For this assignment, you may submit a paper or a video presentation. All the criteria below apply for both, but word counts are for the paper only. If you choose a presentation, they should be between

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For this assignment, you may submit a paper or a video presentation.

All the criteria below apply for both, but word counts are for the paper only. If you choose a presentation, they should be between

3-5 minutes

. You may use power point or another visual software if you’d like.

The final submission of the research proposal is a completed proposal that incorporates all the previous assignments (e.g. research question, sampling method, etc.). You may use any of your work prior to this assignment. Meaning,

you may use what you wrote in previous assignments

for this one (e.g. annotated bibliography, research question, etc.).

This paper should include the following:


  1. Introduction/Literature Review (~1000 words)

    1. Brief evaluation of the scholar literature of the topic and/or theory proposed
    2. Operationalize definitions
    3. Statement of the problem
    4. Clear research question

  2. Methods (~800 words)

    1. Design (e.g. experimental, case study, etc.)
    2. Sampling frame
    3. Proposed sample
    4. Sampling technique (e.g. purposive, probability, etc.)
    5. Data collection method/procedures (e.g. survey, secondary data, archival, etc.)
    6. Construct measurement

  3. Expected Results (



  4. Provide your thoughts about the expected results of your research. Remember, you

    are not

    collecting data or running any analyses – these are simply what you would expect to happen if you did.




Limitations (


All research and methods will have limitations. Outline the limitations of your specific research method and detail how future research could address it. You only need to identify one limitation. For example, interview data is not typically generalizable. Future research could use surveys and quantitative analysis to generalize results.




References

  1. A minimum of 4 references shall be reviewed and cited in text.
  2. References should be in APA or similar style.

Please see

this document

Actions as an example of a research proposal. Please note that this proposal took me

over a year

to prepare. I was also given several rounds of feedback from my peers and mentors. This proposal is intended to give you a general idea of what proposals

could

look like. I do not expect for yours to be at this level. If it is, you have a robust career as a grant writer ahead of you!

For this assignment, you may submit a paper or a video presentation. All the criteria below apply for both, but word counts are for the paper only. If you choose a presentation, they should be between
GLOBAL SEXUAL ABUSE 7 Global Sexual Violence on Children Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Date Introduction Global child abuse is a trend that has been existing across the globe from the time immemorial. Sexual abuse is even the most common form of global child abuse. It is a worrying phenomenon given the people who perpetrate these acts of inhumanity against the children are mostly those around them including even their relatives. Global child abuse is an issue that needs to be solved and stemmed as soon as possible given the adverse physical, emotional, social, and psychological effects the acts may have on the children as they grow up into adulthood. Interpol. Int (2020). International Child Sexual Exploitation Database. Retrieved from https://www.interpol.int/en/Crimes/Crimes-against-children/International-Child-Sexual-Exploitation-database The information relayed by this website by Interpol Origination presents a database in which victim identification professionals across the globe find images of sexual abuse against children and analyses and compare them critically. The International Child Sexual Exploitation (ICSE) contains images and videos regarding children sexual exploitation and therefore acting as a tool for investigative sharing of data concerning the menace. The article provides a graphical illustration of the steps to be followed to identify victims of child sexual abuse as many of them go silent owing to the threats from their oppressors. The source is without a doubt a resource for my research on the topic coming later. The Interpol Organization has a wide information base thanks to the numerous articles posted by them on the site. For instance, we have many of them including how the organization responds to crime against children, identification of the victim process, categorizing the child abuse contents, and helping to keep children safe online. The source’s research can be applied in my study later during the course. Knowing that many sexual crimes against children go unnoticed, the application of the victim identification process given by the article by Interpol Organization will be helpful in my research as I will have to include the process in my work. Again, the accurate data of the alarming child sexual abuse illustrated by the article will help me incorporate data into my research to make it quantitative rather than qualitative. Unicef.org (2020). Child protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58006.html The article by UNICEF.org starts by explaining that sexual abuse on children is a gross violation of the rights of children but the worrying fact is that it is now a global challenge and a reality. Sexual abuse on children is explained to be informed of rape, harassment, prostitution sexual exploitation, or pornography among others. While the acts may seem absurd, it is even more worrying given that most of these acts happen in schools, homes, institutions, workplaces, and other places that we cannot even think of. During a 2014 study, UNICEF data estimates that around 120 million girls 20 years and below have been victims of sexual abuse through forced action. The paper is advantageous to my research on the topic later during the course. The vivid description of facts laced with tangible data is one benefit to my paper because I will use the data to increase the quality of my research. With many other related topics discussed including children with disabilities, female genital mutilation, justice for children among many others, I will be sure to get enough information from the source. The research by the source is without a doubt, applicable in my research. The ideas, research, and information in it relates a lot to the research that I am also planning to do. For instance, by touching on the short-term and long-term effects both social and psychological that young children undergo after sexual abuse traumas, the article will help me dig deeper to understand more negative effects that the pandemic may have on the children. WHO.org (2020). Violence against children. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-children The article by the World Health Organization (WHO) starts by giving an account of key facts concerning violence against children. A specific example is the fact that a global figure for children between 2 and 17 years who have been victims of violence amounts to 1 billion. Sexual violence is among them. The article goes on to give a clear description of the types of violence that are usually perpetrated against young children. The articles main thesis is to show the dangers of the acts of child abuse including the most severe one which is sexual violence. WHO presents the information in a way that is scholarly and educative at the same time. The subtopics including the types of violence and the effects of violence on children is indicated and elaborated well. This will make my research very easy as I will get the information without having to struggle a lot. One limitation of the source is that it deals with violence against children on a broad scale and my research, based mainly on global sexual violence. Despite that, the article is still very helpful in my research. The ideas, research, and information relayed by the article relate to my research significantly. Starting from key facts about violence against children, the types of violence undergone by this population, and the effects it brings upon them, I believe the article is resourceful in my future resource. Ec.Europa.eu. (2020). We Protect Global Alliance to End Child Sexual Exploitation Online. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/organized-crime-and-human-trafficking/global-alliance-against-child-abuse_en The article starts by saying that child sexual abuse is a criminal activity that s hideous and should be stopped by all means. The article explains that the acts of sexual violence against women are not limited as we may think but it is a global pandemic that happens multiple times in many places across the globe. In explaining the severe nature of the acts, the article points out that about 50,000 images under 10 years undergoing acts of sexual violence are added to the WHO database. It is a worrying trend that needs to be addressed to help children live peaceful lives devoid of sexual abuse acts. The article is beneficial to my research in that the information relayed in it relates to my topic a lot. The article points out the global efforts taken by the We Protect Organization formed in 2014 and other countries across Europe trying to end instances of sexual abuse of children online. Despite this benefit, the limitation of this article is that it points out an effort in only Europe and not across the globe in the fight against child sexual violence. The applicability of this resource in my research will be in showing the efforts being carried out by organizations as well as countries in attempts to end child sexual abuse across the globe. The progress reports, as well as commitments assured by the individual European countries including Albania, Armenia, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Bosnia, among others, is an indication that nations are awake concerning the issue of childhood sexual violence and they are doing all that is within their capacity to stem the rising statistics. This will form the basis of my research into the actions being taken by organizations and individual countries in the fight against child sexual violence across the globe.
For this assignment, you may submit a paper or a video presentation. All the criteria below apply for both, but word counts are for the paper only. If you choose a presentation, they should be between
GLOBAL SEXUAL VIOLENCE Global Sexual Violence on Children Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Date Purpose of the research The purpose of my research is to look deeper into the issue of sexual violence on a global scale and more specifically into global sexual violence on children. The research focuses on the global sexual menace affecting children given that it is a rising trend despite the acts being taken to curb it. Children are the most vulnerable members of the society to sexual violence when compared to other groups of individuals. What is worrying is that the sinful and heinous acts are perpetrated by people so close to these individuals. The article by UNICEF.org starts by explaining that sexual abuse on children is a gross violation of the rights of children but the worrying fact is that it is now a global challenge and a reality (UNICEF, 2020). Research question What is the extent of global sexual violence on children and the adverse effects it has on their physical, emotional, and psychosocial development of children? References Unicef.org (2020). Child protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58006.html
For this assignment, you may submit a paper or a video presentation. All the criteria below apply for both, but word counts are for the paper only. If you choose a presentation, they should be between
GLOBAL SEXUAL VIOLENCE 3 Global Sexual Violence Student’s name Institution Affiliation Date Research Question My research question is global sexual violence. The issue is a worldwide pandemic that affects people across all genders but most severe among women and children (Butchart et al., 2015). The statistics don’t lie, and the issue has proved to be harmful to individuals in that it leads to emotional, social, psychological, and even physical tortures to the victims. Proposed Research design In carrying the research, I will choose the cross-sectional research design. This research design is observational, where the researcher observes the sample population that is under study. In real life, the research design may be applied when a researcher wants to understand the effects a specific risk factor may have on the population they are studying over some time (Spector, s2019). The participants in this study are sampled centered on inclusion and exclusion standard. Once the researcher has sampled the population on review, they will proceed to understand the outcomes of the exposure of these individuals to the factor under study. How Proposed Research Design Fits the Research Question The research design fits my research topic of global sexual violence in that I will be gathering data regarding the many stories of the victims of the gross and inhuman behavior. Through their stories or earlier documented, I will be able to understand the effects that the torture may have brought to their lives. The method is suitable for the kind of research I am carrying out in that it avoids aspects of biases through how the sample population is selected. References Butchart, A., Mikton, C., Dahlberg, L. L., & Krug, E. G. (2015). Global status report on violence prevention 2014. Spector, P. E. (2019). Do not cross me: Optimizing the use of cross-sectional designs. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(2), 125-137.
For this assignment, you may submit a paper or a video presentation. All the criteria below apply for both, but word counts are for the paper only. If you choose a presentation, they should be between
GLOBAL SEXUAL VIOLENCE 3 Global Sexual Violence Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Date My research question My topic is on global sexual violence and in specific, how global sexual has been a menace across the globe, its effects on the victims physically, emotionally, socially, and psychologically. My research question in particular will be how the menace has negatively impacted the lives of women and children (who are the most susceptible members of the society) through the above four mentioned aspects of life (Butchart et al., 2015). Research design The research design that will be applied in my research will be both descriptive and correlational research designs. Descriptive research will exist of case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observations of the sample victims of sexual violence and how the traumas have been negatively impacting to their lives. Correlational research study will be evaluating the physical, emotional, social, and psychological challenges the victims of sexual violence face in the society. Sampling frame, sample and sampling procedures The sampling frame that will be followed in the research design will be constricted to women and children and society. The sample for the research will be selected based random sampling to ensure that bias is eliminated (Etikan & Bala, 2017). How the sampling method fits the research The random sampling technique fits my research question in that it ensures that random sample of the victims of sexual violence is selected and the results from them can be trusted. References Etikan, I., & Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 00149. Butchart, A., Mikton, C., Dahlberg, L. L., & Krug, E. G. (2015). Global status report on violence prevention 2014.
For this assignment, you may submit a paper or a video presentation. All the criteria below apply for both, but word counts are for the paper only. If you choose a presentation, they should be between
DATA COLLECTION METHODS 3 Data Collection Methods Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Date As elaborated in my previous discussions, my research on global sexual violence mainly entails quantitative researching than qualitative research. As a result, the data collection methods that will be applied in the research will be largely inclined to the quantitative research methodology. First, probability sampling will be carried out to enable the researcher select a random population through which they can coin probability statements based on the randomly selected demographic. This will remove the chances of bias since the sample will be collected based on the rules of random sampling (Etikan & Bala, 2017). For this case, the type of sampling that will be used is simple random sampling. Secondly, interviews in telephone, computer-aided devices, as well as face-to-face interviews will be used. The method will make it possible to collect real-time data from the source. Telephone interviews have been on the rise recently with advancement of technology e.g. through Skype or many other platforms for video calling. They will be crucial during the interviews data collection process. Face-to-face interviews will be designed to target the reachable sample population. In addition to the above, literature and document review methods will be used. There is plenty of information available in hardcopy books as well as the internet where information about sexual violence can be collected (Spector, 2019). All the above methods discussed, will be crucial in aiding the descriptive research discussed in the previous assignments. In the process, the various effects of global violence including physical, emotional, and psychosocial effects will be clearly understood by the readers of the research work. References Etikan, I., & Bala, K. (2017). Sampling and sampling methods. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 5(6), 00149. Spector, P. E. (2019). Do not cross me: Optimizing the use of cross-sectional designs. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(2), 125-137.
For this assignment, you may submit a paper or a video presentation. All the criteria below apply for both, but word counts are for the paper only. If you choose a presentation, they should be between
eGC1 number : A14399 1 A. Introduction and Rationale In recent years, there has been a robust racial justice movement in the U.S. that has pursued power with the goal of promoting wellness and liberating racially and historically oppressed communities. Racial oppression continues to motivate activists to critique and take action to challenge both psychological and societal powers of oppression. For many white people , widely publicized killings of young black men by police have sparked a conscientization process, which has moved them to ally themselves with the racial justice movement. In fact, black leaders have explicitly called on white people to organize their own communities to resist racial oppression. Recently for example, leaders of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) move ment called for white folks to “get their own house in order” 1 and challenged white people to directly confront white supremacy through direct action 2. Historically, white organizations such as the weather underground have allied with powerful black libera tion movements such as the black panthers to fight for the political liberation of oppressed communities .3 A significant threat to racial equality are the racist attitudes of whites. Shifts in racist attitudes among whites have gone from being grounded in biological assumptions to cultural and motivational explanations for racial inferiority .4, 5 These shifts in attitudes mirror the discourse in social policy (e.g. The War on Drugs) that has adopted race -neutral language over time yet produces racially disp roportionate outcomes . 6 This “colorblind” racism allows white people to be largely ignorant of and unaccountable for historic and systemic manifestations o f racism. This form of racism is underscored when powerful white people argue that they could not po ssibly be racist because “my nieces and nephews are people of color” 7, but continue remaining unaware of the unequal racial impacts of their decisions. One’s racially privileged position in an ostensibly non -racist society relates to one’s knowledge practices, which for whites means not questioning racial injustice. Not asking questions leads to a misunderstanding of the world that makes even non -racist wh ite people complicit in the maintenance of systemic and institutionalized racism. 8, 9, 10 Central to the issue of race and racism necessarily includes a critical understanding of whiteness and white racial identity. According to the white racial identity d evelopment (WRID) model, white people move through six stages, from an unexamined racial identity marked by colorblind thinking to an “autonomous” stage marked by an acknowledgement of the systemic nature of r acism that requires a proactive anti -racist res ponse. 11 However, the embeddedness of white people in racialized power hierarchies makes whiteness elusive for even white anti -racists who fail to remain vigilant. 12, 13, 14 However, recent research indicates that through critical analysis about the histo ry of racism, white people can begin understanding their own roles in racial hierarchies . Research has show n that stronger white racial identity predicted greater racism denial, but that learning the critical history of racism in the U.S. could boost white participants’ abilities to perceive systemic racism. 15 Sustaining the cognitive dissonance associated with learning about systemic racism may be fruitful in promoting a proactive, anti -racist stance among white participants. 16 Reminders of privilege and an anti -racist praxis can be threatening to white identity and a belief in a meritocratic society. 17 Such thr eats can be managed by denying white privilege, distancing oneself from whiteness, and/ or working to dismantle systems of privilege : i.e. an anti -racist praxis .18 To develop an anti -racist praxis , leaders of the racial justice movement have employed a strategy of training white folks to organize their own communities to support the “undoing” of systemic racism. Organizations such as the People’s Institute for Survival and Beyond, Showing Up for Racial Justice (SURJ) , and European Dissent provide educati onal trainings to white eGC1 number : A14399 1 identified persons to understand historic manifestations of racial oppression. These organizations provide various workshops, trainings, and opportunities to engage in campaign work to address issues of systemic racism. In addition, they explicitly activate white people into the racial justice movement to resist racism within their own personal, social, pol itical, and professional lives. The purpose of the white anti -racist movement is to “educate, organize, and mobilize white people to show up powerfully for racial justice and collective liberation”. 19 M uch of the research to date in community and social psychology on anti -racist and liberatory praxes have focused primarily on individuals from racially oppressed communities. Langhout, Collins, and Ellison (2014) for example, examined relational empowerment processes among low -income youth of color (primarily Latinx identified) in an after school program. 20 Watts and colleagues examined sociopolitical development with African -American youth. 21 In addition, much of this work has utilized qualitative and/or case study approaches, which limits generalizability. Watts et al. (2003) called for an examination of anti -racist and liberatory praxes among those with privileged and /or domi nant identities. 22 Thus, the purpose of this proposal is to advance psychological research on anti -racist and liberatory praxes by examining the anti -racist praxis of white activists allied with the racial justice movement and the relationship between those praxes and white identity . Funding from this grant will assist with : 1) developing a white anti -racist praxis scale that is reliable, valid, and generalizable , 2) examining the processes of white anti -racist activists to identify stages of development , and 3) modeling the relationship between anti -racist praxes and adoption of various whiteness ideologies (e.g. colorblind racism, white fear, etc.). This research will build on the preliminary research currently undertaken with white anti -racist activists. Preliminary Research From Autumn of 2016 to Winter of 201 8 I conducted 15 interviews with self -identified white anti -racist activists with in the racial justice movement to examine their anti -racist praxes . Using a thematic analysis strategy, which “is a method for identifying, analysing, and reporting patterns (themes) within data” 23, I constructed a codebook and applied codes to interviews with the assistance of student researchers and two faculty collabora tors at California State University, Long Beach and Chico, respectively . These results are i llustrated in two papers currently under review .24, 25 In these papers, my co -authors and I found that anti -racist activists engage in a variety of strategies to pu rsue psychological and political liberation. In particular , we found that activists pursued six strategies for psychological liberation and two for political liberation . For psychological liberation, activists’ strategies included: a systemic analysis of oppression, root – cause etiology, exploration of self -identity, exploration of politically oppressed identities, theory of liberation, and critical self -reflection. For political liberation, activists’ strategies included: opportunities f or growth and criti cal action. Within psychological liberatory strategies, a systemic analysis of oppression is the theoretical framework(s) activists adopt to explain the underlying systemic (as opposed to individual) causes of racism and oppression . These are activists’ understandings of the historical, political, social, and economic conditions that create oppression. Root -cause etiology includes the ways in which activists come to understand systems of oppression and the racialized othering of people of color. Activists with historically oppressed identities typically experienced direct encounters of oppression through interpersonal transgressions (e.g. microaggressions) whereas others tended to learn about systemic oppression indirectly through their social relationships and/or through media or educational activities. An exploration of self -identity is t he process of eGC1 number : A14399 1 critique between self and society to understand activists’ own identit ies in relation to larger sociopolitical contexts. An exploration of politically oppressed identities is the process of examining the social, historical, and/or political factors that contribute to racial power differences . A theory of liberation is the anti -racist framework(s) that guide activists’ praxis . Finally, critical self -reflection refers to reflection on activists’ own participation in the movement . This is the reflexive relationship between reflection and action. To do this, activists engage d an iterative process of action, reflection, and reconstruction of their anti -racist praxis . Within politically liberatory strategies, opportunities for growth are the opportunities activists accept to engage in anti -racist efforts that are integral to th eir development as activists . These include opportunities to enhance their human, social, and relational capital through avenues such as organizer trainings, organizational meetings, and/or protest events, for example. Critical actions are the activities, behaviors, and actions by which activists enact their theory of liberation. These include the direct and indirect activities conducted by activists with the goal of creating racial equity on behalf of the racial justice movement. Activists tended to take a few different paths toward critical action. These included educational activities to raise critical awareness of racial issues, building powerful organizations that can take collective actions, and working within systems of oppr ession to shift them from the inside. Preliminary Research to Measurement and Quantitative Analysis Although the results outlined above provide an indication of the psychological and political praxes of anti -racist activists, they do not provide a clear indication of the developmental process es nor do they offer an understanding of the relationship between these strategies and other important psycho -social factors . The results presented above give some in sights into whites ’ perceptions of whiteness and the ways in which their privilege shows up in the work (e.g. exploration of self -identity), but it does not allow an understanding of the relationship between anti -racist praxis and whiteness ideologies. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to conduct a large -scale quantitative survey study among white anti -racist activists. Two components of such as a study are necessary – psychometric scale development and inferential data analysis. To do this I will conduct four steps in producing psychometric measures: 1) clearly defining the construct(s) of interest , what they intend to measure , and the sample population to which they are applied; 2) creation of survey items including the item formats and generation of an item pool; 3) collection of initial survey data from a sample of the target population; and 4) evaluation of the psychometric properties of scales via reliability and validity analyses. 26 Once constructs are defined, items developed, and data are co llected, examination of the reliability and validity of measures is necessary in the development of accurate and consistent scales. Reliability analyses will evaluate the dimensionality of items through exploratory factor analyses and internal consistency will be evaluated via item -level analyses (e.g. inter -item correlations, Cronbach’s alpha, etc.). To evaluate validity (specifically construct validity) I will examine the relationships between newly constructed anti -racist praxis measures and the theoreti cal network of related constructs. For example, I will examine the anti – racist praxis scale against other scales that have been found to be related to participation in activism such as the social justice scale . Once reliability and validity of measures are established I will conduct inferential statistical tests of relationships between new scales and other social – psychological variables of interest. I have experience conducting these analyses in published papers such as Collins and Guidry (2018), Collins, Neal, and Neal (2014), Collins, Neal, and Neal (2013), and Foster -Fishman, Collins, and Pierce (2013). eGC1 number : A14399 1 B. Objectives To examine the whites’ anti -racist praxes , I propose to create a large sample survey study that includes measurement development of the constructs above. To achieve this goal, I seek to conduct a multi -phase study among white anti -racist activists within the U.S. that mimics the steps outlined above. These include: 1) construction of a survey with new measures developed from preliminary interview results, 2) collection of a sub -sample of survey data from white anti – racist activists, 3) evaluation of the reliability and validity of new scales, 4) edit and adjust new measures based on validity and reliability results, and 5) collection of data among a large sample of white anti -racist activists in the U.S. These simultaneous processes will allow me to answer the following research questions: 1. Is a quantitative anti -racist praxis scale a valid and reliable way to measure the ways in which anti -racists engage in their liberation work ? 2. If so, are there “stages” of anti -racist praxis development? a. Is the process linear? b. Is there a relationship between anti -racist praxis stages and experience in the racial justice movement? 3. Is there a relationship between anti -racist praxis and whiteness ideologies (e.g. colorblind racism) ? C. Procedure Participants, Sampling, & Recruitment My sampling frame includes members from one of the largest national white anti -racist organizations in the country – Showing Up for Racial Justice (SURJ). As an organization, SURJ has more than 175 organizations in the U.S. representing 46 stat es and Washington, D.C. SURJ affiliates build anti -racist praxes among white allies through educational, organizing, direct action, and other programs. Unlike online collective action movements, SURJ affiliates provide “a space to build relationships, skil ls and political analysis to act for change.” 27 Membership within SURJ typically includes three levels – base supporters, members, and leaders wherein increased organ izational responsibility grows as individuals move toward leadership. I will utilize similar recruitment methods to those used in the study outlined above. Specifically, I email ed 43 SURJ organizations asking to interview organization leaders. Of the 43, nine responded positively and agreed to an interview, resulting in a 20.9% response ra te. Only one declined an interview and the remainder (n=33) did not respond. I should note that all organizations were contacted only once. Follow -up emails or phone calls were not conducted. Follow -up emails and phone calls significantly increase particip ant participation in community – based research. Initial recruitment will occu r via internet se arches focusing on affiliated SURJ organizations. Identified organizations will be placed into a database and randomly selected to be con tacted for study participation. Those that are selected will receive an email detailing the purpose of the study and inviting organization members to participate. If organization leaders agree, I will ask them to send an email with the survey hyperlinked t o their membership lists and ask them to include members across the participation spectrum (i.e. supporters, members, and leaders) . If organizations decline participation they will be replaced by another randomly selected organization. All non -responsive o rganizations will receive three follow -up emails eGC1 number : A14399 1 and/or phone calls, at which point they will be marked as “decline to participate” if follow -ups do not succeed. All d ata are collected utilizing the online Qualtrics survey tool. Quantitative Measures I wi ll test the anti -racist praxis scale and related sub -scales developed for the purposes of this study against the network of existing scales on activism and similar constructs. These scales include critical consciousness, empowerment, sense of community, an d social justice ideation. Each of these scales (and related sub -scales) have been found to predict greater participation in activism and other community change efforts. 28, 29, 30, 31 I describe each scale below. Scale and item construction for the Anti -Racist Praxis Scale is ongoing. Scales will mirror the codes found in the preliminary study and are intended to measure the psychological and political strategies of anti -racist praxis . Sub -scales include: 1. Systemic Analysis of Oppression measures th e extent to which anti -racists have conceptualized an underlying systemic cause of racism. Items include, “I believe that racism is deeply embedded into the structure of the American political system.” 2. Root -Cause Etiology measures the ways in which activis ts’ have come to understand racism and oppression . Items include, “ I read about the history of racism .” 3. Exploration of Self -Identity measures the extent to which individuals understand their own positionality in relationship to a larger socio -political context. Items include, “I am a member of a marginalized group.” 4. Exploration of Politically Oppressed Identities measures the extent to which activists examine the social factors that contribute to racial power differences. Items include, “ I believe people of color are adequately represented in film and other media (reverse).” 5. Theory of Liberation measures the extent to which activists ha ve developed a guiding framework regarding their anti -racist praxis. Items include, “I have personal guidelines about how anti -racist work should be done.” 6. Critical Self -Reflection measures whether individuals have thought about and evolved their anti -racism praxis. Items include, “I think about how I can better influence systems of racism.” 7. Opportunities for Growth measures the extent to which activists are presented with and accep t opportunities to engage in social change efforts. Items include, “I frequently engage in learning about social issues.” 8. Critical Actions measures the individual actions activists take to address racism. Items include, “I utilize teaching as a way to addr ess racism.” In addition to the scales above, social and racial justice measures will be collected to examine construct validity. These include: 1. Critical consciousness is a 14 -item scale consisting of three subscales (critical analysis, critical motivation , and critical action). 32 Items include phrases such as, “Marginalized groups have fewe r opportunities to get ahead.” 2. Empowerment is a 10 -item scale consisting of four subscales (perceived leadership competence, political functioning, and power developed through relationships, and shaping ideology). 33 Items include statements such as, “I am often the lea der in groups.” 3. The Brief Sense of Community (BSOC) scale is an 8 -item measure consisting of four subscales (emotional connection, group membership, needs fulfillment, and influence). 34 Items include statements such as, “I feel connected to the racial justice movement. ” eGC1 number : A14399 1 4. Social Justice Ideation is a 21 -item scale consisting of four subscales (social justice attitudes, perceived behavioral control, social justice behavioral intentions, and social justice subjective norms). 35 Items include statements such as, “I believe that it is important to act for social justice.” To examine the third research question, “ Is there a relationship between anti -racist praxis and whiteness ideologies (e.g. colorblind racism)?” I will collect additional scales on whiteness ideology. These include: 1. Race Literacy Quiz is a 20 -item multiple choice quiz designed to measure participants ’ knowledge of historic and systemic racism. Items include, “Members of a race can be identified by their:” (response options: blood group, skin color, ancestry, genes, none of the above, all of the above). 36 2. White Privilege Attitudes Scale is a four -facto r 28 -item scale that measures willingness to confront white privilege (F1), anticipated costs of addressing white privilege (F2), white privilege awareness (F3), and white privilege remorse. Items include, “I intend to work toward dismantling white privile ge. 37 3. Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites (PCRW) is a three -factor 36 -item that measures white empathetic reactions toward racism (F1), white guilt (F2), and white fear of others (F3). Items include, “I never feel ashamed about being white.” 38 D. Time Schedule I will administer this project in two phases – a measurement study utilizing a sub -sample of white anti -racist activists and an inferential study with a larger sample of activists. 1. Phase 1: Measurement Study a. July 1st 201 9 – July 31 st 2019 : Participant Recruitment b. August 1st 2019 – August 31 st 2019: Online Data Collection c. September 1st 2019 – November 31 st 2019: Data Analysis and Survey Editing 2. Phase 2: Inferential Study a. December 1st 2019 – December 31 st 2019: Participant Recruitment b. January 1st 2020 – January 31 st 2020 : Online Data Collection c. February 1 st 2020 – March 31 st 2020 : Data processing and analysis d. April 1st 2020 – June 15 th 2020 : Writing E. Need for RRF Support No other efforts to date have been made to find additional support for this project. However, to support this project and my larger research agenda I will use the results of this study to apply for the NSF CAREER award. Additionally, I will utilize the results of this study to apply for related funding at various foundat ions such as the Spencer and Kellogg Foundations. This research will address the three purposes of the RRF. First, as a community psychologist, my opportunities for external funding are generally limited to foundations. Second, as a junior faculty member, this will advance my scholarship and enable me to support a new research project as I advance toward tenure. And third, this work will build on my current research trajectory by investigating social change processes among social and racial justice activis ts. In addition, it will build on my research investigating the ways in which individuals participate in their communities and how participation can lead to community change (see reference page).

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