he ethics of childhood obesity treatment-from the Childhood Obesity Task Force

Running head: CHILDHOOD OBESITY 1

CHILDHOOD OBESITY 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

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School

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Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

Summary of the Study

The study seeks to evaluate the efficacy of school-based programs in treating and managing overweight and obesity among children. Childhood obesity is increasingly becoming both national and global public health concern that has resulted in increased childhood morbidity and mortality. In particular, childhood obesity has catapulted the increase in health problems such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, as well as osteoarthritis later in adulthood (Mahmood et al. 2014). Schools can provide one of the most effective channels through which childhood obesity interventions can be directed. In this respect, policies, procedures, and guidelines have been passed in many nations and states for the implementation of school-based interventions. In the United States, many studies have recommended the utilization of school-based obesity management programs to address the unending crisis of childhood obesity. In light of this concern, this study seeks to investigate the efficacy of school-based interventions in treating and managing childhood obesity. In particular, the study will also assess school methodologies such as incorporation of obesity education into the routine curriculum in minimizing the constantly-increasing cases of obese children population.

Method of Study

The study is also going to use qualitative design in order to examine the perception of children towards school-based obesity management initiatives. Previous studies conducted by Clarke et al. (2015) also sought to investigate the experiences and views of kids who went through school-based obesity management programs. This can help to improve knowledge and understanding of better ways to address the problem of childhood obesity within school settings. In order to provide a comprehensive finding that guides future clinical decision-making, the study will evaluate efficacy of school-based interventions with respect to many key areas. They include cost efficiency of school-based interventions, improvements in physical activities and healthy eating habits following interventions, as well as level of awareness among children on the dangers of childhood obesity and the ways in which it can be averted. Furthermore, effectiveness will be investigated through evaluation of body weight and BMI before and after the introductions of these interventions (Mahmood et al. 2014). Most significantly, cardiovascular fitness and other outcome measures will be investigated. The target population and participants of the study will mainly be school-going children. Both boys and girls with an average age of between 8 and 16 years will be incorporated into the study.

Schools vary in the ways in which they utilize such interventions. For instance, some schools utilize planet health programs that incorporate the teacher training workshops, class lessons, physical education materials, and educational programs that emphasize on enhancing physical activities. These programs also seek to discourage sedentary lifestyles among school-going populations (Mahmood et al. 2014). Other initiatives often embrace strategies such as utilization of banners and logos on water bottles with the purpose of supporting healthy living, embracing healthy diets and discouraging the use of sugar-sweetened drinks. In some cases, schools ensure that children are enrolled in programs such as aerobics dance sessions.

One of the primary reasons for exploring this area of research is the fact that obesity among children is a risk indicator for future obesity during adulthood. This problem has been associated with adverse physical, socioeconomic and mental impacts such as risks for getting non-communicable diseases (Amini et al. 2015). In addition, school-going children face the risk of being socially stigmatized, leading to sadness and loneliness. Moreover, obese kids are most likely to involve themselves in high-risk behaviors as a result of negative stereotyping. Although an urgent intervention is needed to curb the worrying increase in overweight and obese populations, these steps must be informed by widely acknowledged collection of evidences to support positive health outcomes (Amini et al. 2015). The current body of evidence incorporates researches conducted that target their interventions in several contexts such as community centers, home, and schools. In particular, schools have taken the lead in being among the most suitable settings for obesity management since they are distinct in some elements.

Result of Study

The effectiveness and capability of school-oriented interventions to prevent obesity among school going children was subjected for review for a period more than 10 year. Reviews of reviews, meta-analysis, reports on children and adolescents, systematic reviews, and interventional studies were used. During the study, four meta-analysis and four systematic reviews were selected for the review. The results indicated that adoption of multifaceted interventions did not significantly affect the anthropometric findings. Even though the duration for intervention is very useful in establishing effectiveness, there is no adequate studies that can appraise the duration. There is a significant difference between boys and girls on how they respond to school-based interventions. Relying on an indicator such as the body mass index to determine obesity prevention among children was determined to seriously misleading. Non-targeted interventions were helpful in solving the issue among the general public as compared to targeted approaches.

How the Findings Might be Used in Nursing Practice

Nurses must utilize the best available evidences to support decision-making on the best way to address childhood obesity. Assessing the efficacy of school-based interventions have various implications for nursing practice (Wareing, 2018). The recommendations that seek to improve outcomes from school-based physical activity initiatives may be utilized by nurses to foster positive attitudes towards exercises among children and young adolescents. Nurses may also address these problems by raising the level of activities throughout the school day. In practical sense, knowledge on the importance of school-base interventions can shift the working environment of nurses, educators, and school staffs. Nurses can employ school-based programs by utilizing multidisciplinary approaches to obesity management such as encouraging parents and community members to participate in school-based initiatives (Wareing, 2018). There is also need for nurses to engage in advocacy and health communication campaigns among public health bodies collaborate with teachers, parents, and lobby groups in order to combat childhood obesity. Nurses can educate the school children and young adolescents about food choices.

In particular, school nurses have the skills to offer counseling to support weight-associated behavior change (Pbert et al. 2013). They are also easily accessible to children with no transport or costs. Thus, nurses can play an integral role in supporting students who suffer from overweight and obesity problems to gather a healthy lifestyle (Pbert et al 2013). The leveraging of current infrastructures and resources through capitalization on the placements of skilled healthcare providers within highly accessible school contexts has major public health importance in comparison with specialty clinics that face eh challenge of limited reach. This is partly because specialty clinics have constrained reach as a result of access and expenses o intensive resources needed, such as costs to the families in terms of transportation, copayments and time (Pbert et al. 2013). Thus, weight management and counseling interventions are practicable for school nurses in the delivery of high fidelity within the school health contexts.

Potential Ethical Implications

Childhood overweight and obesity studies are often carried out among vulnerable groups. A significant number of obese students also grapple with major mental challenges, such as anxiety, depression, ADHD, and emotional and eating problems. Combined with this challenge, obesity holds a social stigma that negatively affects children and their respective family members (Holm et al. 2014). In acknowledgment of this problem, discourses have emerged among health care professionals relating to the potential ethics for school-based interventions for treating childhood obesity, as well as the mechanistic clinical researches that seek to understand the pathophysiology of this health problem among students without directly aiming at minimizing overweight (Holm et al. 2014). Researchers must seriously consider if their protocols and procedures offer situations where they can empirically evaluate and prove their hypothesis while at the same time developing environments where children and their family members are free to make choices to enter the study (autonomy). Further, justice should be granted by granting all participants with benefits after taking part in such studies.

Another ethical issue relates to the manner in which obesity is communicated to members of the public. While the causes of childhood obesity are often publicized in simple ways, such as excessive energy comparison with energy use, this disease is complex. There are various factors that are associated with this health problem. These include socioeconomic indicators, level of education and awareness, and lifestyle. However, the causes of obesity go beyond these commonly talked about factors to include issues such as culture, media presence, as well as peer pressure. Therefore, in attempting to engage in advocacy campaigns to reduce obesity, nurses must not leave out important information that can generate positive health outcomes among children.

 

References

Amini, M., Djazayery, A., Majdzadeh, R., Taghdisi, M. H., & Jazayeri, S. (2015). Effect of

school-based interventions to control childhood obesity: a review of

reviews. International journal of preventive medicine6. Comment by Melissa Petrick: The journal name should have each word capitalized (whereas the title is going to only have the first word capitalized). Apply to all references.

Clarke, J. L., Griffin, T. L., Lancashire, E. R., Adab, P., Parry, J. M., & Pallan, M. J. (2015).

Parent and child perceptions of school-based obesity prevention in England: a qualitative

study. BMC public health15(1), 1224.

Holm, J. C., Nowicka, P., Farpour-Lambert, N. J., O’Malley, G., Hassapidou, M., Weiss, R., &

Baker, J. L. (2014). The ethics of childhood obesity treatment-from the Childhood

Obesity Task Force (COTF) of European Association for the Study of Obesity

(EASO). Obesity facts7(4), 274-281.

Mahmood, S., Perveen, T., Dino, A., Ibrahim, F., & Mehraj, J. (2014). Effectiveness of

school-based intervention programs in reducing prevalence of overweight. Indian

journal of community medicine: official publication of Indian Association of

Preventive & Social Medicine39(2), 87.

Pbert, L., Druker, S., Gapinski, M. A., Gellar, L., Magner, R., Reed, G., … & Osganian, S.

(2013). A school nurse‐delivered intervention for overweight and obese

adolescents. Journal of School Health83(3), 182-193.

Wareing, A. (2018). School‐based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and

fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. International journal of nursing

practice24(1).

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