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During this unit, you will submit your final research paper. The final research paper will consist of the following components: (1) the overview section submitted in Unit V as part I of the paper, (2) the review of literature submitted in Unit V as part I of the paper, and (3) an evaluation of how the selected theory impacts an individual’s decision to commit crime, which will be added in this unit. Information presented for Units V and VII should be supported with scholarly resources as noted in Unit V.
First, you should review and incorporate your instructor’s feedback for Part I of your paper. Then, add a section on your selected theory’s effect on an individual and society. In this section, you should do the following:
- Discuss how the selected theory affects an individual’s decision to commit crime.
- Give an example of a criminal action and explain how it relates to this theory. Be sure to also discuss how this criminal behavior affects society.
- Summarize how this theory is supported by crime data that aims to target solutions intended to eradicate criminal behavior.
Your paper must be a minimum of five pages, and it should be in APA style as detailed by the guidelines below. You must use a minimum of four scholarly resources total (for parts I and II), and any information from these sources should be cited and referenced in APA style.
General Guidelines for Papers
APA style must be adhered to for the research paper which includes but is not limited to the following:
- Use 12-point Times New Roman font;
- Double-spacing throughout paper;
- All four margins set at 1”;
- A cover and reference page must be included on separate pages;
- Documents must be saved as either a .doc or .docx file. No other formats will be accepted;
- Only scholarly resources should be used. Sites such as Wikipedia, blogs, or other resources where information has not been peer-reviewed must not be used. If you have questions regarding whether a resource is acceptable, ask your instructor before using that resource;
- Do not include an abstract (page 2 of APA Format);
- Direct quotes should be used sparingly, if at all. The intent of scholarly writing is to demonstrate the ability to comprehend, interpret, and analyze information. Direct quotes do not demonstrate these skills; therefore they should only be used when the true meaning of the original author cannot be appropriately expressed otherwise.
- Do not use contractions in scholarly, business, academic or professional writing.
note from professor: Donnie,nice work. I would like to see you: 1) remove yourself from the essay unless instructed to bring in your personal experience; 2) clean up grammar and sentence structure mistakes; 3) use in-text citations throughout your essay. If you have any questions please let me know.
During this unit, you will submit your final research paper. The final research paper will consist of the following components: (1) the overview section submitted in Unit V as part I of the paper, (2)
Running head: UNIT 5 RESEARCH Unit 5 Research paper 1 Donnie Stanley Columbia Southern University Abstract Theories are very beneficial utensils that aid us to grasp and describe the world around us. I have learned so far in my course is that there are four distinct groups of criminological theories. My professor has provided me an opportunity to briefly research a theory that I would like to go more in depth and obtain references that supports my theory. The reasons for these theories are to have a better understanding of crimes and criminal justice. Rational choice theories are based on the assumption that the choice to commit a crime is influenced by the logical judgment of the variation of the cost of committing the crime and the reward. The theory creates an emphasis on punishment to deter criminals from committing crimes by ensuring that the cost outweighs the reward of committing the crime. The theory reduces the crime rate by advocating for an increase in the security measures, decreasing the suitability of targets, and the offender’s population. This theory is however undermined by various factors such as the lack of comprehension of the consequences by the adolescents, the influence of emotions on the people’s actions, the lack of information and perspectives by the criminals. Emotion influence the reasoning of a person by clouding their judgment hence decision made are irrational and lack validity. Emotions undermines the rationality of a man. The theory involves the study of man’s behaviors to gain an understanding of the intention of his decision to commit a crime. This theory assumes that there is a rational choice behind an action however humans are irrational in nature. The theories assist criminal justice officials to understand the criminal behavior by studying the rationality behind their decisions. Some of the outdated rational theories include the three-strike laws, extreme punishments to customers, and placement of juvenile criminals in adult facilities. The theory suggests that criminals take into consideration of personal factors, need for money and revenge. Crime justice crimes support this theory since it explains why criminals commit crimes although most officials do not support the rationality of the criminals but accept that criminals are influenced by their emotions. The rational choice theory has been supported by many rehabilitation officers since there is a validity in the belief that the offenders have a detailed plan and research on the crime and the severity of the punishment before proceeding. The rehabilitation involves the training of patients on how to handle their feelings to make sound and clear judgment. Incarceration supports the theory since it advocates for the study of the person’s behavior and rationality. Some offenders may perform a crime since their mentally ill hence their judgment and temperament are irrational and lack sound judgment. The theory does not support harsh treatment to the offenders as this only increases the criminal rates. The lack of pulse control by many offenders is also a justification for their committing of the crimes. Clarke, Ronald V.; Felson, Marcus, eds. (1993). Routine Activity and Rational Choice. Advances in Criminological Theory. 5. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. This book describes the factors that influence the rational choice theory. These factors include the willingness of the offender to commit the crime, economic, and physical variables. Cornish, D.; Clarke, R. (1987). “Understanding crime displacement: An application of rational choice theory”. Criminology. The book studies the perspective of the criminal based on his behavior, decision, and choice and the measures put into place to reduce the crime rate by providing prevention measures. Elster, J. (1986). Rational choice. New York, NY: New York University Press. The book discusses the rational choice theory by identifying the effect of emotion and cost and reward in the occurrence of the crimes. All the books focus on the rationality of man in the making of decisions. The belief that man is rational in nature is the main pillar on which the theory is based on. The books also explain how this rationality might be limited by their emotions and the variation of cost and reward and which outweighs the other. References Clarke, Ronald V.; Felson, Marcus, eds. (1993). Routine Activity and Rational Choice. Advances in Criminological Theory. 5. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. Cornish, D.; Clarke, R. (1987). “Understanding crime displacement: An application of rational choice theory”. Criminology. Elster, J. (1986). Rational choice. New York, NY: New York University Press. Cornish, Derek; Clarke, Ronald V., eds. (1986). “Introduction”. The Reasoning Criminal. New York: Springer-Verlag.