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Review the following questions BEFORE you read Herrick, Chapters 5 & 6. As you read, please take notes so that you will be able to answer and discuss the following questions:
Chapter 5 – Rhetoric at Rome
- Who were the most famous rhetoricians during the Roman period of rhetoric?
- Cicero’s definition of rhetoric is “speech designed to persuade” (“Scholarly Definition of Rhetoric,” 2014). What are Cicero’s five canons of rhetoric (or oratory)?
- Cicero held that eloquence had been separated from some other crucial factor in Roman rhetoric. What is that other factor, and why was he concerned to bring these two qualities together?
- According to Cicero, of what must speakers be wary when using humor?
- For Cicero, the complete orator represented Roman civic values? Is such a conception of a single public figure – whether speaker or writer – possible today? Which persons in our society might take on such a role? Who comes closest? Why?
- Quintillian defined rhetoric as the art of speaking well or the “good man, speaking well” (“Scholarly definitions of rhetoric,” 2014). What were the five parts of a speech that Quintilian taught to his students?
- What did Quintilian mean by suggesting that an orator must be a good person?
- If rhetorical practices and democratic forms of government tend to flourish together, how would you characterize the present state of rhetoric and democracy in the U.S. culture? Are both flourishing? Are both in decline?
Chapter 6 – Rhetoric in Christian Europe
- What were the THREE rhetorical arts that characterized the Middle Ages?
- How does the inclusion of letter writing as a form of rhetoric allow us to see women’s roles in rhetorical history? (poetry?)
- Which classical rhetorician had the greatest influence on the shape of rhetorical theory and practice in the Middle Ages?
- Why are the Middle Ages considered a period of fragmentation in rhetorical theory?
- St. Augustine defines rhetoric as “the art of Christian teaching and persuasion with words” (“Rhetoric of Western Thought,” 1990). What for St. Augustine were the two major functions of rhetoric within the Church?
- What dilemmas faced Augustine of Hippo regarding rhetoric? What was Augustine’s response to these dilemmas?
- What was St. Augustine’s theory of signs in De Doctrina?