Delays in all developmental domains

Delays in all developmental domains

CHCCCS023 SUPPORT INDEPENDENCE AND WELLBEING ASSESSMENT

ASSESSMENT INFORMATION for students

Throughout your training we are committed to your learning by providing a training and assessment framework that ensures the knowledge gained through training is translated into practical on the job improvements.

You are going to be assessed for:

Your skills and knowledge using written and observation activities that apply to your workplace.

Your ability to apply your learning.

Your ability to recognise common principles and actively use these on the job.

All of your assessment and training is provided as a positive learning tool. Your assessor will guide your learning and provide feedback on your responses to the assessment materials until you have been deemed competent in this unit.

How you will be assessed

The process we follow is known as competency-based assessment. This means that evidence of your current skills and knowledge will be measured against national standards of best practice, not against the learning you have undertaken either recently or in the past. Some of the assessment will be concerned with how you apply your skills and knowledge in your workplace, and some in the training room as required by each unit.

The assessment tasks have been designed to enable you to demonstrate the required skills and knowledge and produce the critical evidence to successfully demonstrate competency at the required standard.

Your assessor will ensure that you are ready for assessment and will explain the assessment process. Your assessment tasks will outline the evidence to be collected and how it will be collected, for example; a written activity, case study, or demonstration and observation.

The assessor will also have determined if you have any special needs to be considered during assessment. Changes can be made to the way assessment is undertaken to account for special needs and this is called making Reasonable Adjustment.

 

What happens if your result is ‘Not Yet Competent’ for one or more assessment tasks?

Our assessment process is designed to answer the question “has the desired learning outcome been achieved yet?” If the answer is “Not yet”, then we work with you to see how we can get there.

In the case that one or more of your assessments has been marked ‘NYC’, your trainer will provide you with the necessary feedback and guidance, in order for you to resubmit your responses.

 

What if you disagree on the assessment outcome?

You can appeal against a decision made in regards to your assessment. An appeal should only be made if you have been assessed as ‘Not Yet Competent’ against a specific unit and you feel you have sufficient grounds to believe that you are entitled to be assessed as competent. You must be able to adequately demonstrate that you have the skills and experience to be able to meet the requirements of units you are appealing the assessment of.

Your trainer will outline the appeals process, which is available to the student. You can request a form to make an appeal and submit it to your trainer, the course coordinator, or the administration officer. The RTO will examine the appeal and you will be advised of the outcome within 14 days. Any additional information you wish to provide may be attached to the appeal form.

 

What if I believe I am already competent before training?

If you believe you already have the knowledge and skills to be able to demonstrate competence in this unit, speak with your trainer, as you may be able to apply for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL).

 

Assessor Responsibilities

Assessors need to be aware of their responsibilities and carry them out appropriately. To do this they need to:

Ensure that participants are assessed fairly based on the outcome of the language, literacy and numeracy review completed at enrolment.

Ensure that all documentation is signed by the student, trainer, workplace supervisor and assessor when units and certificates are complete, to ensure that there is no follow-up required from an administration perspective.

Ensure that their own qualifications are current.

When required, request the manager or supervisor to determine that the student is ‘satisfactorily’ demonstrating the requirements for each unit. ‘Satisfactorily’ means consistently meeting the standard expected from an experienced operator.

When required, ensure supervisors and students sign off on third party assessment forms or third party report.

Follow the recommendations from moderation and validation meetings.

How should I format my assessments?

Your assessments should be typed in a 11 or 12 size font for ease of reading. You must include a footer on each page with the student name, unit code and date. Your assessment needs to be submitted as a hardcopy or electronic copy as requested by your trainer.

 

How long should my answers be?

The length of your answers will be guided by the description in each assessment, for example:

Type of Answer Answer Guidelines

 

Short Answer 4 typed lines = 50 words, or

5 lines of handwritten text

Long Answer 8 typed lines = 100 words, or

10 lines of handwritten text = of a foolscap page

Brief Report 500 words = 1 page typed report, or

50 lines of handwritten text = 1foolscap handwritten pages

Mid Report 1,000 words = 2 page typed report

100 lines of handwritten text = 3 foolscap handwritten pages

Long Report 2,000 words = 4 page typed report

200 lines of handwritten text = 6 foolscap handwritten pages

 

How should I reference the sources of information I use in my assessments?

Include a reference list at the end of your work on a separate page. You should reference the sources you have used in your assessments in the Harvard Style. For example:

Website Name – Page or Document Name, Retrieved insert the date. Webpage link.

For a book: Author surname, author initial Year of publication, Title of book, Publisher, City, State

assessment guide

The following table shows you how to achieve a satisfactory result against the criteria for each type of assessment task.

Assessment Method Satisfactory Result Non-Satisfactory Result
You will receive an overall result of Competent or Not Yet Competent for the unit. The assessment process is made up of a number of assessment methods. You are required to achieve a satisfactory result in each of these to be deemed competent overall. Your assessment may include the following assessment types.
Questions All questions answered correctly Incorrect answers for one or more questions
  Answers address the question in full; referring to appropriate sources from your workbook and/or workplace Answers do not address the question in full. Does not refer to appropriate or correct sources.
Third Party Report Supervisor or manager observes work performance and confirms that you consistently meet the standards expected from an experienced operator Could not demonstrate consistency. Could not demonstrate the ability to achieve the required standard
Written Activity The assessor will mark the activity against the detailed guidelines/instructions Does not follow guidelines/instructions
  Attachments if requested are attached Requested supplementary items are not attached
  All requirements of the written activity are addressed/covered. Response does not address the requirements in full; is missing a response for one or more areas.
  Responses must refer to appropriate sources from your workbook and/or workplace One or more of the requirements are answered incorrectly.

Does not refer to or utilise appropriate or correct sources of information

Observation All elements, criteria, knowledge and performance evidence and critical aspects of evidence, are demonstrated at the appropriate AQF level Could not demonstrate elements, criteria, knowledge and performance evidence and/or critical aspects of evidence, at the appropriate AQF level
Case Study All comprehension questions answered correctly; demonstrating an application of knowledge of the topic case study. Lack of demonstrated comprehension of the underpinning knowledge (remove) required to complete the case study questions correctly. One or more questions are answered incorrectly.
  Answers address the question in full; referring to appropriate sources from your workbook and/or workplace Answers do not address the question in full; do not refer to appropriate sources.

 

Assessment cover sheet

Assessment Cover Sheet
Student’s name:  
Assessors Name:   Date:
Is the Student ready for assessment? Yes No
Has the assessment process been explained? Yes No
Does the Student understand which evidence is to be collected and how? Yes No
Have the Student’s rights and the appeal system been fully explained? Yes No
Have you discussed any special needs to be considered during assessment? Yes No
The following documents must be completed and attached
Written Activity Checklist

The student will complete the written activity provided to them by the assessor.

The Written Activity Checklist will be completed by the assessor.

S NYS
Observation / Demonstration

The student will demonstrate a range of skills and the assessor will observe where appropriate to the unit.

The Observation Checklist will be completed by the assessor.

S NYS
Questioning Checklist

The student will answer a range of questions either verbally or written.

The Questioning Checklist will be completed by the assessor.

S NYS
I agree to undertake assessment in the knowledge that information gathered will only be used for professional development purposes and can only be accessed by the RTO:
Overall Outcome Competent Not yet Competent
Student Signature: Date:
Assessor Signature: Date:

 

 

 

written activity

For this assessment, you will need to perform the following tasks. These tasks will need to be completed and submitted in a professional, word processed, format. Each question must be 100 words minimum in length.

1. Discuss the basic human needs that we all have.

These are the basic human needs that every human being have:

1. Physical: Physical needs

2. Psychological

3. Spiritual: Ceremonial observances

Formal and informal religious observance

Need for privacy

Need for an appropriate environment to reflect and / or participate in spiritual activities

Culturally appropriate spiritual support assists care recipients to express their unique spirituality in an open and non-judgemental environment by helping them to maintain important practices, beliefs and networks

4. Cultural: RECOGNISE AND RESPECT THE PERSON’S SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND SPIRITUAL DIFFERENCES:

In all cases when working in a community service or health environment you will need to consider and respect a person’s social, cultural and spiritual differences if you are going to work with them effectively

Ceremonial and festive observances

 Dress and dietary observance

 Need for continued interaction with cultural communityIt is then the care workers role to ensure that dignity is respected by giving them the privacy they require.

It is important that you ensure your work practices accommodate a client’s modesty and privacy according to cultural requirements.

Accept cultural and religious ceremonies and link in to them

Celebrate different cultures by sharing food from that culture or having cultural days

Get guest speakers to talk about different cultures

Learn a language (even a few words) to make people feel more welcome

5. Sexual: From the discussion above, it is clear that you should avoid imposing your own values and attitudes regarding sexuality on others, including your clients. Your own values may not be consistent with those of your client, and if you impose these conflicting values on your client this can cause them problems – including psychological harm. RECOGNISE, RESPECT AND ACCOMMODATE THE PERSON’S EXPRESSIONS OF IDENTITY AND SEXUALITY AS APPROPRIATE IN THE CONTEXT OF THEIR AGE OR STAGE OF LIFEA client’s circumstances may have a significant impact on their expression of identity and sexuality. Expression of identity and sexuality may include:

Access to assistive / protective devices

Love and affection

Need for privacy and discretion

Physical appearance

Touch

 

2. Discuss the concept of self-actualisation.

Maslow’s hierarchy reflects a linear pattern of growth depicted in a direct pyramidal order of ascension. Moreover, he states that self-actualizing individuals are able to resolve dichotomies such as that reflected in the ultimate contrary of free-will and determinism. He also contends that self-actualizers are highly creative, psychologically robust individuals. It is argued herein that a dialectical transcendence of ascension toward self-actualization better describes this type of self-actualization, and even the mentally ill, whose psychopathology correlates with creativity, have the capacity to self-actualize.

Maslow’s hierarchy is described as follows:

1. Physiological needs, such as needs for food, sleep and air.

2. Safety, or the needs for security and protection, especially those that emerge from social or political instability.

3. Belonging and love including, the needs of deficiency and selfish taking instead of giving, and unselfish love that is based upon growth rather than deficiency.

4. Needs for self-esteem, self-respect, and healthy, positive feelings derived from admiration.

5. And “being” needs concerning creative self-growth, engendered from fulfillment of potential and meaning in life.

 

3. Outline human development across the lifespan.

Which stage of life is the most important? Some might claim that infancy is the key stage, when a baby’s brain is wide open to new experiences that will influence all the rest of its later life. Others might argue that it’s adolescence or young adulthood, when physical health is at its peak. Many cultures around the world value late adulthood more than any other, arguing that it is at this stage that the human being has finally acquired the wisdom necessary to guide others. Who is right? The truth of the matter is that every stage of life is equally significant and necessary for the welfare of humanity. In my book The Human Odyssey: Navigating the Twelve Stages of Life, I’ve written that each stage of life has its own unique “gift” to contribute to the world. We need to value each one of these gifts if we are to truly support the deepest needs of human life. Here are what I call the twelve gifts of the human life cycle:

1. Prebirth: Potential – The child who has not yet been born could become anything – a Michaelangelo, a Shakespeare, a Martin Luther King – and thus holds for all of humanity the principle of what we all may yet become in our lives.

2. Birth: Hope – When a child is born, it instills in its parents and other caregivers a sense of optimism; a sense that this new life may bring something new and special into the world. Hence, the newborn represents the sense of hope that we all nourish inside of ourselves to make the world a better place.

3. Infancy (Ages 0-3): Vitality – The infant is a vibrant and seemingly unlimited source of energy. Babies thus represent the inner dynamo of humanity, ever fueling the fires of the human life cycle with new channels of psychic power.

4. Early Childhood (Ages 3-6): Playfulness – When young children play, they recreate the world anew. They take what is and combine it with the what is possible to fashion events that have never been seen before in the history of the world. As such, they embody the principle of innovation and transformation that underlies every single creative act that has occurred in the course of civilization.

5. Middle Childhood (Ages 6-8): Imagination – In middle childhoood, the sense of an inner subjective self develops for the first time, and this self is alive with images taken in from the outer world, and brought up from the depths of the unconscious. This imagination serves as a source of creative inspiration in later life for artists, writers, scientists, and anyone else who finds their days and nights enriched for having nurtured a deep inner life.

6. Late Childhood (Ages 9-11): Ingenuity – Older children have acquired a wide range of social and technical skills that enable them to come up with marvelous strategies and inventive solutions for dealing with the increasing pressures that society places on them. This principle of ingenuity lives on in that part of ourselves that ever seeks new ways to solve practical problems and cope with everyday responsibilities.

7. Adolescence (Ages 12-20): Passion – The biological event of puberty unleashes a powerful set of changes in the adolescent body that reflect themselves in a teenager’s sexual, emotional, cultural, and/or spiritual passion. Adolescence passion thus represents a significant touchstone for anyone who is seeking to reconnect with their deepest inner zeal for life.

8. Early Adulthood (Ages 20-35): Enterprise – It takes enterprise for young adults to accomplish their many responsibilities, including finding a home and mate, establishing a family or circle of friends, and/or getting a good job. This principle of enterprise thus serves us at any stage of life when we need to go out into the world and make our mark.

9. Midlife (Ages 35-50): Contemplation – After many years in young adulthood of following society’s scripts for creating a life, people in midlife often take a break from worldly responsibilities to reflect upon the deeper meaning of their lives, the better to forge ahead with new understanding. This element of contemplation represents an important resource that we can all draw upon to deepen and enrich our lives at any age.

10. Mature Adulthood (Ages 50-80): Benevolence – Those in mature adulthood have raised families, established themselves in their work life, and become contributors to the betterment of society through volunteerism, mentorships, and other forms of philanthropy. All of humanity benefits from their benevolence. Moreover, we all can learn from their example to give more of ourselves to others.

11. Late Adulthood (Age 80+): Wisdom – Those with long lives have acquired a rich repository of experiences that they can use to help guide others. Elders thus represent the source of wisdom that exists in each of us, helping us to avoid the mistakes of the past while reaping the benefits of life’s lessons.

12. Death & Dying: Life – Those in our lives who are dying, or who have died, teach us about the value of living. They remind us not to take our lives for granted, but to live each moment of life to its fullest, and to remember that our own small lives form of a part of a greater whole. 5

 

4. Define each of the following:

a. Spiritual Wellbeing

b. Cultural Wellbeing

c. Financial Wellbeing

d. Career/occupation Wellbeing

a. An important part of respecting cultural and spiritual preferences is to provide your clients with information on the cultural and spiritual networks available to them. Networks may include:

 Advocates

 Carers

 Clergy / pastoral care providers

 Family members

 Friends

 Veteran’s / war widow organisations

To be able to provide information to your clients on the cultural and spiritual networks available to them, it is important that you are aware of the cultural and spiritual networks available in your local community (including both existing and new, as they occur). As noted above, networking – that is, engaging – with other professionals in the community services and in related fields is important in this respect, as these networks will be able to provide you with valuable information on events and services which might be suitable for your clients. Also, as discussed, you may research suitable opportunities online and in local newspapers / magazines, etc.

b. Cultural issues may also be affecting your client’s ability to socialise and therefore may be impacting on their well-being. People in care often have limited ability to socialise due to illness or incapacitation but in some cases, there may be language barriers that can affect people. English may not be their first language and it is possible that they are isolated because of this. Of course, these two issues are not the only ones that can impact of mental and physical well-being. You should consider all aspects of the person if you notice a deterioration in

 

CHCCCS023 – Support independence and wellbeing Version 2

Course code and name

mental and physical health in your clients and record and report them to your supervisor.

c. It is a well-known fact that people who are struggling financially have a higher rate of illness than those who are not. You may often find that the well-being of your client’s is affected by the financial struggles they face. People who need home care do not work, perhaps live on disability income or aged pensions, where their disposable income is limited. People often isolate themselves because they do not have the finances to be socially active. This can increase depression and physical illness in your clients. If you recognise signs of mental illness, depression or other signs that might be negatively impacting your client, consider their financial state as at least one aspect that could be impacting their well-being.

 

5. What are the basic requirements for good health for every person?

Mental health

o Nutrition and hydration

o Exercise

o Hygiene

o Lifestyle

o Oral health

 

6. What are the signs of mental health or developmental issues and the risk and protective factors?

Gross motor signs:

 Has a markedly clumsy manner when compared with others of same age

Vision signs:

 Has difficulty following objects (or people) with eyes

Hearing signs:

 Fails to develop sounds or words that would be appropriate for their age

Signs of mental health issues may include but are not limited to:

 Changes in cognition:

o Hallucinations or delusions

o Excessive fears or suspiciousness (paranoia)

o Confused thinking

 Changes in mood:

o Loss of interest in once pleasurable activities

o Thinking or talking about suicide

 Changes in behaviour:

o Bizarre behaviour (strange posturing, ritualistic behaviour)

o Intention harming or killing of animals (especially in children)

o Hyperactivity

o Physical changes:

o Deterioration in hygiene or personal care

o Unexplained weight gains or loss

o Sleeping too much or being unable to sleep

Consultation and questioning of the client should be conducted in an exploratory and clinically professional manner at all times, if you feel that a client is presenting with issues that are outside your scope of responsibility or expertise then appropriate referrals must be made in line with organisational, legal and ethical guidelines.

 

 

7. Service delivery models and standards

Integrated service delivery refers to a number of service agencies working together to collaborate and coordinate their support, services and interventions to clients. The focus is generally on clients, or client target groups, who have complex needs that require services from a number of agencies. Some efforts may be one-off, but more typically, there will be a system developed that enables agencies to meet or communicate and possibly streamline processes, to provide ongoing coordination.

 The primary purpose of integrated service delivery approaches is to improve outcomes for our clients. How this is achieved, and the factors that are important, will vary according to the service settings, agency capabilities and specific needs of the clients. They may include:

 Improving communication between agencies to monitor client progress and changes and be more responsive to these.

 Identifying areas of duplication, working at cross-purposes, or what is creating confusion for clients about who is doing what.

 Developing one plan for the client which includes the work being done by/with all agencies. This plan may also include actions and responsibilities the client agrees to do.

 Building understanding and capacity between the agencies – such as sharing practice frameworks and legal and funding limitations – so they can work together more effectively and generally support each other in their service delivery.

 Identifying systematic issues that create problems for clients, and for services in their efforts to meet client needs. This may include identification of client groups or needs that “fall between the gaps”. Ideally, there will be a process whereby these issues can be brought to the attention of decision-makers.

 Development of streamlined processes which can provide more seamless services to clients, such as a common referral or assessment process.7

There are also governance and management rules that apply to community service organisations. For access to all the current standards please go to:

http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/about-the-department/documents-and-resources/policies,-guidelines-and-legislation/human-services-standards-evidence-guide-and-resource-tool

http://www.communityservices.act.gov.au/home/about_us/client_service_standards.

https://www.qld.gov.au/community/community-organisations-volunteering/community-care-standards/

 

8. What are the relevant funding models that are used in health and community services

DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES FLEXIBLE FUNDING MODEL (2011 – 2012)

Flexible Funding models have been created to provide a new flexible way to fund many of the nation’s health priorities.

The creation of the Funds will, over time, reduce red tape, increase flexibility and more efficiently provide evidence-based funding for the delivery of better health outcomes in the community.

For further information on flexible funding models go to: http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/funded-agency-channel/about-service-agreements/simplifying-funding-and-reporting/flexible-funding

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH BLOCK FUNDING MODEL

A fundamental principle of the new block funding arrangements is that changes to the service mix will be determined at the local level and negotiated between organisations and the Department of Health.

Changes should focus on the local community’s needs but also take into account broader health objectives, along with the capacity of the ACCHO.

Each ‘ACCO Services’ activity or ‘bucket’ includes sub activities that describe the programs or ‘jam jars’.

In a block funding model, ACCHOs will have the flexibility to move funds from one ‘bucket’ to another, as well as have one ‘jam jar’ to another, to address local priorities.

The service standards and guidelines for each program area will still apply.

For a full description of block funding arrangements go to: http://www.dhs.vic.gov.au/funded-agency-channel/about-service-agreements/simplifying-funding-and-reporting/flexible-funding

ACTIVITY BASED FINDING

The key principles of ABF are the accurate and transparent allocation of funding to health services based on the activity they perform. This requires an ability to define, classify, count, cost and fund activity in a consistent manner.

Three key elements form the building blocks of ABF.

 Classification – grouping activity that uses a similar amount of resources into clinical meaningful classes

 Counting – applying the same rules and units to measure the amount of activity that occurs

 Costing – measuring in dollars the amount of resources used to provide each output in the classified group

For a full outline on activity based funding models go to:

https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/hospitals-and-health-services/funding-performance-accountability/activity-based-funding

work role boundaries”

Community service workers are often required to make decisions according to the ethics and philosophies of their organisation. Behaving in a way that is ethical and adhering to the policies and procedures of the organisation are a good starting point for providing high standards of care for the client. It is the responsibility of management to develop policies and procedures which reflect the values, objectives, and purpose of the organisation. Whilst management also have the responsibility to introduce staff to the policies and procedures, particularly to the new worker at the time of induction, it is the responsibility of the worker to familiarise themselves with the relevant information and ensure they comply.

Position descriptions are a good way for the worker to establish the scope of their work. These descriptions provide information about the scope of the work and the duties to be performed.

Policies and procedures provide valuable information about how the work should be done.

Community workers should pay particular attention to the boundaries of their work. Not only are they expected to perform to a particular standard outlined by the organisation, but they must ensure that they do not exceed the boundaries of their work role. Attempting to work beyond the level of one’s qualifications can be both dangerous to the health and safety of others, as well as to the detriment of the client. For example A person who holds a certificate 4 in community services should not be attempting to provide treatment for a client which would normally be the job of a registered nurse.

All workers need to be aware of their responsibilities and the boundaries of their work role. If at any stage you are unclear about the scope of your work then you should consult with your supervisor or manager, as well as the policy and procedure manual of the organisation.

 

9. Issues that impact health and well being

 

 

10. Impacts of community values and attitudes, including myths and stereotypes

 

 

11. Indicators of emotional concerns and issues

It is important that you recognise indications that a client’s experience of pain is affecting their wellbeing. Indicators that a client’s experience of pain is affecting their wellbeing are provided following:

 Be less able to function

 Feel tired and lethargic

 Lose [their] appetite or have nausea

 Not be able to sleep, or have [their]sleep interrupted by pain

 Experience less enjoyment and more anxiety

 Become depressed, anxious, or unable to concentrate on anything except pain

 Feel a loss of control

 Have less interaction with friends; be less able to enjoy sex or affection

 Have a change in appearance

 Feel that [they] are more of a burden on family or other caregivers

When you recognise indications that a client’s experience of pain is affecting their well-being, it is essential that you report this according to organisation policy and protocol. This may involve formal reports, both in written and verbal format, to your supervisor and other senior persons in your organisations, as well as your clients’ other caregivers (such as their doctor or chronic pain specialist, etc.). You should familiarise yourself with your organisations policies and protocols for reporting instances which negatively impact a clients’ wellbeing.

A client’s emotional needs may include: A sense of security and contentment.

Acceptance of loss

 Dealing with degenerative issues

 Dealing with pain, grief, bereavement, acceptance of death

 Freedom from anger, anxiety, fear, guilt loneliness

 Love and affection

 Veterans’ / war widows’ issues

A client’s psychological needs may include:

 A sense of control

 Acceptance of disability

 Freedom from undue stress

 Life stage acceptance

 Personal identity

 Self-determination

 Self-esteem

 Sense of belonging

 Veterans’ / war widows’ issues

 

12. Discuss each of the below and how they are used in your industry:

a. Duty of care

b. Dignity of risk

c. Human rights

d. Discrimination

e. Mandatory reporting

f. Privacy, confidentiality and disclosure

g. Work role boundaries – responsibilities and limitations

You will need to ensure you monitor all aspects of your client service delivery to ensure your reputation is upheld, you are meeting the needs of the clients and you are meeting your duty of care requirements.

Your organisation’s reputation is extremely important. Without a good reputation, your service will not operate. You will not receive referrals from others and the clients you have will eventually move on. Therefore, you must ensure that at all times you are addressing the needs of individual clients and the community as a whole. All of this comes under one very important banner. Your duty of care! This means your duty of care to staff, clients, the community as a whole, other organisations and much more.

Duty of care is a difficult term to define as there isn’t a legal definition of the concept (except in occupational health and safety legislation). Duty of care comes under the legal concept of negligence, and negligence belongs to the domain of common law. Common law is also known as judge-made law as the decision about guilt is decided using legal precedence and community attitudes and expectations. That is, there hasn’t been an Act of Parliament passed defining what is legal or illegal but rather the decision is based on what is considered appropriate or not appropriate at a particular time in history.8

ROLE OF AGENCY POLICY AND PROCEDURE

Organisations should always ensure that there are a clearly written policy and procedure, which enables staff to understand and perform their duty of care. Policy will vary according to the target group and agency context, but should include the following points:

 Encourage consumers, staff and significant others (such as parents and carers) to work together to cooperatively develop strategies and identify solutions for challenging duty of care issues

 Ensure that staff receive appropriate, relevant training and support to perform their duty of care

The following points are an example of what may be incorporated into policy and procedure in relation to the duty of care.

All employees need access to orientation training and induction that includes information about duty of care

Discrimination

In Australia, employers and their employees are legally obliged to uphold the human rights standards set out in a number of federal laws. Some of these human rights standards are included in the types of Acts listed below.

Some of the types of laws governing human rights include:

 Age Discrimination

 Disability Discrimination

 Human Rights and Equal Opportunity

 Race Discrimination

 Sex Discrimination

It is important for you to familiarise yourself with the relevant human rights legislation. You will be able to access your own copy of relevant legislation at http://www.humanrights.gov.au/our-work/legal/legislation

 Employees need to seek advice and support from internal or external professionals to deal with issues that challenge duty of care and dignity of risk

 Appropriate documentation relating to daily duty of care responsibilities should be maintained at all times (e.g. case notes)

 Information should be given to clients, staff, volunteers and significant others about considerations involved in evaluating duty of care issues. This should include information identifying duty of care obligations and the client’s right to experience and learn from risk taking

 Ensure that clients participate in decisions regarding their care arrangements and lifestyle choices

 Issues relating to duty of care must be discussed with a manager or supervisor

As you can see, the thrust of duty of care policy is to collaborate with the relevant people involved and to be mindful of accountability and client rights.9

Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.

Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law , general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups. 11

Dignity of risk is the legal requirement to ensure that all persons with a disability has the legal right to choose their own medical treatments even if the professionals involved feel that this is not the correct choice for them.

Mandatory reporting is a term used to describe the legislative requirement imposed on selected classes of people to report suspected cases of child abuse and neglect to government authorities. Parliaments in all Australian states and territories have enacted mandatory reporting laws of some description. However, the laws are not the same across all jurisdictions. The main differences concern who has to report, and what types of abuse and neglect have to be reported. There are also other differences, such as the state of mind that activates the reporting duty (i.e., having a concern, suspicion or belief on reasonable grounds – see Table 1) and the destination of the report. QLD, Becomes aware, or reasonably suspects

Significant detrimental effect on the child’s physical, psychological or emotional wellbeing

F: The Australian Medical Association (AMA), Code of Ethics, requires medical practitioners to maintain a patient’s confidentiality and privacy. Your workplace will also have its own policies in place on how you go about doing this.

While the terms ‘privacy’ and ‘confidentiality’ are commonly used interchangeably, they are not identical concepts. Privacy laws regulate the handling of personal information (including health information) through enforceable privacy principles. On the other hand, the legal duty of confidentiality obliges health care practitioners to protect their patients against the inappropriate disclosure of personal information. Confidentiality means keeping a client’s information between you and the client. You are not to make a client’s information available to anyone else unless they are involved in their care. This includes; family, friends, colleagues and anyone else you may be talking to.

The types of information that is considered confidential can include:

 Name, date of birth, age, sex and address

 Current contact details of family, guardian, etc.

 Bank details

 Medical history or records

 Personal care issues

 File progress notes

 Individual personal plans

 Assessments or reports

Adult clients have the right to decide what information they consider personal and confidential.

There is, however, no such thing as absolute confidentiality in the community services industry. Workers are required to keep notes on all interactions with clients and often to keep statistics about who is seen and what issues are addressed. As a worker, there

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will be times when you could be faced with some personal difficulties regarding confidentiality.10

It is desirable for confidentiality to be handled consistently throughout the service, and while the type and extent of the information conveyed by staff will vary according to the situation, certain basic principles are applicable in all instances.

 

 

QUESTIONS

The following questions may be answered verbally with your assessor or you may write down your answers. Please discuss this with your assessor before you commence. Short Answers are required which is approximately 4 typed lines = 50 words, or 5 lines of handwritten text.

Your assessor will take down dot points as a minimum if you choose to answer them verbally.

Answer the following questions either verbally with your assessor or in writing.

1. As a support worker, what can you do to recognise and support individual differences in clients?

 

 

2. List two examples each of a client’s possible cultural and spiritual preferences.

 

 

3. Support workers are expected to be able to respond to sexuality and sexual health issues. How can they do this?

SUPPORT THE PERSON TO EXPRESS THEIR SEXUALITY

Supporting a client to express their sexuality is an important aspect of your role. But how can you do so in ways that are both legal and meaningful? Consider the following information from Victoria’s “Personal relationships, sexuality and sexual health policy and guidelines” for disability workers in the state about how you can support clients to express their sexuality:

All people access a wide variety of support and materials to meet their individual needs. Sexuality is just one of many life areas where people may seek such support. The role of support workers is to provide assistance, where needed, so people with a disability can experience the same life opportunities as other people. As part of their role, support workers are expected to be able to respond to sexuality and sexual health issues by:

 Answering simple questions.

 Supporting people with a disability to understand their rights and responsibilities in this area.

 Supporting people in accessing services where needed. This may include helping people access information and services or attend appointments.

 Being aware of, and able to respond appropriately to, duty of care issues.

 Ensuring sexuality and sexual health are considered in individual planning for people with an intellectual or cognitive disability

It is essential that you find a suitable balance between supporting a person to express their sexuality and remaining within the boundaries of your legal obligations to your client. Ensure you seek support from your supervisor or manager where required.

 

4. As a support worker, what can you do to promote independence in your clients?

 

 

5. List four of the types of networks that may be available to your clients.

 

 

6. What steps can you take to ensure that the physical wellbeing of your client is supported?

 

 

7. List six measures and modifications that can be implemented to minimise the risk of harm in a living environment

 

 

8. What incidents and/or information are you required to report and who should you report to?

 

 

9. In what ways can you support social, emotional and psychological wellbeing in your clients?

 

 

10. List six signs of abuse or neglect you may notice in your client.

Signs of neglect :

Poor personal hygiene, including lack of skin ‘bloom’, hair loss, etc.

 Dirty clothing.

 Constantly hungry; failure to thrive; possibly obese.

 Lack of medical / dental care.

 Untreated sores / nappy rash.

 Frequent illness / low-grade infections.

 Delays in all developmental domains; erratic attendance at respite care.

 Lack of adequate supervision; extended stays at services.

 Inadequate sleep cycles; fatigue.

 Anxiety about abandonment.

 Self-comforting behaviours.

 Attention-seeking, often extreme.

 

 

 

 

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