS (Producer). (2016). Skhul cave ancestors (Segment 7 of 14) [Video]. In Great Human Odyssey. Films on Demand.

https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=151281&loid=511356 Was it possible that the first Americans crossed the Atlantic Ocean rather than the Pacific Ocean? Watch the video to learn more. PBS (Producer) (2016). America’s first people (Segment 10 of 14) [Video]. In Great Human Odyssey. Films on Demand. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPl aylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=151281&loid=511359

 

 

 

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