Exact replication

Lab Report – How To

Quotes

Exact replication (copying verbatim)

 

Paraphrasing

Taking the idea and rephrasing it in your own words

 

Either way, you need to cite the source both within the text and in a reference list at the end

 

 

 

 

Quotes – Within the Text

Example #1

Datsyuk and Zetterberg (2003) suggest that “belief in an afterlife and frequency of prayer buffer the adverse effects of poor health and financial decline on anxiety” (p. 656).

Example #2

The researchers suggest that “belief in an afterlife and frequency of prayer buffer the adverse effects of poor health and financial decline on anxiety” (Datsyuk & Zetterberg, 2003, p. 656).

 

 

Paraphrasing Within the Text

Mata (2008) studied how children react to novel stimuli.

A recent study investigated how children react to novel stimuli (Mata, 2008).

This study found no notable differences in verbal abilities between kids on the vegetable diet and those not on the vegetable diet (Torres et al., 2012).

Number of Authors

1 author – (last name, year of publication)

2 authors – (last names separated by &, year of publication)

3, 4, or 5 authors

1st time mentioned – (Pontifex, O’Neil, & Fenn, 2012)

After that – (Pontifex et al., 2012)

More than 5 authors

Every time mentioned – (Jefferson et al., 2013)

 

& or and

Use the ampersand ‘&’ when citation is not in the narrative (in parenthesis)

A recent study investigated how children react to novel stimuli (Mata & Lampard, 2008).

 

Say ‘and’ when citation is part of the narrative.

Mata and Lampard (2008) studied how children react to novel stimuli.

 

Reference Section – General Info

On a new page, entitle a section called REFERENCES (centered, all caps)

Alphabetical, by surname of author

If two articles by the same person, then by year of publication (earliest 1st)

Use initials for first names

Hanging indent on second line

Reference – How To

After the author’s names, put the year of publication in parentheses.

Then put the title of the article, with only the first word and any word following a “:” capitalized.

Title of the periodical (the journal) that the article came from. Capitalize all important words and this should be in italics.

Volume of periodical in italics.

Page numbers of article.

DOI

Reference Page Example

REFERENCES

 

Abela, J.R., & Payne, A.V. (2003). A test of the integration of the

hopelessness and self-esteem theories of depression in school children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 519-535. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable

 

Allen-Meares, P., Colarossi, L., Oyserman, D., & DeRoos, Y. (2003).

Assessing depression in childhood and adolescence: A guide

for social work practice. Child and Adolescent Social Work

Journal, 20, 5-20. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.95.5.1180

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