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ENVIRONMENTALRACISM
Prerequisite:CompletionofGEbasicsubjects(BlockA)andOneG.E.BlockB1course.Useofepidemiologyinenvironmentalhealth.Morbidityandmortalityincommunitiesofcolorandlower economicstatusduetodisproportionatedistributionofenvironmentalcontaminants.
CHS370/HS 370
EnvironmentalRacism
? Spring2013
? Roberto Flores Ph.D
? AdjunctAssistantProfessor
? Dept.ofChicanoStudies
? Robertof2@socal.rr.com
Remember:
Thissectionofthecourseistaughtfullyonline.!
Environmental Racism
?Definition:
Epidemiology Examinationofthelinkbetweenhuman exposure and health outcomes
HumanExposure
Information
Riskassessment
Estimation ofthelikelihood, magnitude anduncertainty ofhealth risksassociatedwith environmentalexposures
?Theintentionalsitingofhazardouswastesites,landfills,incineratorsandpollutingindustriesincommunities inhabitedmainlybyAfricanAmericans,Hispanics,NativeAmericans,Asians,migrantworkers andtheworkingpoor.
StatusandtrendsEvaluation of historicalpatterns Current statusand possibleFuturechangeinhumanexposuresand/orhealth outcomes
??Route
??Magnitude
??Duration
??Frequency
??distribution
??Mostexposed
??Temporalaspects
??Geographic aspects
??Demographic aspects
Riskmanagement Determinationofwhich,healthrisksareunacceptableand whattodoaboutthem
?Thesefacilitiesmaybetiedtoacommunityís
economicsurvivaltherebycompromising
residentsíabilitytoopposeìlocallyundesirablelanduses.î
Importantusesof humanexposureinformation intheassessment andmanagement ofenvironmentalhealth risks (Sextonetal.)http://www.ehponline.org/members/1995/Suppl-3/sex ton-full.html
MeasuringEnvironmentalRacism EnvironmentalRacism:Whydoesit occur?
How doesonegoabout determiningenvironmentalracismexists?
I. Whatvariablesmatter?
Independent
??Relationshipbetweensocialmovements,industry,
laborandtechnology
variables
Dependent variables
Epidemiology
ONLINE
Raceand class(income,education, occupation) arecriticalvariables to
examine.
II. ObserveEffects
A. Wherearepolluting facilitieslocated?Wherearepesticides ortoxinsdisposed of? Inotherwords,whatpatternscanbeobservedintermsofìsitingîoffacilities, dumping oftoxins,clustering, etc.(riskfactors,exposure)
B. Whateffectsdoesìsitingîoftoxicwastehaveoncommunities ofcolorintermsofqualityoflifeandoccurrenceofadversehealtheffects_morbidityrate&mortalityrate=epidemiological profile ofcommunitiesexposedtowaste,toxins etc.
III. Epidemiology examinesrisk,morbidity,mortality
IntheLosAngelesbasin,exposuretopollution fromcar
emissionsiscorrelatedwithmorecasesofasthmain children.
IV. Assessments/Activities
Clickto seeCancerinLABasinHowdoesenvironmentalpollution affectthecancerratesthroughout theLABasin?
??TheEnvironmentalMovementandEnvironmentalJusticeMovementsprovidedifferent assessmentsandsolutionsforcommunities toaddressEnvironmentalRacism
??Science,research&technologycentraltodebates
andsolutions
?Health&theenvironment
??epidemiology
EnvironmentalismandPolicy
Preservation
??Environmentalpolicyisrootedintwocompetingperspectivesabouttheenvironment:preservationandconservation
??TwoleadingfiguresinfluencingearlyU.S.
governmentenvironmentalpolicyinclude
?Sierra Clubfounder JohnMuir(1838-1914).Activist.proposedwildlifepreservationandadvocatedfornationalparks
?GiffordPinchot(1865-1946.Policy.HeadofU.S.
ForestryService(1905-1910);hebelievedin
JohnMuir,totherightofpresidentTheodoreRoosevelt,convincedhimtoprotect wildernessland.
“Ifyouthinkaboutallthegainsoursocietyhasmade,fromindependencetonow,itwasn’tgovernment.Itwas activism.Peoplethink,’Oh,TeddyRooseveltestablishedYosemiteNationalPark,whatagreatpresident.’BS.ItwasJohnMuirwhoinvitedRooseveltoutandthenconvincedhimtoditchhissecurity andgocamping.ItwasMuir,anactivist,asingleperson.”
–Patagoniafounderandoutdoor
enthusiastYvonChouinardinarecentSierraMagazineinterview
http://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/
Quarter coin2005
conservationandscientificmanagementofresources
forhumanuseorprofit
http://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/graphics/roosvelt_muir_front.jpg
GovernmentAgencies&ScientificManagement
?U.S.ForestryService
?GiffordPinchotbelievedthatscientificknowledgeneededtobeappliedtomanagementofnaturalresources.Efficiencywasthe goal.
?Inhisview,sciencecouldprovideanindependentvoicecapableofmoderatingbetweenprofitmotivesofindustryandtoomuchgovernmentcontrol.
ControlofNature: Science &Progress
?Trustintechnologytoadvanceeconomic
growth
?Burgeoningindustriesrequirelotsofnatural
resources
?Growingpopulationandurbanizationrequirehighervolumeoffoodproduction
?Pesticideskeytoìcontrolofnatureîand
nationalprogress
?DDTchemicalwidely usedtocontrolinsects;higheragriculturaloutput
SilentSpring:PesticidesandHealth
??PublicationofRachelCarsonísbookìSilentSpringîin1962brings ecologicalawarenesstonationalpublic attention.
??CarsoncritiquesuseofDDTandenumeratesvariousharmfuleffectson floraandfauna andthelastingimpactonsoil, waterandairquality–morecritically ontheviability andvitality ofourfoodchain.
??Sheconnectsdiseaseinthenaturalenvironmenttotheprevalenceofillnessesin humans
??Callsforlessaggressivepestcontrolmethodsto
preventthedegradationoftheenvironment
??DDTwasbannedintheU.S.in1972
GovernmentGovernment Oversight
??EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyestablishedin
1970
??Citizen inputwasveryimportanttothisnewregulatoryagency
??Stillmuchoftheregulationsfavorbureaucraticexpertknowledgesystemswhichdonítalwaysprotectresidents affectedbyharmfulfacilitiesortoxicsubstances
??Poorerandlesseducatedgroupsaremostly
excludedfromìmeaningfulparticipationî
??SeeWhyEPAwas established?
Environmental Justice Movements
??ConsolidationofanetworkofAfricanAmericanenvironmentalactivistsandorganizationssince1982thrutheUnitedChurchofChrist.
??MinorityEnvironmentalstruggleshavealonghistory.
??NativeAmericancommunitiespointoutthattheyhavebeenengagedinenvironmentalstruggles sincetheirlands
wereinvadedbyEuropeans.
??MajorenvironmentalprotectionorganizationshavebeenestablishedliketheSierraClub(1898);buttheyhavebeentypicallyfocusedonconservation/preservationissuesandhaveoftenstayedawayfromthestrugglesofpoor communities.
http://www.macalester.edu/americanstudies/afamconf7.html RicardoLevinsMorales,NorthlandPosterCollective
NativeAmericansandEnvironmentalRacism
??WinonaLaDuke,anativeAmericanscholar,describes thesituationinthesecommunitiesintermsofresourceextraction,dumpingofnuclearwasteandothersubstances,clearcutting(deforesting).
??Industrialdevelopmentinitiativeshaveìdevouredîlands, rivers,speciesand entireculturesintheirpath.
??Theseìinvasiveindustrialinterventionsî(Laduke1999)threaten notonlythosecommunitiesbutalsobiodiversity.
Native AmericansandEnvironmentalRacism
??ThelossofbiodiversitythreatenstheexistenceofNativeAmericans.
??Attentionto thelossofbiodiversityinthiscommunityraisesissues ofpreservationofculturaldiversityandfuturegenerationsofnativesandnon-natives
??ClickNavajo
http://www.latimes.com/extras/navajo/Day1/
UrbanCommunitiesOrganizedAgainstDumping
??MotherísofEastLosAngeles,Santa Isabel
?MELASiorìLasMELASî
??Opposedincinerators, pipelineandprisonproposals forEastLosAngeles
??AuroraCastillo,a MELASactivistput
itsuccintly:
UrbanCommunitiesOrganizedAgainstDumping
GoldmanEnvironmental Prize1995
??ìWeneedconstructivejobs–nurses,doctors,computerspecialists,skilledworkers…Thestatewantstoplaceallofsocietyísproblemsinour
community–aprison,a pipeline andan
incinerator.Theywillhavetosolve
thoseproblems, notjustdumpthem
fromoneplacetoanother.î
(AuroraCastilloinDevon Pena,TierraYVida:MexicanAmericansandtheEnvironment2005:xxiv)
AuroraCastillo,residentofEastLos AngelesandfoundingMemberof
MELAS(MotherísofEastLos
Angeles)receivedtheGoldman
EnvironmentalPrizein1995.MELAS
ìisrecognizedasapoliticalforceinthe regionthathashelpedtosetimportant legalprecedentsforothergrassroots environmentaljusticegroups.î
http://www.goldmanprize.org/node/89
GoldmanEnvironmental Prize2004 AncestralLands:WaterRights
??LandandCulturevs.Commodities
Petrochemicalsandhealth
ìGrowing UpinCancerAlley
Margie Richard grewup in the historicallyAfrican-American neighborhood ofOldDiamondinNorco, Louisiana,ina housejust 25feet awayfromShellChemicalsplant’sfenceline. Yearslater,she wouldleadthe front line of a long, hard-won battle to holdShellaccountableforthe devastatinghealth problems in hercommunity.Richard, 62,whose
campaignhasbeen hailedasalandmark
environmental justicevictory, holdsthe distinctionas thefirst African-American to winthe Goldman
EnvironmentalPrize.î2004
http://www.goldmanprize.org/node/100
??Acequias,centuriesoldwaterirrigationditches, usedin landgrantsinNewMexico&Colorado
??GenerationsofacequiafarmersintheSouthwesthavecleanedupthisvitalresourcesincethe17thcentury
??Communitiesareconcernedwithpollutionandthedeforesting/cuttingoftrees
??Hispanofarmershavenotonlybeenfightingfortheirlandbutalsowaterrights
Farmworkers,Agro-industriesandPesticides
??Activistslinkedpesticideusetoenvironmentaldamageandunknowneffectstoconsumer.
??Theyemphasizedworkplacesafety,qualityoflifeofentirecommunitiesandpesticiderelatedillnesses,birthdefectsanddeaths.
??CesarChaveznotedthatchemicalcompaniesandgrowersconvincedpoliticianandgovernmentregulatorsthatpesticideusewasnecessaryfortheabundanceoffood.
??Hequestionedthecost tofarmworkersandtotheenvironment.
Ecology andKnowledge: LandandCulture
??Asyoucanseetheactionsofdevelopersand
environmentalpollutershavegeneratedresistance.
??Land-basedandlaborstrugglesinruralareaslinktheissuestoecologicalimpactsandthelossofbiodiversity.
??Inurbanareas,wewillexamineeffortstoestablishcommunitygardenstoaddressìfood securityîbutalsotheretentionandrestorationofecologicalknowledge.
??Urbancommunity gardenshighlighttheimportanceoflandinthe foodchainandtheproductchain.
??Fundamentally,thesearestrugglesfordefinitionofvalue;thepreservationofindigenous knowledgeandlivelihood;communityhealth.
EnvironmentalRacism&Justice Struggles Power&DecisionMaking:EnvironmentalRacism
 
Power&Decision Makin g: ìFromtheGroundUp î
??Cole&Fosterprofileanimportantexampleofpoweranddecisionmaking
??IntheKettlemancase,thecommunitywasshutoutfromvoicingtheiropinions,concernsandobjectionstoanincinerator proposal.
??Economicbenefits fromrevenueproducedbythissite wenttocommunitiesnotdirectlyaffectedbytheeverydayoperationofthesite.
??TheCountyBoardofSupervisors votedfortheincinerator3-1.
DumpingToxicWaste:StateEnvironmentalLaws
??Publicnoticerequirements under environmentallawsleftthecommunityofKettlemanCityintheSanJoaquinValleyatadisadvantage.
??Therefore,residentsofthiscommunity didnotfindoutaboutatoxicwastefacility untilthe1980s.
??ChemWaste,Incwasproposinganincineratorexpansionthatwouldburnupto108,000tonsof(216millionlbs)toxicwasteeachyear.Thisbasicallywouldbeinadditiontothehundredsofdaily
truckloadsprocessedatthissite.
??ChemWasteownsthelargestwastedumpinEmelle,AlabamaandtwootherlargefacilitiesinCalifornia.
CerrellReport
Dangerous Patterns
??Inlookingatthedistributionofthesefacilities,activistsfoundthatmostofthetoxicwastedumpswerelocatedinpoorminoritycommunities.
??TheCerrellReportprovidedcluesaboutthesitingprocess.
??CommissionedbytheCaliforniaWasteManagementBoardandpaidforbytaxpayerdollars:
??TheCerrellreportsuggestedthatthecommunitiesthatwouldbeleastresistanttoincineratorswere:
??ruralcommunities,poorcommunities,communitieswhoseresidents hadloweducationallevels,…highlycatholic,fewerthan25,000 residents…employedinresourceextractivejobssuchasmining, timberandagriculture.(Cole&Fosterp3)
??ChemWastewasfinednumeroustimes for
unsafehandlingofwaste
??Eventhoughfineswereprettyhigh,their
behaviorcontinued
??Superfundcleanupviolations
?ìsamplepackingîjustcheckingthefirst10trucks
insteadofensuringthatincompatiblewasteswerenotthrowntogether
?ìResidentísfiguredthatifthecompanycanítrunaholeintheground correctly,itshouldnít begiventheabilitytodosomethingworse.î
??TheincineratorinKettlemanCitywouldbedangerousaccordingtoresidents!(Cole&Fosterp5)
ApprovalProcess:KettlemanIncinerator
??KettlemanCityresidentswereexcludedfrom
ìmeaningfulparticipationîinvariousways.
??LackoftranslationofEnvironmentalImpactreport
??Only5 ofthe1000pagesofthedocument
translatedintoSpanish.
??Community dissentwasnottakenintoaccount intheplanningcommissionísdecisiontoapprovetheincinerator.
??TheCerrellreportwas accurateinthatinstitutionalbarrierspreventedtheKettlemanCitycommunityfrom beingheard,recording theiroppositionandparticipatinginthedecision-making.
Racism:EffectonCitizenParticipation,Democratic
vsTechnocraticKnowledge
??Citizeninputlimitedbyclass,languageand
technicaldifferences
??Raceasignificantfactor
??Communitieshavetodocumenttheeffectsofexposureandconfrontnotonly pollutersbutalsovariousinstitutionsthatblocktheiraccess
??WhereelseinChapters1&2doyousee evidence
ofbarrierstocitizenparticipation?
GrassrootsOrganizingandCitizenLawsuits
??ResidentsofKettlemanCitysuedandthecourtruledthatlackof participationinthereview processmandatedbytheCalifornia EnvironmentalQualityAct(CEQA)wasaviolation.
??TheresidentshaddemandedreviewoftheEnvironmentalImpactReport (EIR).
??GreenpeaceandElPuebloorganizedtosend5,000postcardstothe BoardandtheFarmBureau.
??Theyalsocollected17,000signaturesinoppositiontotheincinerator.
??ChemWasteappealedthejudgment.
??Thiscasereflectedthe successofgrassrootsresistance.
??ChemWastewithdrewitsapplicationin1993citingdeclineinuseof incineratortechnology.
Terminology
??Environmentalracismandenvironmentalinjustice willbeusedinterchangeablyinallthreetextsandinthecourse.
??Theterminjusticebestcapturesthattoxicassaults moreseverely/directly affectthoselowerwithina hierarchyofclassandraciallocations.
??Environmentalinjusticeacknowledgesinequity
asa problemforeveryone.
(Cole&Fosterp15)
WhereShouldWasteFacilitiesbeSited?
??WastefacilitiesareLULUS(locallyundesirableland
uses)
??Shouldwejust stopcreatingwaste?Howdowe do
that?
??Whatarethegoalsoftheenvironmentalmovement?
Thedistributionofcommercial,hazardousorpotentiallyhazardousfacilitiesaswellasthecleanupof ìsuperfund sitesî concernsoccupationalenvironmental health.
Whatyou shouldlearn fromthispresentation
??Thisconcludestheintroductiontothecourseandthedifferent sourcesofinformationIwillbeusing.
??Youshouldreadpage1-53ofCole&FosterFromtheGroundUp: EnvironmentalRacismandtheRiseof theEnvironmentalJusticeMovementthisweek.
??Pleaseposttothediscussionboard,introduceyourselfwithname, majorandabriefbiography.
??Haveyoutakenanonlinecoursebefore?Haveyoutakenother
distancelearningcoursesbefore?
??Iwillpostquestionsfordiscussionfocusedontheoverviewand pp1-53onFriday8a.m.andyouwillhaveuntil8p.m.Mondayto postaresponse.
??MakesurethatyoulogintoWebCtthisweekagainforadditional postingsandannouncements!

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