Lab Report – How To
Exact replication (copying verbatim)
Taking the idea and rephrasing it in your own words
Either way, you need to cite the source both within the text and in a reference list at the end
Quotes – Within the Text
Datsyuk and Zetterberg (2003) suggest that “belief in an afterlife and frequency of prayer buffer the adverse effects of poor health and financial decline on anxiety” (p. 656).
The researchers suggest that “belief in an afterlife and frequency of prayer buffer the adverse effects of poor health and financial decline on anxiety” (Datsyuk & Zetterberg, 2003, p. 656).
Paraphrasing Within the Text
Mata (2008) studied how children react to novel stimuli.
A recent study investigated how children react to novel stimuli (Mata, 2008).
This study found no notable differences in verbal abilities between kids on the vegetable diet and those not on the vegetable diet (Torres et al., 2012).
Number of Authors
1 author – (last name, year of publication)
2 authors – (last names separated by &, year of publication)
3, 4, or 5 authors
1st time mentioned – (Pontifex, O’Neil, & Fenn, 2012)
After that – (Pontifex et al., 2012)
More than 5 authors
Every time mentioned – (Jefferson et al., 2013)
& or and
Use the ampersand ‘&’ when citation is not in the narrative (in parenthesis)
A recent study investigated how children react to novel stimuli (Mata & Lampard, 2008).
Say ‘and’ when citation is part of the narrative.
Mata and Lampard (2008) studied how children react to novel stimuli.
Reference Section – General Info
On a new page, entitle a section called REFERENCES (centered, all caps)
Alphabetical, by surname of author
If two articles by the same person, then by year of publication (earliest 1st)
Use initials for first names
Hanging indent on second line
Reference – How To
After the author’s names, put the year of publication in parentheses.
Then put the title of the article, with only the first word and any word following a “:” capitalized.
Title of the periodical (the journal) that the article came from. Capitalize all important words and this should be in italics.
Volume of periodical in italics.
Page numbers of article.
Reference Page Example
Abela, J.R., & Payne, A.V. (2003). A test of the integration of the
hopelessness and self-esteem theories of depression in school children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27, 519-535. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable
Allen-Meares, P., Colarossi, L., Oyserman, D., & DeRoos, Y. (2003).
Assessing depression in childhood and adolescence: A guide
for social work practice. Child and Adolescent Social Work
Journal, 20, 5-20. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1990