Experimenter effects

Experimenter effects

Question 1 of 40 2.5 Points

In order to study causal relationships:

 

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A. the null hypothesis must not be rejected.

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B. external validity is essential.

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C. we must use a t-test or F-test.

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D. there must be variation of the independent variable.

Question 2 of 40 2.5 Points

In order for us to study causal relationships among variables, it is necessary for:

 

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A. the independent variable to demonstrate variation.

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B. the dependent variable to be a constant.

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C. the independent variable to demonstrate that it is randomly distributed.

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D. there to be extraneous variation.

Question 3 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following is NOT a source of between-groups variance?

 

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A. Experimental effects

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B. Confounding variables

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C. Sampling error

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D. Control effects

Question 4 of 40 2.5 Points

Whenever the F-ratio is near 1.00, it means that:

 

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A. a mistake has been made in the computation.

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B. there are large systematic effects present.

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C. the experimental manipulation probably had the predicted effects.

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D. the between-groups variation is no larger than would be expected by chance alone.

Question 5 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following does NOT increase error variance?

 

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A. Random factors

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B. Individual differences

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C. Experimenter error

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D. Systematic effects of the independent variable

Question 6 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following is most closely associated with the concept of “sampling error”?

 

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A. Operational definitions in experimentation

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B. Differences between males and females on the dependent measure

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C. Electronic hardware failures during sampling

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D. Natural variability among the means

Question 7 of 40 2.5 Points

One of the chief weaknesses of an ex post facto procedure is that:

 

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A. it is only valid in research on children.

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B. no dependent variable can be manipulated.

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C. the researcher is unable to eliminate rival hypotheses.

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D. there are no confounding variables.

Question 8 of 40 2.5 Points

The ANOVA procedure depends on calculations of:

 

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A. the size of the difference between the means of the two groups.

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B. both the variability within-groups and the variability between-groups.

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C. levels of the independent variable.

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D. preliminary t-tests.

Question 9 of 40 2.5 Points

In experiments, we hope to find

 

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A. between-groups variance.

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B. a reduction in sampling error.

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C. within-groups variance.

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D. an increase in sampling error.

Question 10 of 40 2.5 Points

Statistical tests CANNOT tell us whether:

 

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A. the combination of experimental and extraneous variance is large enough to differentiate the groups.

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B. there is a significant difference between groups.

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C. there is a reliable difference between groups.

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D. the observed difference is due to experimental or extraneous variables.

Question 11 of 40 2.5 Points

The randomized pretest-posttest, control-group design is an improvement over the randomized posttest-only, control-group design because the:

 

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A. former adds an additional control group.

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B. latter employs randomization only at the time of the posttest.

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C. former adds a pretreatment measurement of the independent variable.

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D. former adds a pretreatment measurement of the dependent variable.

Question 12 of 40 2.5 Points

In order to test the effects of the 1988 heat wave on worker productivity, 48 machinists were randomly assigned to two groups of 24 machinists each. Each group was tested at a different room temperature (cool and hot) using dependent measures of number of parts produced and accuracy. What type of design does this study represent?

 

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A. A single-group, pretest-posttest design

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B. A Solomon four-group design

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C. A multilevel, completely randomized, between-subjects design

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D. A randomized, posttest-only, control-group design

Question 13 of 40 2.5 Points

What is usually the major contributor to error variance?

 

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A. Group size

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B. Unreliable measurement

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C. Individual differences

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D. High means

Question 14 of 40 2.5 Points

The Solomon four-group design was developed in an attempt to:

 

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A. control possible interaction effects of the pretest and the manipulation.

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B. allow more levels of the independent variable.

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C. allow more groups to be tested at the same time.

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D. control possible interaction effects of the pretest and posttest measures.

Question 15 of 40 2.5 Points

History, maturation, and regression to the mean can be controlled by including proper:

 

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A. control groups.

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B. experimental groups.

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C. factorials.

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D. instrumentation.

Question 16 of 40 2.5 Points

A researcher measures prisoners on childhood physical abuse and notices high levels of abuse. He then concludes that abuse leads people to commit crimes. This is an example of a(n) __________ design.

 

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A. single-group, pretest-posttest

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B. single-group, posttest-only

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C. ad hoc

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D. ex post facto

Question 17 of 40 2.5 Points

In order to support the hypothesis that the independent variable has influenced the dependent variable, __________ is necessary.

 

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A. a significantly high within-groups variation

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B. careful reduction of all variation

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C. a significantly high between-groups variation

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D. a sample size of at least 30

Question 18 of 40 2.5 Points

Laczniak and Muehling (1993) suggest that manipulations checks should be considered:

 

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A. even before the pilot or pretesting.

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B. after theory tests.

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C. once you have collected data for the main experiment.

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D. after the final development of your manipulations.

Question 19 of 40 2.5 Points

A researcher decides to study the effects of dance therapy on self-esteem in emotionally disturbed adolescents. One residential program consents to try the dance therapy treatment, whereas another similar program refuses to try dance therapy, but allows the researcher to measure self-esteem. Self-esteem is measured before and after treatment in both groups. This is an example of a __________ design.

 

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A. multilevel, pretest-posttest control-group

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B. pretest-posttest, natural control-group

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C. randomized, pretest-posttest, control-group

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D. multilevel, randomized, pretest-posttest, between-subjects

Question 20 of 40 2.5 Points

Two critical factors used to distinguish experimental designs from most non-experimental designs are:

 

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A. randomization and equal numbers of participants.

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B. elimination of all confounds and randomization.

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C. control groups and randomization.

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D. sophisticated data analysis and control groups.

Question 21 of 40 2.5 Points

Single-subject designs are often used in research on:

 

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A. behavior modification.

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B. stereotyping and prejudice.

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C. development of teaching methods.

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D. the side effects of psychotropic medications.

Question 22 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a within-subjects design?

 

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A. Each participant is tested under each experimental condition.

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B. The scores in each condition are correlated with each other.

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C. Each participant is measured only once on the dependent variable.

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D. The critical comparison is the difference between correlated groups on the dependent variable.

Question 23 of 40 2.5 Points

In ABA designs, the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are demonstrated if the:

 

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A. level of the dependent variable stays the same in spite of any manipulation.

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B. behavior changes in the predicted direction whenever the conditions are reversed.

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C. level of the dependent variable changes even though there is no independent variable being manipulated.

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D. time graph shows some fluctuations.

Question 24 of 40 2.5 Points

What is the major strength of the within-subjects design?

 

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A. More participants can be used in a single study.

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B. Interactive effects can be identified.

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C. Carry-over effects are eliminated.

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D. It guarantees that the participants in the various conditions are equivalent at the start of the study.

Question 25 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following is an accurate statement?

 

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A. There is no reversal of conditions in a multiple baseline design.

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B. There is a reversal of conditions in a multiple baseline design.

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C. Multiple baseline designs cannot be used in educational settings.

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D. The ABA reversal design cannot be used with mentally retarded individuals.

Question 26 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following is a potential confounding factor in within-subjects designs but NOT in a between-subjects design?

 

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A. Regression to the mean

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B. Sequence effects

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C. Attrition

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D. History

Question 27 of 40 2.5 Points

It is important in a matched-subjects design for researchers to assign each matched set of participants randomly to the conditions primarily because:

 

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A. all of the critical variables should have been identified by consulting published studies.

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B. of the requirements to keep researchers blind as to condition.

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C. of the requirements to keep participants blind as to condition.

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D. random assignment within sets can control for unidentified confounding variables.

Question 28 of 40 2.5 Points

The single-group, pretest-posttest design, although it is considered a(n) __________ design, is a(n) __________ design.

 

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A. within-subjects; non-experimental

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B. between-subjects; non-experimental

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C. within-subjects; experimental

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D. low-constraint; experimental

Question 29 of 40 2.5 Points

Correlated-groups designs are generally more sensitive than between-subjects designs to:

 

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A. researcher effects.

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B. the effects of the dependent variable.

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C. medications.

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D. the effects of the independent variable.

Question 30 of 40 2.5 Points

In an ABA reversal design, the term “reversal” refers to:

 

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A. the sequential reversal of levels of treatment.

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B. reversing the order of presentation of stimuli.

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C. controlling for sequence effects.

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D. switching the independent variable with the dependent variable.

Question 31 of 40 2.5 Points

A good way to control for carry-over effects in within-subjects experiments, provided that there are not too many experimental conditions, is:

 

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A. positive practice.

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B. using a matched-subjects design.

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C. debriefing participants.

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D. counterbalancing.

Question 32 of 40 2.5 Points

In within-subjects designs, each participant:

 

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A. is measured at least five times.

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B. serves as his or her own control.

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C. is measured only once.

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D. is randomly assigned to one of two conditions.

Question 33 of 40 2.5 Points

In a study of the effectiveness of an experimental drug on sleep apnea, researchers are expecting the drug to have long-lasting beneficial effects on their participants. In this case, what type of correlated-groups design should they use?

 

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A. A within-subjects design

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B. A matched-subjects design

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C. A simple repeated-measures design

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D. A matched-conditions design

Question 34 of 40 2.5 Points

Single-subject designs are sometimes preferable to between-subjects group comparison designs because:

 

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A. independent variables cannot be manipulated in between-subjects group comparison designs.

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B. single-subject designs have greater external validity.

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C. important information about the way individuals perform is lost when summarizing group information.

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D. None of the above (single-subject designs are never preferable to between-subjects designs)

Question 35 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following is a major control for sequence effects?

 

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A. Random assignment of participants

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B. Counterbalancing

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C. Holding the variable constant

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D. Including the factor as a research variable

Question 36 of 40 2.5 Points

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of matched-subjects designs?

 

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A. Each participant is exposed to only one level of the independent variable.

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B. Each participant has a matched participant in each of the other conditions, so that the groups are correlated.

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C. Each participant serves as his or her own control.

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D. The critical comparison is the difference between the correlated groups, where the correlation is created by the matching procedure.

Question 37 of 40 2.5 Points

Single-subject experimental designs are variations of within-subject designs because the same:

 

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A. participant is exposed to all manipulations.

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B. statistical test is used to analyze both designs.

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C. dependent measures are of interest in both types of design.

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D. independent variables are investigated in both types of design.

Question 38 of 40 2.5 Points

Why could correlated-groups designs be considered to be experiments?

 

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A. They maximize error variance.

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B. They always use score data.

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C. They randomly assign all participants to conditions.

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D. They meet the requirement of equivalence of groups.

Question 39 of 40 2.5 Points

An advantage of within-subjects designs is that:

 

 

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A. they are less complex conceptually.

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B. fewer participants are needed to run the experiment.

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C. the statistics used are simpler than in a between-subjects design.

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D. sequence effects enhance the results.

Question 40 of 40 2.5 Points

In a repeated-measures design, the single largest contributing factor to error variance has been removed. What is that factor?

 

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A. Individual differences

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B. Experimenter effects

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C. Participant bias effects

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D. Measurement error

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