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Instructions attached 

PSYC 420

Integration Paper Assignment Instructions


Your view of the relationship between psychology and the Christian faith will guide your practice of psychology, both professionally and personally. This course has presented several models of the relationship between Christian faith and the discipline of psychology. This Integration Paper Assignment provides an explicit avenue for you to articulate a coherent view of the relationship between psychology and Christianity using one of the models described in the course.


This Integration Paper Assignment is the capstone project of the course. You will choose a model from the course text that most closely aligns with your approach to the relationship between psychology and Christianity. Please follow the following format:

· Integration Paper Assignment must include

· Current APA-formatted title page

· Introduction (including a thesis statement)

· Body

· At least 5 pages in length (excluding references and title page)

· Conclusion

· Current APA-formatted headings

· Current APA-formatted reference page

· Be sure to cite Entwistle and the Bible

· No direct quotes

· For the introductory paragraph:

· Describe the importance of examining the relationship between psychology and Christianity.

· The last sentence of the introduction must be your thesis statement that guides the rest of your paper.

· Example: Upon consideration of the evidence from various disciplines of study, it seems like the (model chosen) best captures the relationship between psychological science and Christian faith.

· In writing about your position, be sure to discuss the following points below and remember to cite Entwistle when you use his ideas:

· What methods of knowing are appropriate for Christians and why. This will help you classify your approach and should be consistent with the model chosen.

· A thorough description of the model and how it views the relationship between psychology and Christianity.

· How your model views the two books concept.

· Strengths of the model (at least 3).

· Limitations of the model (at least 3).

· Avoid using 1st person

· Instead of saying “I think Christians should embrace psychology,” say “Christians should embrace psychology.”

· Instead of saying “My view corresponds with the Colonialist position,” say “The Colonialist position seems ….”

· The instructor will not proofread papers, but it is acceptable for a friend to proofread for clarity, grammar, and spelling.

· Please note that papers will be graded on the quality of their thinking, defense, organization, clarity, and grammar, not on whether you agree with the instructor’s position.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Page 1 of 2


Psychology and Christianity

PSYC 420-D04

Liberty University


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From a Christian perspective, the psychological professional is committed to Christian

belief (Entwistle, 2015). Psychology and Christianity alone are complex issues that must be

studied and explored. Using them together can be of great benefit but must be used with great

caution and care. If a biblical basis is used in counseling, it must be authorized by the client.

Another effective way is to pray before each counseling session. In the end, psychology and

Christianity have been found to be a good team.


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If the relationship between psychology and Christianity is studied with determination,

one can end up analyzing its similarities and differences. This could be a benefit since it could be

implemented at the time of counseling. Well-studied psychology and Christianity have taken it

for granted that there are more similarities than differences between the two. That is why here is

a bit of their great relationship.

Methods of knowing

There are five knowledge methods according to our textbook. They are enlightenment,

positivism, empiricism, modernism, and postmodernism. Lighting is a period from the mid-17th

century to the 18th century. Its main epistemic framework is rationalism and empiricism

(Entwistle, 2015). Positivism is a philosophical system that emerged during enlightenment that

rejects metaphysics and seeks a rational or empirical justification for truth claims (Entwistle,

2015). According to the textbook, empiricism comes from the empirical Greek rood, which

involved reliance on experience to evaluate knowledge claims. Contemporary empiricism as an

epistemic method is derived from logical positivism, a vision in which the belief is validated or

invalidated solely by the evidence of experience (Entwistle, 2015). Furthermore, empiricism is a

method of seeking knowledge based on sensory experience. What gave rise to the scientific

method. It is the result of positivism (Entwistle, 2015). Modernism is a philosophical movement

in western society. It tends to view knowledge as based on human objectivity. Modernism was

often accompanied by a change in religious beliefs (Entwistle, 2015). And postmodernism is

difficult to define. In general, they are suspicious of the great narratives of modernism, the

claims of objectivity and the claims of inevitable progress (Entwistle, 2015). The limitations

could modernism since anyone decide to live a life away from Christianity, a person would be

moving away from God, then the person would be practicing a life without meaning. Since with

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God it is all that is needed to be able to live on earth with purpose, which is the way to acquire

eternal life.

Model Description

There are many aspects that the model of the allies could see psychology and Christianity

as one. Both believe that God is the creator of everything and that God is also above all things.

Allies as subjects of a sovereign are the underlying unit of human nature and the legitimacy of

theological and psychological research (Entwistle, 2015). The biblical verse Colossians 1:16

declared in the New Living Translation version states in verse 16 “For through him God created

everything in the heavenly realms and on earth. He did the things that we can see and the things

that we cannot see” this verse tells that everything was created by Him and must be used for His

honor, that is, to glorify Him.

Two book concepts

The Allies model considers that the two book concepts are based on the belief that the

truths of God are revealed in the Word of the Book of God (Entwistle, 2015). The Allied model

depends on finding good psychology in Christianity, but it does not contain the belief that

psychology and Christianity are mutually exclusive as the Enemies model perceives (Entwistle,



The Allies model has the ability to obtain knowledge from any of the sources and,

therefore, has a more comprehensive knowledge base (Entwistle, 2015). That may help them that

they can gain learning from both psychology and the Bible. The next strength of the Allied model

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is that it does not limit research in psychology or theology (Entwistle, 2015). And finally, their

loyalty is neither to psychology nor to theology, but to God who reigns over all the spheres of

which we are subject (Entwistle, 2015).


According to Making Models Entwistle it was clear when he stated that exactly what

assumptions constitute an exclusively Christian approach to psychology (Magnuson). The next

limitation is what are the core non-negotiable convictions that should guide our understanding

(Magnuson). In other words, is the truth being guided by science or the Bible?


It can be concluded by saying that the model of the allies is in a common goal. Although

psychology and Christianity have been studied, it could be said that the differences between the

two are very few. So, there are more similarities and that is the most important thing. This model

believes that both branches work together for the same purpose. On the other hand there could

also be some limitations. Weaknesses are the assumptions that constitute an exclusively Christian

approach to psychology, how can we leave room for the divergence of Christian opinion

(Magnuson)? It is of utmost importance to believe in God, that is why Christianity is so

important, it has been proven how leading a life in God can give you meaning and above all

peace. Romans 12: 2 in the New Living Translation version says: “Do not copy the behavior and

customs of this world, but let God transform it into a new self by changing the way a person

thinks. Then you will learn to know the will of God for you, which is good, pleasant and perfect

“, this teaches us that we must renew our minds, according to Him, in order to have a better life.

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Entwistle, D. (2015). Integrative approaches to Psycholgy and christianity: an introduction to

worldview issues philosophical foundations and models of integration.

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Magnuson, D. C. (n.d.). Making Models: Integration. Lynchburg, VA.

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Integration Paper

Deanna Wallace

Liberty University

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The big question seems to be: Can psychology and theology be integrated and work

together? Entwistle proposes many methods of integration but his most agreeable model is the

Allies model. In this paper the strengths of the Allies model and the weaknesses of this model

will be thoroughly researched. The purpose of this paper is to inform others about the Allies

model views and how it integrates psychology and theology. The Allies model seems to be the

most reliable but because of human error and real-life situations varying drastically, any model

will have some imperfections. How this model works with its imperfections, and uses its

strengths and weaknesses to integrate Christianity and psychology, are what make it one of the

most reliable.

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Through the years, many have disputed whether Christianity and psychology could work

together. This debate has brought about four different models that people view as ways to

integrate the two subjects. Being that there are four different views on how to integrate these

topics, many are still confused as to which model is the most accurate. The best model that

integrates the psychology and theology would be the Allies model. It creates a relationship

between psychology and Christianity that demonstrates a relationship that works well together

even through its flaws.

Methods of Knowing

Entwistle provides four methods to help people begin to understand any ideology that

they are presented with. The four methods are appeals to authority, logic, empiricism, and


The first method of knowing, appeals to authority, is described as knowledge passed

down from authority figures such as a pastoral team, parents, or someone more deeply educated

on the topic. There are four items that determine how reliable this method is. The first is that the

information coming from the authority figure must be relevant to what is trying to be validated.

The second is that the authority figure must have a significant amount of knowledge about the

situation. The third is that the knowledge must be honest, not withholding in any way. The fourth

is the accuracy of communication. The second method of knowing is logic. Using this method,

you must separate the belief from the reasoning of the argument. This method measures how

much consistency the argument contained and if the argument presented any contradictions

within itself. The third method is empiricism, which uses experience to determine whether and

argument is sound. Finally the fourth method is hermeneutics. Hermeneutics uses somewhat of a

scientific method to view the argument. Using scripture as a research tool is the basis for the

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fourth method. “The Allies model is premised on the belief that God’s truths are revealed in the

book of God’s Word (Scripture) and the book of God’s Works (creation)” (Entwistle, 2015).

These four methods are helpful in understanding and forming an argument to defend

which model a person stands by. Appeals to authority shows reliability, Logic provides solid,

concrete information, Empiricism provides experience as proof, and Hermeneutics provides

research to Scripturally support the model.

The Allies Model

The Allies model shows how psychology and theology can truly work together. “This

model rejects the claim of the Enemies model that psychology and Theology are mutually

exclusive, although it recognizes that there have been tensions and misunderstandings that have

fostered such antagonism. The Allies model agrees with the Spies model that good psychology

can be found in religion, but it categorically rejects the claim that religion is only valuable as a

vehicle to express psychological truths and to foster psychological benefits” (Entwistle, 2015).

This model strives to take Christianity as a whole and psychology as a whole and integrate them

together using their similarities. This model does illustrate that each subject is still a separate

entity but that both are under God’s authority.

Allies: Two Book Concept

The Two Book Concept is the idea that God gave us two books to be taken into

consideration when integrating psychology and Christianity. Those two books are God’s Word

and God’s Works. The Allies model accepts each book because in both books “God’s truths are

revealed” (Entwistle, 2015, p. 250). This concept describes God as the author of both

Christianity and science. That means that God is the author of psychology as well. If He is the

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author of Christianity and psychology, then they must coincide. In the Bibe, John says, “Through

him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made” (John 1:3, NIV).

I agree where Entwistle states, “The way we read God’s books will either lead us to revere our

Author or to worship one of His creatures. Thus, one aim of integration should be simply and

profoundly to stand in awe of, and to worship, our Creator” (Entwistle, 2015).


Each model will have its strengths that allow people to use as “proof” that their model is

the “true model.” What is so special about the Allies model is how it truly begins to integrate

Christianity and psychology instead of separating them or pitting them against one another. The

Allies model instead claims that God and His Word are right. God has dominion over all, even

psychology. He created psychology and psychology cannot exist without Christianity and the

other way around. Another strength of the Allies model is that it uses knowledge from both

Christianity and psychology, which broadens this models sources and foundations of what

knowledge actually is.

Another strength of the Allies model is that it claims that each subject compliments and

lifts the other up. Johnson (2010) affirms this belief in his writings by stating that because

Scripture does not provide all of the answers, psychology’s role is in fact more legitimate as it

does in fact serve a purpose (p. 101). Yes, the Scripture may provide many answers to real life

situations, but God gave us minds to discover his creation and learn more about its meaning and

how it functions. There are many real life situations that the Scripture cannot give direct answers


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The third strength is that the Allies model allows us to explore psychology and

Christianity. We can dive into what has been found by psychologists to be true and what the

Scripture says is true.


Every model will have some limitations because these models were created by flawed

beings. One limitation of the Allies model is that even using Scripture, two people may interpret

a verse very differently. Many Christians can read the same thing and get different meanings

behind the words. This allows for contradictions between two people who both hold the Allies

model as a worldview. “Every model has limitations, and the Allies model is no exception. One

of our first obstacles is defining exactly what assumptions are constitutive of a uniquely

Christian approach to psychology. How do we identify the core convictions of Christianity, and

how can we leave room for a divergence of different Christian approaches?” (Entwistle 2015).

Many will claim that combining Christianity and psychology will never work because of how

many different interpretations there are of Scripture or even Christianity itself.

Human error limits the Allie model to a certain degree. Not all research applied using

psychology is correct and not all views of Scripture are correct. The fall of man brings about our

imperfections and therefore there are disagreements. A limitation to the Allies model is that

different people also view many theories in psychology contrarily. How to handle a certain crisis

or treat a certain patient varies from one person to another and how they apply Scripture as said

above can be different from one person to another.

There are a few different models of integration that are used to bring psychology and

Christianity together but many of them disagree on how to go about doing this. The Enemies

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model and the Allies model differ in that the Enemies model believes that psychology and

Christianity are separate principles that can be discovered apart from each other.


The Allies model should be embraced because it incorporates psychology and

Christianity to agree that embraces both subjects and lets one build off of the other yet, this

model does not contradict Scripture. It is important to be able to use all of the knowledge and

research you can when striving to find solutions to real-life problems. Combing the two only

allows us to have a broader research database and also incorporate a spiritual well being and love

for Christ. Johnson states, “All Christians want to realize God’s will within the spheres of their

callings. In the sciences, that will always entail drawing near to Christ, in whom are hidden all

the treasures of wisdom and knowledge …For the Christian, the science of psychology and the art

of counseling are fundamentally religious enterprises, as is all of life.” (Johnson, 2010). I love

here how Johnson agrees with Entwistle from a statement above that chasing knowledge

(science) is the same as chasing after God. God has given us a vast world to explore and create

from. We ought to use the resources He has given others to help others and through this we can

also learn from the research of others and apply it where necessary. The Allies model is he only

model that integrates this so well and even allows each subject, Christianity and psychology, to

build off of one another and make each other stronger. Given all of this, the Allies model is the

best form of integration for Christianity and psychology.

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Entwistle, D. (2015). Integrative approaches to psychology and Christianity: An introduction to

worldview issues, philosophical foundations, and models of integration (3rd ed.). Eugene,

OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Johnson, Eric L. (2010) Psychology and Christianity, Five Views. (2nd ed.) Downers Grove, IL.

InterVarsity Press.

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