Effects of Stress
Provide a 1-page description of a stressful event currently occurring in your life.
Discuss I am married work a full time job as an occupational therapy assistant am taking two courses
Have to take care of a home feed the animals attend to laundry
Think of my pateitns worry about their well being and what I can do for them ( I bring home my patients issues)
Constantly doing paper work for work such as documentation for billing
I feel like I have no free time for me some days I don’t even eat dinner or lunch because I don’t have time to make anything or am just too tired to cook
On top of this I am married and married ppl do argue and my husband am I have been bunting heads on finances.
Then, referring to information you learned throughout this course, address the following:
· What physiological changes occur in the brain due to the stress response?
· What emotional and cognitive effects might occur due to this stressful situation?
· Would the above changes (physiological, cognitive, or emotional) be any different if the same stress were being experienced by a person of the opposite sex or someone much older or younger than you?
· If the situation continues, how might your physical health be affected?
· What three behavioral strategies would you implement to reduce the effects of this stressor? Describe each strategy. Explain how each behavior could cause changes in brain physiology (e.g., exercise can raise serotonin levels).
· If you were encouraging an adult client to make the above changes, what ethical considerations would you have to keep in mind? How would you address those ethical considerations?
In addition to citing the online course and the text, you are also required to cite a minimum of four scholarly sources. For reputable web sources, look for .gov or .edu sites as opposed to .com sites. Please do not use Wikipedia.
Your paper should be double-spaced, in 12-point Times New Roman font, and with normal 1-inch margins; written in APA style; and free of typographical and grammatical errors. It should include a title page with a running head, an abstract, and a reference page.
The body of the paper should be at least 6 pages in length total
not including the reference or title page
You must use the bottom info to cite in the paper to cite the following as UNIVERISTY 2014
Also there are links in the bottom try and click on those and use those as references please
Charles Darwin’s Perspective
We talked about Charles Darwin when discussing evolution and natural selection. Darwin was also very interested in emotions. One of his books published in 1872,The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, was devoted to this topic.
Darwin believed that emotions play an important role in the survival of the species and result from evolutionary processes in the same way as other behaviors and psychological functions. Darwin’s writing on this topic also prompted psychologists to study animal behavior as a way to better understand human behavior.
James–Lange Theory of Emotions
Modern theories of emotion can be traced to William James and Carl Lange (Pinel, 2011). William James was a renowned Harvard psychologist who is sometimes called the father of American psychology. Carl Lange was a Danish physician. James and Lange formulated the same theory of emotions independently at about the same time (1884). As a result, it is called the James–Lange theory of emotions. This theory reversed the commonsensical notion that emotions are automatic responses to events around us. Instead, it proposes that emotions are the brain’s interpretation of physiological responses to emotionally provocative stimuli.
Cannon–Bard Theory of Emotions
In 1915, Harvard physiologist Walter B. Cannon argued for an alternative theory of emotionality, in which the experience of emotions and the triggering of physiological effects occur at the same time. Phillip Bard later elaborated this theory, which was then called the Cannon–Bard theory of emotions.
Modern Biopsychological Theory of Emotions
Because neither the James–Lange theory nor the Cannon–Bard theory fully explained all emotional situations, the modern biopsychological theory of emotions was developed. This theory proposes that all three factors (perception of emotionally provocative stimuli, physiological effects, and experience of emotion) are capable of influencing each other, in both directions. In other words, the perception of the stimulus can influence the physiological reaction and the emotional experience, the emotional experience can also influence the physiological reaction and the perception of the stimulus, and the physiological reaction can influence the emotional experience and the perception of the stimulus.
The exact way that the brain processes various emotions is not fully understood although the amygdala seems to be an important structure, especially in relation to fearful responses. The amygdala is a structure located in the interior of temporal lobes.
In the video, “The Emotional Brain,” the brain areas involved in emotional processing are discussed. As you watch, focus on the specific brain areas involved in emotional processing and think about what other psychological processes those brain areas are also involved in. Also notice the use of some of the research methods that we discussed early in the course.
Emotions can lead to stress. Stress can, in turn, affect health negatively. Let’s examine the effect of stress on health in more detail.
Hans Selye’s Perspective on Stress
The concept that emotions can affect health is commonly presented in the popular media. Hans Selye was an important contributor to this point of view. Selye proposed the concept of the general adaptation syndrome to account for the effect of stress on the body.
Stress can also affect our body negatively. When we are continually bombarded by stress, our body might suffer the effects. Stress hormones increase blood pressure and have various other effects on the body that might not be adaptive over long periods. However, the exact mechanism of this process is still being researched.
Coping Effects of Stress and Health
The video “All in the Mind?” explores coping strategies for stress to improve both psychological and physiological health. As you watch, consider the changes in the brain that result from the use of coping strategies.
Let’s now discuss the classification of psychological disorders in detail
|Classification of Psychological Disorders
Currently, there are two primary systems for the classification of psychological disorders—The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) (American Psychiatric Association, 2013), and The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) (World Health Organization, 1992). Though in the past, the two classification systems have had different approaches toward classification, recently, the classification criteria have become more and more synchronized, with both classification systems using similar criteria and terminology. This synchronization will help the diagnoses of psychological disorders to be similar internationally.
Read more about the synchronization here.
We need to remember that both trauma and learning may result in altered neurofunctioning. However, our focus in this lecture will be on physiological mechanisms while recognizing that other factors might always be present.
Although the complete and precise physiological mechanisms underlying these disorders are not fully understood, bits and pieces of this puzzle are.
Let’s discuss the physiological factors associated with some disorders, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia.
|Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders|
|Major Depressive Disorder
Major depressive disorder is characterized by a lowering of mood, energy, and activity that results in significant distress or impairment in life. There is much research focusing on imbalances in the monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) in people suffering from depressive disorders. There seems to be significant evidence that there are genetic factors that contribute to the development of depressive disorders. In the brain, the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex show structural and functional abnormalities in people with depression.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by an extremely elevated mood with increases in activity and energy (manic phase) followed by an equally low mood with decreases in activity and energy (depressive phase), resulting in significant distress or impairment. Typically, in people with bipolar disorder, the higher their manic phase, the lower the successive depressive phase will be. Similar to major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder seems to have genetic factors that contribute to its development, possibly disrupting the normal functioning of the monoamine neurotransmitters.
Anxiety disorders such as panic disorder, specific phobias, and social anxiety disorder feature a heightened autonomic nervous system response that is above and beyond what would be considered normal when faced with the object or situation that the person reacts to. For example, a person with a specific phobia of spiders (called arachnophobia) experiences a heightened autonomic response when confronted with a spider (or even an image of a spider). This anxiety response must result in significant distress or impairment. In general, anxiety disorders have been linked to underactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, resulting in overexcitability of the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, genetic research shows that anxiety disorders demonstrate a clear pattern of genetic predisposition.
Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors that result in significant distress or impairment in life. Common obsession and compulsion pairings include contamination/washing, harm/checking, and perfectionism/ordering and hoarding. There is much research demonstrating the genetic inheritance of obsessive–compulsive disorder. While early research showed that dopamine and serotonin are involved in obsessive–compulsive disorder, recent research suggests that glutamate may also play an important role in the disorder. Obsessive–compulsive disorder seems to be mediated by overactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex.
In the video, “It’s Not Me, It’s My O.C.D.,” you hear some actual clients discuss their symptoms and the effects that obsessive–compulsive disorder has on their lives. Pay attention to the neurological research and how that research is being used to help treat people with obsessive–compulsive disorder.
Schizophrenia describes a cluster of symptoms, including “positive symptoms,” such as hallucinations, delusions, disturbed thinking, and odd behaviors, and “negative symptoms,” such as lack of emotional expression, inability to experience pleasure, and absence of motivation. Schizophrenia shows a distinct pattern of genetic inheritance that increases the predisposition toward developing the disorder. Additionally, those with schizophrenia, particularly those who demonstrate the positive symptoms, show abnormally high levels of dopamine activity in the brain. Finally, there are some brain abnormalities associated with schizophrenia, including enlarged lateral ventricles and widespread neuron loss throughout the brain. These brain abnormalities are often associated with the severity of negative symptoms.
Most often, medication is used to treat psychological disorders. This is called pharmacotherapy. Let’s now discuss pharmacotherapy in more detail.
In the previous lecture on physiological mechanisms for underlying disorders, we briefly discussed some ways in which medication responses help us understand some major psychological disorders. However, this understanding is far from complete.
Although the use of medications to treat psychological disorders is not new, this topic is frequently mentioned in popular media. There is a lively debate about children who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and who are treated with stimulant medication. Some people believe that this diagnosis is valid, while others disagree. People also debate the extent to which children should be medicated for this problem. On the other hand, some research and clinical findings report success by treatment with medication and there are testimonials by some parents and teachers to this effect.
Medications for psychological disorders are often categorized by function:
· Some medications tend to decrease psychotic experiences, such as hearing voices and delusional thinking. These medications are calledantipsychotics, and we discussed them in the earlier modules’ lectures.
· Antidepressants are medications that reduce depression.
· Mood stabilizers are also frequently used for patients who experience depression and periodic emotional highs.
· Antianxiety drugs reduce panic and anxiety. These medications are used together with psychotherapy or counseling. But, sometimes, these drugs are used by themselves.
Counseling is also recommended as a treatment for most psychological disorders, either alone or in conjunction with pharmacotherapy. While access to mental health care has been limited in the past, the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act, which went into effect in January 2010, has reduced barriers for those covered by group health insurance plans (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). Still, treatment funding can be difficult for those without health insurance or who fall under the exemptions to the act. Click here to learn more details on this act.
|Careers in Physiological Psychology|
|There are many career options for those interested in physiological psychology. Some of those career options include: Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC): Minimum of master’s degree required; license required; provides psychotherapy services to clients, typically works in outpatient clinic setting or private practice settings. Best suited for those who want to function independently as a counselor with a master’s degree, primarily providing individual, group, couples, or family therapy services.* Counseling Psychologist: Doctoral degree required (Ph.D., Psy.D., Ed.D.); license required; performs psychological assessment and psychotherapy as well as consultation and supervision of master’s level counselors. Best suited for those with very strong grades and high standardized test scores, as well as work experience or internship/field experience in psychology who want to work independently, supervise counselors, or teach master’s or doctoral level students at university.* Clinical Psychologist: Doctoral degree required (Ph.D., Psy.D., Ed.D.); license required; performs diagnosis and treatment of more complex human problems such as more severe forms of psychological dysfunction and distress. Best suited for those with very strong grades and high standardized test scores, as well as work experience or internship/field experience in psychology, particularly with severely mentally ill populations, who want to work independently, supervise counselors, or teach master’s or doctoral level students at university. * Psychiatrist: Both a doctoral degree (Ph.D., Psy.D., Ed.D.) and medical degree (M.D.) are required; license required; performs diagnosis and treatment of mental health clients as well as prescription of psychotherapeutic medications. Best suited for those with very strong grades and high standardized test scores, as well as a strong interest in biological and medical sciences. Neuropsychologist: Doctoral degree in neuroscience required (Ph.D., Psy.D.); license required; performs research and assessment of psychological disorders related to brain dysfunction. Best suited for those with very strong grades and high standardized test scores, as well as coursework in the biological sciences; interest in performing neuropsychological assessments and working with multidisciplinary team in medial or psychiatric clinic setting. University Instructor: Minimum of master’s degree required (doctorate preferred); license not typically required (varies based on school and program); teaches university-level courses in physiological psychology and related disciplines and conducts research in the field of physiological psychology. Best suited for those with strong interpersonal skills, public speaking skills, writing and statistics skills, and who enjoy teaching. Research Assistant or Associate: minimum of bachelor’s degree required (though some positions require a master’s degree); no license required; assist with selection of subjects, administration of experiments or studies, may write reports or assist with writing, may present findings or assist with development of presentations. Jobs often located in universities, research firms, and drug companies. Best suited for those with strong skills in research methods and statistics, those who are detail-oriented and enjoy working with numbers and/or computers, strong writing and presentation skills may be necessary as well. *At this time, Counseling Psychologists and Clinical Psychologists do not have the ability to write prescriptions for psychotherapeutic medications for their mental health clients in most states. Licensed Mental Health Counselors, Counseling Psychologists and Clinical Psychologists need to refer their clients to a Psychiatrist or other physician if medication is needed to help treat the condition. Doctoral-level psychologists are seeking the ability to write prescriptions in several states. This would necessitate additional training on the part of the psychologist to be qualified to have prescription privileges. You can read more about prescription privileges for psychologists here.|