diffusion of responsibility
1. During the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle:
a. there is an initial rapid increase in physiological arousal.
b. males are temporarily unable to have an orgasm.
c. males and females experience pleasurable involuntary contractions.
d. the physiological arousal that was initiated in the previous phase continues to build.
2. Often in personality research, ______________ is used to identify clusters of specific behaviors that are so highly associated with one another that they are assumed to be due to a single trait or basic dimension of personality.
b. component analysis
c. factor analysis
d. a theory
3. According to ______________, the global appearance of the Big Five personality factors is due to the fact that these traits increased our chances for survival and reproduction.
a. evolutionary personality theory
b. social cognitive theory
c. social learning theory
d. the cognitive-affective personality system
4. Hans Eysencks two-factor model of personality is unique compared to other trait models of personality in that it:
a. is derived from the use of both factor analysis and intuition.
b. has been found to predict specific behaviors even better than more narrow trait measures.
c. postulates a possible biological basis for his traits.
d. is the only model that includes extraversion and neuroticism.
5. Hans Eysenck believes that there are specific biological factors that are responsible for traits.
Specifically, he asserts that people who score high on a measure of ______________ have brains that are chronically overaroused.
6. Which of the following provides the best definition of the concept of reciprocal determinism?
a. A person can impact the environment and the environment can impact the person.
b. The person, a persons behavior, and the environment can all influence one another.
c. Behavior is motivated and triggered by strong internal psychic forces.
d. Most behavior is determined by the complex interaction of various traits.
7. All of the following concepts are associated with researcher Julian Rotter EXCEPT:
b. behavioral signatures.
c. reinforcement value.
d. locus of control.
8. Which of the following concepts is most concerned with the amount of personal power or influence we feel that we can exert in our lives?
c. reinforcement value
d. locus of control
9. Ralph tends to be a rather passive person. Though he is happy and content with himself, he doesn’t really believe that his actions make much of a difference in the world. For instance, he doesnt vote because he assumes that most governments are run by a few powerful people and there is very little he can do to change things. Ralph would most accurately be described as having:
a. low self-esteem.
b. an external locus of control.
c. high self-monitoring skills.
d. high self-efficacy.
10. Albert Banduras concept of self-efficacy specifically refers to peoples:
a. beliefs about the general amount of control they have in their lives.
b. tendencies to behave in ways consistent with their self-concepts.
c. beliefs about their abilities to perform behaviors needed to achieve specific outcomes.
d. tendencies to want to feel positively about themselves.
11. ______________ social influence involves conforming in order to be accepted by others or to avoid social rejection, whereas ____________ social influence occurs when people conform to the behaviors or opinions of others because they believe that these others have accurate knowledge and know what is right.
a. Normative; informational
b. Normative; facilitative
c. Informational; normative
d. Facilitative; informational
12. A young child decides to dress more like his peers in order to avoid their rejection and teasing. This child is best demonstrating the effect of:
a. self-serving bias.
b. normative social influence.
c. stereotype threat.
13. In subsequent experiments examining the factors that influence conformity, Solomon Asch determined that:
a. conformity continuously increased as group size increased.
b. conformity increased as group size increased from 1 to about 9 or 10, but further increases in group size did not increase conformity.
c. conformity increased as group size increased from 1 to about 4 or 5, but further increases in group size did not increase conformity.
d. conformity was typically unchanged as group size increased from 1 to about 4 or 5, but further
increases in group size served to increase conformity.
14. Participants in Stanley Milgrams study on obedience were first told that the study was about the effect of :
a. group size on conformity.
b. social roles on behavior.
c. punishment on memory.
d. shock on obedience.
15. In his famous study examining obedience, Stanley Milgram found that the majority of his participants:
a. became uncomfortable early in the experiment and refused to give further shocks to the Learner.
b. became uncomfortable midway through the experiment and refused to administer any further
shocks when they learned of the Learners heart condition.
c. had no trouble administering the maximum 450 volts to the Learner because most of them
assumed that the shocks were not real.
d. administered the maximum 450 volts to the Learner, even though they were very distressed and upset doing so.
16. A person on campus walks up to you and asks if you would be willing to wear a ribbon to show support for her cause. Though the ribbon is a bit unattractive, it is small so you agree to wear it. After agreeing to this request, the solicitor then asks you if you would be willing to make a donation of $15. This example best demonstrates the persuasion technique called:
a. the door-in-the-face.
b. the foot-in-the-door.
c. the norm of reciprocity.
17. The principle of _______________ specifically refers to how the average opinion of groups of likeminded individuals tends to become more extreme when they discuss an issue.
a. group disparity
c. group polarization
d. group differentiation
18. A phenomenon called ________________ refers to how repeated exposure to a stimulus tends to increase peoples liking for it.
a. the proximity effect
b. redundant attraction
c. the mere exposure effect
d. repetitive affiliation
19. A couple has been together for several years and they are now deciding whether to end their
relationship. Based on John Thibaut and Harold Kelleys (1967) social exchange theory, one of the primary factors that will affect their decision is:
a. the amount of personal self-disclosure that takes place in their relationship.
b. their mate preference patterns, which are the product of learning and culturally defined roles.
c. the relative rewards and costs that they experience when in the relationship.
d. their mate preference patterns, which have been shaped by evolutionary forces.
20. The text makes an important distinction between ____________, which refers to a negative attitude toward people based on their membership in a group, and ____________, which is concerned with actually treating people unfairly based on their group membership.
a. attribution; stereotype
b. stereotype; prejudice
c. prejudice; discrimination
d. prejudice; stereotype
21. The implicit association test is used specifically to assess:
a. self-reported prejudice.
b. the amount of stereotype threat.
c. the physiological arousal associated with prejudice.
d. covert prejudice
22. The tendency to prefer people in a group to which we belong and to attribute more positive qualities to people in this group is called:
b. group polarization.
c. in-group favoritism.
23. An inherited characteristic that produces a particular response when an organism is exposed to a particular stimulus and is common to all members of a species is called a(n):
24. According to Clark Hulls drive theory of motivation, various drives are produced:
a. by specific instincts that are common to both humans and animals.
b. when our growth needs are not being met.
c. when we value a goal and expect that certain behaviors will lead to its accomplishment.
d. when there is a physiological disruption of homeostasis.
25. One potential criticism of Abraham Maslows need hierarchy is that people may still pursue their need for ___________, even when presumably lower needs, such as the need for _____________, have not yet
been satisfied or met.
a. security; love and affiliation
b. esteem and the respect of others; self-actualization
c. food and water; security
d. love and affiliation; security
26. If you were to give hungry animals an injection of _________, they would most likely stop feeding or reduce the size of their meals.
b. cholecystokinin (CCK)
27. Scientists learned about how leptin regulates food intake and weight by studying:
a. people with bulimia.
b. people with anorexia.
c. people who have had their stomachs removed.
d. genetically obese mice.
28. Research conducted by April Fallon and Paul Rozin (1985) demonstrated that college women
____________ how thin they should be to conform to mens preferences, and that men ________ how bulky they should be to conform to womens preferences.
a. overestimated; overestimated
b. underestimated; overestimated
c. overestimated; underestimated
d. underestimated; underestimated
29. Which of the following correctly lists the Big Five personality traits?
a. Outgoingness, conscientiousness, excitability, agreeableness, and nervousness
b. Openness, candidness, excitability, apprehensiveness, and nervousness
c. Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
d. Outgoingness, candidness, extraversion, affability, and neuroticism
30. When treating people with conversion hysteria, Sigmund Freud noticed that people with this disorder often appeared to improve when:
a. they sublimated their sexual and aggressive energies.
b. their superegos were strengthened.
c. their defense mechanisms became more balanced.
d. they re-experienced traumatic memories and feelings.
31. Having an authority figure who is physically close and who is perceived as legitimate are factors that are both most strongly associated with:
c. minority influence.
d. social facilitation.
32. The ego functions primarily at the __ level of mind and operates according to the_____.
a. conscious; reality principle
b. preconscious; pleasure principle
c. preconscious; reality principle
d. conscious; unconscious mind
33. During a conversation with a friend, Al starts to get angry, but this is an emotion that he considers inappropriate and childish. As a result, instead of noticing his own anger, he unknowingly starts to believe that his friend is becoming angry and excited, even though she is doing no such thing. This example best demonstrates the defense mechanism of:
a. reaction formation.
34. The humanistic concept of self-actualization refers to the process of:
a. gaining and preserving a positive self-image.
b. believing that you can take the steps needed to achieve desired outcomes.
c. realizing our full human potential.
d. maintaining self-identity through self-consistency and congruence.
35. Research on Playboy magazine centerfolds and Miss America contestants between the 1950s and 1980s has revealed a trend for a _______________ ideal body shape for women.
a. thinner and more realistic
b. thinner and increasingly unrealistic
c. larger and increasingly unrealistic
d. larger and more realistic
36. People with the eating disorder called ____________ have an intense fear of being fat and severely restrict their food intake, often to the point of starvation.
a. anorexia nervosa
c. digestive deficiency
d. obesity phobia
37. Julie frequently eats a great deal of food when she gets emotionally upset. The last time she started to feel depressed, she ate two large bags of potato chips, a half-gallon of ice cream, and several slices of pizza, all in one sitting. After she eats this way, she usually takes several laxatives to help her purge all this food. Despite this eating behavior, Julies weight is about average for someone of her height and age. Julie would most likely be diagnosed:
a. with anorexia nervosa.
b. as being dangerously underweight.
c. with both anorexia and bulimia.
d. with bulimia.
38. The area of the cortex that appears to be heavily involved in the process of emotion regulation is:
a. the parietal lobe.
b. the prefrontal cortex.
c. the right hemisphere.
d. the occipital lobe.
39. The fight-or-flight response in both animals and humans is produced in part by the:
a. sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
b. parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
c. somatic nervous system.
d. central nervous system.
40. According to the _____________ theory of emotion, people infer their emotional states by observing their bodily reactions.
a. facial feedback
b. fundamental emotional patterns
41. The ___________ theory of emotion asserts that the thalamus sends messages directly to the cortex and that these messages determine the experience of emotion. The physiological arousal that accompanies the emotion is determined by separate messages sent from the thalamus to the bodys internal organs.
c. facial feedback
42. Research testing the facial feedback hypothesis has found that when people hold a pen in their teeth, presumably activating the muscles involved in __________, they later rate themselves as feeling ________ happy than people who have been asked to hold a pen with their lips.
a. surprise; more
b. anger; less
c. sadness; less
d. smiling; more
43. According to the expectancy value theory of motivation, the worth that an individual places on a goal is often called the _________ value.
44. In the cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS), concepts such as self-efficacy and locus of control would most likely be placed in which of the following categories?
a. encoding strategies
b. expectancies and beliefs
c. goals and values
45. The NEO-PI measure of personality was developed using what is called the ____________ approach to personality scale construction.
46. Cross-cultural research has found that people who live in _____________ cultures typically view their personalities as being relatively stable and assume that the environment is changeable. In contrast, people from _____________ cultures tend to view the environment as fixed and believe that their personalities are alterable.
a. tight; complex
b. individualistic; collectivistic
c. complex; simple
d. collectivistic; tight
47. Hans Eysencks theory of personality is most similar to which of the following approaches to
a. Big Five personality theorists
b. Raymond Cattells 16-factor theory
c. Carl Rogers humanistic theory
d. Albert Banduras social learning theory
48. According to the _______________, people tend to underestimate the impact of situational factors and overestimate the impact of personal factors when explaining other peoples behaviors.
a. self-serving bias
b. fundamental attribution error
c. self-perception theory
d. self-fulfilling prophecy
49. When explaining our own behavior, _____________ occurs when we make more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failures.
a. the self-serving bias
b. social facilitation
c. attributional polarization
d. the fundamental attribution error
50. Norman Triplett accurately predicted that bicycle-racing times would be faster when individuals raced ________. This effect is currently explained by the modern construct called _________.
a. separately; the primacy effect
b. separately; cognitive dissonance
c. in groups; social facilitation
d. in groups; group polarization
51. According to the text, _________ are sets of norms that specify how people in a particular social position are expected to behave.
a. social norms
b. social standards
c. social roles
d. social rules
52. The Behavioral Activation System:
a. is activated in response to potential rewards.
b. releases endorphins that limit our experience of physiological pain.
c. becomes active when we pursue a medium-difficulty challenge, but not easy or impossible
d. is involved in the avoidance of stimuli that elicit pain.
53. The tendency for members of a group to suspend critical thinking because they are striving for agreement is specifically called:
a. normative social influence.
b. the norm of reciprocity.
d. group polarization.
54. Fat cells in the body actively regulate the processes of food intake and weight regulation by secreting the hormone ____________, which is known to decrease appetite.
55. Which of the following conclusions regarding the results from obedience studies is most accurate?
a. Contrary to popular beliefs, most people are followers who are inherently obedient.
b. Contrary to popular beliefs, most people appear to be very apathetic and cruel.
c. Obedience behavior appears to be more a product of personal characteristics than of situational
d. Obedience behavior appears to be more a product of situational factors than of personal
56. Initial research found that when the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of rats was destroyed, the rats:
a. refused to eat, often to the point of starvation.
b. became gluttons and their body weights frequently doubled or tripled.
c. experienced the normal signals of satiety.
d. began eating normally.
57. Which of the following lists the four phases of sexual response, in correct order?
a. excitement, plateau, resolution, orgasm
b. excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
c. excitement, orgasm, plateau, resolution
d. plateau, excitement, resolution, orgasm
58. The concept called _______________ specifically asserts that prejudicial attitudes create fear and selfconsciousness among stereotyped group members that they will confirm other peoples negative attitudes.
b. the self-fulfilling prophecy
c. stereotype threat
d. the out-group homogeneity bias
59. Which of the following is one of the two primary ways that the bystander effect can inhibit people from helping others?
a. reciprocal apathy
b. the self-fulfilling prophecy
c. diffusion of responsibility
d. the fundamental attribution error
60. According to the text, bystanders are most likely to help individuals who are:
a. judged as being responsible for their problems.
c. perceived as being similar.
d. in a good mood.