Draft Prospectus Iteration

CLABSI: DRAFT PROSPECTUS ITERATION 2

CLABSI: DRAFT PROSPECTUS ITERATION 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLABSI: Draft Prospectus Iteration

Kerry S. Murphy

Grand Canyon University

Data Analysis

DNP-830-O500

Dr. Kristy Williams

February 25, 2019

Running head: CLABSI: DRAFT PROSPECTUS ITERATION 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Vascular catheters are commonly used for both in-patient and out-patient cases to administer blood products, intravenous fluids, parenteral nutrition and other types of medications. The use of catheters is however linked to the risk of developing infections mainly caused by microorganisms found on the external surface of the instrument or in the fluid pathway during insertion or in the course of use. Notably, central venous catheters have been cited as the most frequent cause of bloodstream infections. A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) mainly occurs within 48 hours after a catheter is inserted and can be a major cause morbidity and mortality besides increasing the cost of healthcare both for the individual and the healthcare system in general (Iliopoulou, Anderson & Day, 2015). Most CLABSIs cases are recorded in the ICU, but there are some cases which occur outside the ICU. CLABSIs can be prevented with the use of evidence-based guidelines about the insertion and maintenance of catheters. Past research studies have been unable to successfully link CLABSIs with a mortality given that patient deaths occur as a result of multiple causes, and the effect of health associated infection may not be apparent. However, there is a general agreement that CLABSIs is a major cause of patient deaths in both developed and developing countries (Tomlinson, 2015).

Further, CLABSIs result in increased hospital stays besides increasing the cost of care. While there have been some improvements in reducing cases of CLABSIs, further efforts are required to prevent patients’ harm more so in non-critical care settings. This entails ensuring procedural pause, aseptic techniques, hand hygiene, optimal site selection, use of chlorhexidine to protect the skin and taking maximal sterile precautions. Prevention of CLABSIs calls for among others, dressing changes, changing IV fluids and administration tubes and conducting daily reviews of the process in a bid to ensure timely removal of the catheter.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Introduction

This section briefly overviews the research focus or problem, why this study is worth conducting, and how this study will be completed.

The recommended length for this section is two to three paragraphs.

1. Dissertation topic is introduced along with why the study is needed.      
2. Provides a summary of results from the prior empirical research on the topic.      
3. Using results, societal needs, recommendations for further study, or needs identified in three to five research studies (primarily from the last three years), the learner identifies the stated need, called a gap.      
4. Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This Introduction section elaborates on the Topic from the 10 Strategic Points This Introduction section provides the foundation for the Introduction section in Chapter 1 of the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments: Excellent job in this section.

 

 

Background of the Problem

The use of central lines is increasingly becoming popular for both inpatients and outpatients to provide venous access. These lines upset the integrity of the skin making bacterial and fungal infections possible. CLABSIs may spread in the bloodstream causing hemodynamic changes or organ dysfunction and ultimate death of the patient. It is estimated that 90 percent of CLABSIs occurs from central lines with approximately 48 percent of cases taking place in ICU. An estimated 82,000 CLABSIs cases and 28,000 attributable deaths occur every year (Tomlinson, 2015). In the U.S alone, it is estimated that 31,000 patients lose their lives annually due to CLABSIs. A compendium of strategies has been developed to prevent CLABSIs. These include a guideline for hospitals and care professionals to use when placing a central line. A central line bundle consisting of five components has been established to improve patient’s outcomes (Iliopoulou, Anderson & Day, 2015). These components give better outcomes when implemented together as opposed to individually. They include hand hygiene, chlorhexidine antisepsis, maximal barrier precautions. Optimal site selection and daily reviews and prompt removal. It is important to note that this is not a comprehensive selection of all the care elements that should go together with central lines. On the central line, bundle is intended to enhance collaboration and teamwork among healthcare professionals. Other elements may be recommended depending on the patient and the purpose of the central line (Olsen, Schwehm & Campbell, 2015). In essence, the use of the central line bundle has helped reduce cases of CLABSIs by about 66 percent. A multidisciplinary approach is always recommended when taking care of patients in the ICU. Such teams should be heterogeneous in composition but homogenous when it comes to the mindset. It is important to offer encouragement and commitment to such teams if the end goal is to be met. This way, cases of CLABSIs can be reduced if not eliminated and deaths occurring due to hospital-related infections prevented.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Background of the Problem

This section uses the literature to provide the reader with a definition and statement of the research gap and problem the study will address. This section further presents a brief historical perspective of when the problem started and how it has evolved over time.

 

The recommended length for this section is two-three paragraphs.

1. Includes a brief discussion demonstrating how literature has established the gap and a clear statement informing the reader of the gap.      
2. Discusses how the “need” or “defined gap” has evolved historically into the current problem or opportunity to be addressed by the proposed study (citing seminal and/or current research).      
3. ALIGNMENT: The problem statement for the dissertation will be developed from and justified by the “need” or “defined gap” that is described in this section and supported by the empirical research literature published within the past 3-5 years.      
4. Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This Background of the Problem section uses information from the literature Review in the 10 Strategic Points . This Background of the Problem section becomes the Background of the Study in Note; this section develops the foundation for Chapter 1 in the Proposal. It is then expanded to develop the comprehensive Background to the Problem section and Identification of the GAP sections in Chapter 2 (Literature Review) in the Proposal .
Reviewer Comments:

Excellent job in this section.

 

Review of the Literature

There is limited research relating to the proper interventions to avert, control or reduce cases of CLABSIs, particularly in developing countries. Existing studies indicate that CLAMSIs rates are higher in developing countries as compared to developed ones. Central venous catheters or CVCs are essential to care components for many patients including those who are critically ill or those who suffer from chronic diseases and require hemodialysis. It is believed that the first CVC was inserted in the 1920s in a patient’s right ventricle (Drews, Macaluso, Piper & Channabasappa, 2017). The subclavian vein approach first appeared in literature in the 1950s. Even though earlier CVCs were associated with mechanical complications such as leaks, air embolisms, and hub separation, CLABSIs quickly became a serious problem when it came to the use of catheters. Studies indicate that elementary infection control steps may reduce incidences of CLABSIs significantly (Owings et al. 2017). Even though there exist evidence-based practices to prevent CLABSIs, ensuring strict adherence has been a problem in many hospitals.

For this reason, it is challenging to accurately measure the outcomes and processes of interventions to deal with CLABSIs. Lack of proper training and lack of support and commitment on the side of the hospital authority have been cited as some of the main forces behind non-adherence to established guidelines (Duane, Ramanathan, Leavell, Mays & Ober, 2016). In this context, administrators of CVCs and nurses need proper training on how to insert catheters and how to change dressings to avert infections. The mere presence of guidelines is not enough to prevent CLABSIs, and there is a need for collaborative efforts to ensure that the guidelines are followed and that there are extra efforts to prevent, control and reduce cases of CLABSIs. It is only through such efforts that hospitals can be able to continue delivering care services to CVC patients without causing associated hospital infections.

Conceptual Framework

Jean Watson’s theory of human caring postulates that caring regenerates life energies. According to this theory, caring promote self-actualization on both professional and personal levels. Caring is seen as mutually beneficial for the patient as well as the care team. The theory emphasizes that healthcare professionals must be able to take care of themselves for them to be proficient in caring for others. In this context, the theory sees self-healing as a necessary process for revitalizing energy reserves and increasing one’s spirituality. Caring enhances patient’s outcomes and should be inspirational and positive. The theory of human caring warns that patients cannot be treated as objects not to mention that human cannot be separated from self and nature (Turkel, Watson & Giovannoni, 2018). The theory places more emphasis on the interpersonal relationship between the caregiver and the patient. Among other factors identified in theory as important drivers of patient’s outcomes, it recommends that caregivers should work to integrate aesthetics, empirical, ethical, personal and metaphysical means of knowing with imaginative, creative and critical thinking. Based on this theory, healthcare providers should apply artistic, scientific problem-solving methods when deciding care to prevent associated health infections and enhance care outcomes.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Theoretical Foundations and/or Conceptual Framework

This section identifies the theory(s) or model(s) that provide the foundation for the research. This section should present the theory(s) or models(s) and explain how the problem under investigation relates to the theory or model. The theory(s) or models(s) guide the research questions and justify what is being measured (variables) as well as how those variables are related (quantitative) or the phenomena being investigated (qualitative).

 

Review of the Literature/Themes

This section provides a broad, balanced overview of the existing literature related to the proposed research topic. It describes the literature in related topic areas and its relevance to the proposed research topic findings, providing a short 3-4 sentence description of each theme and identifies its relevance to the research problem supporting it with at least two citations from the empirical literature from the past 3-5 years.

 

The recommended length for this section is 1 paragraph Theoretical Foundations and a bulleted list for Literature Themes section.

1. Theoretical Foundations section identifies the theory(s), model(s) relevant to the variables (quantitative study) or phenomenon (qualitative study). This section should explain how the study topic or problem coming out of the “need” or “defined gap” in the as described in the Background to the Problem section relates to the theory(s) or model(s) presented in this section. (One paragraph)      
2. Review of the Literature Themes section: This section is a bulleted list of the major themes or topics related to the research topic. Each theme or topic should have a one-two sentence summary.      
3. ALIGNMENT: The Theoretical Foundations models and theories need to be related to and support the problem statement or study topic. The sections in the Review of the Literature are topical areas needed to understand the various aspects of the phenomenon (qualitative) or variables/groups (quantitative) being studied; to select the design needed to address the Problem Statement; to select surveys or instruments to collect information on variables/groups; to define the population and sample for the study; to describe components or factors that comprise the phenomenon; to describe key topics related to the study topic, etc.      
4. Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: The two parts of this section use information about the literature Review and Theoretical Foundations/Conceptual Framework from the 10 Strategic Points.

This Theoretical Foundations section is expanded upon to become the Theoretical Foundations section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review). The Theoretical Foundations and the Literature Review sections are also used to help create the Advancing Scientific Knowledge / Review of the Literature section in Chapter 2 (Literature Review).

Reviewer Comments: Excellent job in this section.

 

 

Problem Statement

There is limited research on CLABSIs, especially regarding developing countries. Existing studies indicate that the rates of CLABSIs are higher for developing countries as compared with developed ones. Still, the latter countries also have worrying rates even though there are established guidelines to prevent, control and reduce incidences of infections (Iliopoulou, Anderson & Day, 2015). Even though studies have substantiated CLABSIs as a significant health concern, the degree of efficacy of hygiene of hub, before each access in the prevention of CLABSIs, is unknown. This is even though guidelines have been established to help reduce cases of CLABSIs. More specifically there is an alarming trend that indicates that caregivers do not adhere completely to established guidelines which is one of the causes of CLABSIs (Duane, Ramanathan, Leavell, Mays & Ober, 2016). In addition, poor training for nurses in relation to hand hygiene and skin aseptic techniques has been a contributing factor to microbial infections. This has, in turn, increased mortality rates for CVCs patients besides prolonging hospital stays and increasing the cost of care.

Criteria

 

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Problem Statement

This section includes the problem statement, the population affected, and how the study will contribute to solving the problem.

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

1. States the specific problem proposed for research with a clear declarative statement.      
Describes the population of interest affected by the problem. The general population refers to all individuals that could be affected by the study problem.      
Describes the unit of analysis.

For qualitative studies, this describes how the phenomenon will be studied. This can be individuals, group, or organization under study.

For quantitative studies, the unit of analysis needs to be defined in terms of the variable structure (conceptual, operational, and measurement).

     
Discusses the importance, scope, or opportunity for the problem and the importance of addressing the problem.      
The problem statement is developed based on the need or gap defined in the Background to the Study section.      
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section elaborates on the problem Statement from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Problem Statement section in Chapter 1and other Chapters where appropriate the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments: This section should start with a problem statement.

 

PICOT Question:

In Patients > 65 years of age with central line catheters, how does staff training of key personnel and reinforcement of central line catheter hub hygiene after its insertion, along with the apt cleansing of the insertion site, reduce the incidence of CLABSIs (Central Line Associated Blood-stream Infections) compared to standard care over a one-month period?

purpose of the Study

The Purpose of this study is to explain the problem of CLABSIs and examine available measures to prevent, control and reduce incidences. More importantly, the study examines the role of training both in school and on the job in helping to reduce associated health infections such as CLABSIs. In this context, the study realizes that nurses are poorly trained on how to maintain hand hygiene which coupled by factors such as lack of support from the management increases cases of CLABSIs (Al Hammadi et al. 2018). The present study looks at the role of training in reducing CLABSIs and what different stakeholders are doing to ensure that nurses are conversant with evidence-based practices for preventing CLABSIs. Comment by Williams, Kristy: Purpose should not be capitalized.

Criteria

 

Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This section reflects what the study is about, connecting the problem statement, methodology & research design, target population, variables/phenomena, and geographic location.

The recommended length for this section is one paragraph.

1. Begins with one sentence that identifies the research methodology and design, target population, variables (quantitative) or phenomena (qualitative) to be studied and geographic location.      
Quantitative Studies: Defines the variables and relationship of variables.

Qualitative Studies: Describes the nature of the phenomena to be explored.

     
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section elaborates on information in the Purpose Statement from the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Study section in Chapter 1and other Chapters where appropriate in the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments: Good job in this section.

 

Research Questions and/or Hypotheses

Engaging healthcare professionals to adopt hygienic practices is crucial in the fight against CLABSIs. However, it is even more important to ensure that nurses are well trained and conversant with the general guidelines of patient handling eliminate cases of health-related infections. Training ensures that best practices are followed during the insertion of catheters, dressing, assessment, and removal. While training especially on-the-job training may take time and adoption of practices prolonged, hospitals should ensure that nurses and other care professionals are informed on the best practices to avoid cases of CLABSIs. Staff training in CVC site care and maintenance will help reduce infections (Owings et al. 2017). Hospitals should, in this case, assess nurses’ understanding and competence when it comes to maintenance of CVC sites. Empowering nurses is also important to ensure commitment and willingness to communicate issues relating to patient care. This research seeks to answer the following questions:

RQ1: In Patients > 65 years of age with central line catheters, how does staff training of key personnel and reinforcement of central line catheter hub hygiene after its insertion, along with the apt cleansing of the insertion site, reduce the incidence of CLABSIs (Central Line Associated Blood-stream Infections) compared to standard care over a one-month period?

RQ2: How does nurse empowerment enhance communication and team play within care teams for CVC patients and how does this help in preventing CLABSIs among patients 65 years and older?

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses

· The recommendation is a minimum of two research questions along with related hypotheses and variables is required for a quantitative study.

· Also recommended is a minimum of two research questions along with the phenomenon description is required for a qualitative study.

· Put the Research Questions in the appropriate Table in Appendix B based on whether the study is qualitative or quantitative.

 

The recommended length for this section is a list of research questions and associated hypotheses (quantitative)

1. Qualitative Studies: States the research question(s) the study will answer and describes the phenomenon to be studied.

Quantitative Studies: States the research questions the study will answer, identifies and describes the variables, and states the hypotheses (predictive statements) using the format appropriate for the specific design and statistical analysis.

     
Alignment: The research questions are based on both the Problem Statement and Theoretical Foundation model(s) or theory(s). There should be no research questions that are not clearly aligned to the Problem Statement.      
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section elaborates on the information about Research Questions) &Hypothesis/variables or Phenomena from the 10 Strategic Points . This section becomes the foundation for the Research Question(s) and/or Hypotheses section in Chapter 1 in the Proposal .
Reviewer Comments: Start this section with your research question.

 

Advancing Scientific Knowledge and Significance of the Study

This study seeks to add to existing knowledge about CLABSIs and the role of different stakeholders in ensuring the safety of CVC patients. As noted earlier, there are established guidelines that nurses are required to follow to ensure that patients are not exposed to microbial infections when undergoing treatment in the hospital (Al Hammadi et al. 2018). Arguably, these guidelines are at times not adhered to completely which exposes patients to the risk of infections (Rosenblatt, et al. 2017). In addition, nurses lack enough knowhow when it comes to implementation of these guidelines which coupled with lack of support and commitment on the side of the administration hinders effort to ensure the safety of CVC patients. By examining how training and nurse empowerment contributes towards the reduction of cases of CLABSIs, this study seeks to identify ways in which hospitals and care providers can work collaboratively to ensure the safety of the patient.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

ADVANCING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE and SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This section reiterates the gap or need in the literature and states how the study will address the gap or need and how the research will contribute to the literature, practical implications to the community of interest, and alignment with the program of study.

The recommended length for this section is one to two paragraphs, providing a brief synopsis of each criteria listed below which will be expanded in the proposal.

1. Clearly identifies the “gap” or “need” in the literature that was used to define the problem statement and develop the research questions. (citations required)      
Describes how the study will address the “gap” or “identified need” defined in the literature and contribute to /advance the body of literature. (citations required)      
Describes the potential practical applications from the research. (citations required)      
Identifies and connects the theory(ies) or model(s) that provide the theoretical foundations or conceptual frameworks for the study. (citations required)      
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE:This section builds oninformation about the Literature review and Theoretical Foundations sectionsin the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Theoretical Foundations section in Chapter 2  
Reviewer Comments: Excellent job in this section.  

 

Rationale for Methodology

The current study will apply a mixed methods approach where elements of both qualitative and quantitative techniques will be used in data collection and analysis. The main objective of using this approach is to strengthen and/or expand conclusions thereby contributing to existing knowledge. The approach helps to heighten knowledge and increase the validity of the results. A mixed approach will also help to ensure convergence, correspondence, and corroboration of results (Guetterman, Fetters & Creswell, 2015). Further, it will help in ensuring complementarity besides expanding the range and breadth of inquiry.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Rationale for Methodology

The Rationale for the Methodology section clearly justifies the methodology the researcher plans to use for conducting the study. It argues how the methodological choice (quantitative or qualitative) is the best approach to answer the research questions and address the problem statement. Finally, it contains citations from textbooks and articles on research methodology and/or articles on related studies to provide evidence to support the argument for the selected methodology.

 

The recommended length for this section isone paragraph.

 

1. Identifies the specific research methodology for the study.      
Justifies the methodology to be used for the study by discussing why it is an appropriate approach for answering the research question(s) and addressing the problem statement.

Quantitative Studies: Justify in terms of problem statement and the variables for which data will be collected.

Qualitative Studies: Justify in terms of problem statement and phenomenon.

     
Uses citations from seminal (authoritative) sources (textbooks and/or empirical research literature) to justify the selected methodology. Note: Introductory or survey research textbooks (such as Creswell) are not considered seminal sources.      
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section elaborates on the Methodology and Design in the 10 Strategic Points. This section becomes the foundation for the Research Methodology in Chapter 1 of the Proposal and the basis for developing Chapter 3, Research Methodology.
Reviewer Comments: Excellent job in this section.

 

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

Closed-ended questionnaires will be administered to the sampled nurses. Closed-ended questionnaires will ensure that data analysis is not overwhelming because the respondents are tied to specific answers. The questionnaires will be based on a Yes or No responses. The interview questionnaires will be acquired from the previous literature that handles the same issues in the study. For evidence-based practice in a healthcare setting, it is proper to have the nurses asked questions about the particular practices in relation with the staff training, reinforcement of the Central line catheter hub hygiene once it has been inserted, the cleansing of the site and cases of Central Line-Associated Blood-stream Infections. The process will assist in acquiring the observational, additional, and basic data that is targeted.

Criterion Score Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

Nature of the Research Design for the Study

This section describes the specific research design to answer the research questions and why this approach was selected. Here, the learner discusses why the selected design is the best design to address the problem statement and research questions as compared to other designs. This section contains a description of the research sample being studied, as well as, the process that will be used to collect the data on the sample.

 

The recommended length for this section is two tothree paragraphs and must address each criterion.

1. Identifies and describes the selected design for the study.      
Justifies why the selected design addresses the problem statement and research questions.

Quantitative Studies: Justifies the selected design based on the appropriateness of the design to address the research questions and data for each variable.

Qualitative Studies: Justifies the selected design based on appropriateness of design to address research questions and study the phenomenon.

     
Briefly describes the target population and sample for the study.      
Identifies the sources and instruments that will be used to collect data needed to answer the research questions.      
Briefly describes data collection procedures to collect data on the sample.      
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section also elaborates on the Design portion of the Methodology and Design section in the 10 Strategic Points This section provides the foundation for Nature of the Research Design for the Study in Chapter 1.
Reviewer Comments: You need to start this section with an opening sentence.

Research Materials and Instrumentation

Questionnaires containing ten close-ended questions will be distributed to the respondents for filling. The questions included in the questionnaire are based on a yes or no response and respondents will be required to return the filled questionnaire for data coding and analysis. Target population, in this case, includes nurses working in adult ICUs in Lake Regional Medical Centre, Texas. In addition to questionnaires, data will also be sought from the hospital’s electronic medical records with permission from the management. A deductive approach will be used to make inference into the study problem and to identify common themes. A deductive approach entails testing principles against theory while sticking to the facts (McKim, 2017). Online databases including PubMed and NCBI will be searched to locate past articles relating to CLABSIs. Information obtained from these sources will be used to expand on the results obtained from the questionnaires.

CriterionScore Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

RESEARCH MATERIALS, INSTRUMENTATION, OR SOURCES OF DATA

This section identifies and describes the types of data that will be collected, as well as the specific research materials, instruments, and sources used to collect those data (tests, surveys, validated instruments, questionnaires, interview protocols, databases, media, etc.).

 

The recommended length for this section is one to two paragraphs. Note: this section can be set up as a bulleted list.

Quantitative- Instruments/Research Materials:

Provides a bulleted list of the instrumentation and/or materials for data collection.

Describes the survey instruments or equipment/materials used (experimental research), and specifies the type and level of data collected with each instrument.

Includes citations from original publications by instrument developers (and subsequent users as appropriate) or related studies.

     
Qualitative – Sources of Data:

Describes the structure of each data collection instrument and data sources (tests, questionnaires, interview protocols, observations databases, media, etc.).

     
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section elaborates on theData Collection from the 10 Strategic Points.

This information is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in the Proposal in the Nature of the Research Design for the Study section. This section provides the foundation for Research Materials, Instrumentation (quantitative)resources of Data (qualitative) section in Chapter 3.

Reviewer Comments:

You need to go into detail about what where are your questions coming from. What tool are you using and the reliability and validity of the tool.

 

Data Collection

The current research is expected to take part at Clear Lake Regional Medical Center, Texas. To ensure a smooth collection of data, the researcher will first approach the administrators of the health facility to obtain permission to collect information from its staff. Departmental permission may also be required in order to speak to nurses. After permission has been acquired, the researcher will approach potential respondents, explain the nature of the study and ask for their willingness to participate in the study. As this is a DNP project, no approval will be required from the institutional review board (IRB). Data collected in this case will include:

· Number of CLABSIs cases recorded in the hospital annually

· Number of times that the catheter is changed during the week.

· Whether nurses feel empowered enough to make decisions and communicate freely.

· The level and type of training available to nurses and other care professionals and which touch directly n the use catheters

· Whether there exists a checklist to guide the nurse on how best to implement care bundles.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

DATA COLLECTION AND MANAGEMENT

This section details the data collection process and procedures so that another researcher could conduct or replicate the study. It includes authorizations and detailed steps.

The recommended length for this section is a bullet or numbered list of data collection steps that should not exceed one page.

Quantitative Studies: Lists steps for the actual data collection that would allow replication of the study by another researcher, including how each instrument or data source was used, how and where data were collected, and recorded. Includes a linear sequence of actions or step-by-step of procedures used to carry out all the major steps for data collection. Includes a workflow and corresponding timeline, presenting a logical, sequential, and transparent protocol for data collection that would allow another researcher to replicate the study.

Data from different sources may have to be collected in parallel (e.g., paper-and-pen surveys for teachers, corresponding students, and their parents AND retrieval of archival data from the school district). A flow chart is ok—”linear” may not apply to all situations

Qualitative Studies: Provides a detailed description of the data collection process, including all sources of data and methods used, such as interviews, member checking, observations, surveys, field tests, and expert panel review. Note: The collected data must be sufficient in breadth and depth to answer the research question(s) and interpreted and presented correctly, by theme, research question, and/or source of data.

     
Describes the procedures for obtaining participant informed consent and for protecting the rights and well-being of the study sample participants.      
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section elaborates on the Sample and Location and Data Collection in the 10 Strategic Points This section provides the foundation for the Data Collection Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal. And it is summarized high level in Chapter 1 in Nature of the Research Design for the Study in the Proposal.
Reviewer Comments: You need to go step by step and state how long each step will take. This section has to have detail about how the project will be implemented.

Data Analysis Procedures

Data collected with questionnaires will be coded for analysis. Statistical analysis will, in this case, be used to analyze the coded data. Graphs will be used to analyze and present data to the reader. In this context, graphical representations and charts will be generated from data obtained from the questionnaires as well as past research studies. Information collected will be used to increase the credibility and validity of the study and will be analyzed using deductive thinking techniques. Common themes will be identified, and a descriptive approach adopted to presents findings to the readers.

Criteria Learner Self-Evaluation Score

(0-3)

Chair or Score

(0-3)

Reviewer Score

(0-3)

DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

This section provides detailed steps for the analytic procedures to be used to conduct data analysis.

The recommended length for this section is one to two paragraphs, can also be presented in bulleted format.

Describes in detail the relevant data collected for each stated research question and/or each variable within each hypothesis (if applicable).

 

Quantitative Studies: “In detail” means scales (and subscales) of specified instruments AND type of data for each variable of interest. IMPORTANT: For (quasi) experimental studies, provide detailed description of all treatment materials per treatment condition, as part of the description of the independent variable corresponding to the experimental manipulation.

     
What: Describes, in detail, statistical and non-statistical analysis to be used and procedures used to conduct the data analysis.

Quantitative Studies: (1) describe data file preparation (descriptive statistics used to check completeness and accuracy; for files from different sources, possibly aggregating data to obtain a common unit of analysis in all files, necessarily merging files (using the key variable defining the unit of analysis); (2) computation of statistics for the sample profile; (3) computation of (subscales and) scales; (4) reliability analysis for all scales and subscales; (5) computation of descriptive statistics for all variables of interest in the study (except those already presented in the sample profile); (6) state and justify all statistical procedures (“tests”) needed to generate the information to answer all research questions; and (7) state assumptions checks for all those statistical procedures (including the tests and / or charts to be computed).

 

Qualitative Studies: This section begins by identifying and discussing the specific analysis approach or strategy, followed by a discussion of coding procedures to be used. Note: coding procedures may be different for Thematic Analysis, Narrative Analysis, Phenomenological Analysis, or Grounded Theory Analysis.

     
Why: Justifies each of the (statistical and non-statistical) data analysis procedures used in the study.      
Show Steps that Support Evidence

Quantitative Analysis – states the level of statistical significance for each test as appropriate, and describes tests of assumptions for each statistical test.

Qualitative Analysis – evidence of qualitative analysis approaches, such as coding and theming process, must be completely described and included the analysis /interpretation process. Clear evidence from how codes moved to themes must be presented.

     
Section is written in a way that is well structured, has a logical flow, uses correct paragraph structure, uses correct sentence structure, uses correct punctuation, and uses correct APA format.      
NOTE: This section elaborates on the Data Analysis from the 10 Strategic Points . This section provides the foundation for Data Analysis Procedures section in Chapter 3 in the Proposal.

 

Reviewer Comments: You need to state what statistical test you are going to do such as t-test or etc. Also what statistical program do you plan on using such as SPSS for the quantitative portion?

 

 

Ethical Considerations

In conducting this research, some ethical considerations are made. First, the researcher is aware of the importance of ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and security of the respondents and patients. In line with this, respondents will not be required to give their names while filling out questionnaires. An explicit clause to this effect will be included at the start of the questionnaires. Respondents will not be coerced into participation but will rather do it at their own accord. Respondents are also at liberty to walk out from this research but in so doing must inform the research of her decision to do so.

"Is this question part of your assignment? We can help"

ORDER NOW