Ethical Considerational










Draft Qualitative Research

Name: Vanessa Noa

Institution: Grand Canyon University












Draft Qualitative Research

Background of the Study

The first article talks about UTIs such as epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and the preferences available for the treatment. According to the article, there are indigenous sources of bacteria that cause CAUTI (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015). The contamination comes from the hands that are contaminated from the healthcare experts, meatal and vaginal colonization. The pathogens can pass through intraluminal route, extra luminal route or through the catheter from a bag that is contaminated. Introduction of the objects that are sterile has demonstrated a decrease in threat of bacteriuria in a closed urinary damage. Conversely, studies have demonstrated that bacteriuria can take place through the disruptions in the machines or through the extraluminal path (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015).

The other article focuses on reducing the urinary catheter usage and other approaches to avert catheter-connected urinary tract infection. The article provides qualitative highlights of some of the appropriate actions that a doctor must assume while executing the process of catheterization. When undertaking the supplement of the urinary catheter, a skilled professional should take extraordinary safeguards since speedy release of urine from the bladder may lead to hemorrhage. A clam needs to be out after every twenty minutes to permit more release of urine (Meddings et al., 2014).

Supporting Nursing Practice

The first article on urinary tract infections supports the nursing practice as it touches on the usage of the catheter. According to the article, people who urinate with the help of catheter have elevated risk of contracting UTIs (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015). Example of such group of people may include the people that are hospitalized as well as people who have neurological issues that make it hard to regulate their capacity to urinate and the paralyzed individuals. Having known that, it is important to take the necessary steps to decrease the threat of urinary tract infections. People can drink more liquid particularly water because it aids to dilute urine and confirms that one urinates regularly hence permitting the bacteria to be flushed from the urinary tract before the contamination can start (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015).

The next article that touches on the reduction of the urinary catheter usage and other approaches to deter urinary tract infection that are linked to catheter highlights optional approaches that are critical in the healthcare. It is the obligation of the healthcare providers to be aware that catheters may be in place through having catheter reminder intervention such as verbal or written reminder as well as checklist. The interventions can be initiated by nurses and can be targeted to remind the nurses of the catheter (Meddings et al., 2014).

Method of Study

The methods of study deployed by the two articles are review of the already existing literature through pointing out the necessary concepts that should be followed in the course of the study approach. The reviewed literatures can be accessed over the internet and one has the privilege to go through various articles that are relevant to the topic or issue in question (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015).

The most apparent value of reviewing literatures as a method of study is to evaluate the contemporary state of the research topic. After determining the area that needs to be worked on, conducting a search of relevant information is likely to assist in determining what is already known concerning the topic and to what extent the topic in question has been researched. However, the main problem with reviewing literature as the method of study is the fact that the process is not sufficiently critical. The objective of research is to make a contribution that is original hence contributing to the knowledge of humanity (Meddings et al., 2014).

Results of the Study

The study points out that the pathogens pass through the internal or the external routes through the catheter from a bag that is already contaminated. The pathogens can also travel along the external of the catheter in the shape of the mucous sheath (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015). However when an object that is sterile is introduced, there tend to be a reduction in the level of risk of bactariuria in a drainage system of a closed urinary. Different studies have mentioned that can be present through the breaks in the tools or external routes. At the end, there is a considerable percentage of daily risk of the bacteria in relation to catheterization (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015).

If nurses prolonged the process of catheterization then there is a huge likelihood that the pathogens from the urine will make the biofilms on the surface of the equipment. As days pass by, the microorganisms start to colonize the surface of the machine in a state that is immobile. Therefore, it becomes resistible to antimicrobials and that means that their riddance will not be possible without removal of the catheter. Therefore, that means that using catheter has considerable amount of setbacks brought about by its usage and this calls for alternative solutions to the menace (Flores-Mireles et al., 2015).

On the other hand, it is the obligation of a professional to take special considerations because the rapid drainage of the urine from the bladder is likely to lead to profuse bleeding. There is a general requirement that a clamp be unconstrained after every 15 minutes to enable release of the urine (Meddings et al., 2014). Depending on the progressive nursing administration, a clinician is required to measure and access the input of the urine in span of 1-4 hours and incase of any changes in the ordinary quantity of the urine which naturally is 1-2ml/kg/hr, then it is the responsibility of the doctor to report the issues to the health team that is around (Meddings et al., 2014). The physician is required to follow sterilization through the process as this helps in avoiding possible breaches of the closed system hence reducing the risks of infection that is catheter affiliated. A doctor is required to put the bag in the right position to prevent the backflow of urine and alternate the tube to inhibit possible backflow of the urine (Meddings et al., 2014).

On a larger extent, the two articles points out that taking the necessary precautions when dealing with the patients that have the catheter is critical to reduce the possibility of further infection.

Ethical Considerations

The first ethical consideration is respect of the privacy and invasion of the privacy can take place when private information such as the opinions, records or attitudes are shared between others devoid of the knowledge of the patient. A researcher must not decide on behalf of other people on the issues that are delicate. Vulnerable groups of persons are also an ethical consideration that needs to be considered as a possible ethical issue in the course of the research. The varied opinions concerning the taking part of these groups in research can be attributed to their inability to give informed consent and the need for further protection. The researchers in the article have taken these ethical issues into consideration as there are no vulnerable groups of people in the society that have been directly mentioned during the research and there is no privacy that has been disclosed in the course of the research.


Flores-Mireles, A. L., Walker, J. N., Caparon, M., & Hultgren, S. J. (2015). Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 13(5), 269-284. doi:10.1038/nrmicro3432

Meddings, J., Rogers, M. A., Krein, S. L., Fakih, M. G., Olmsted, R. N., & Saint, S. (2014). Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review. BMJ Quality & Safety, 23(4), 277-289. Retrieved from

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