constructionism as applied to family therapy

constructionism as applied to family therapy

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Theories at-a-Glance The tables in this book compare theories over a range of topics, thereby providing you with the ability to easily compare, contrast, and grasp the practical aspects of each theory. These tables also serve as invaluable resources that can be used to review the key concepts, philoso- phies, limitations, contributions to multicultural counseling, applications, techniques, and goals of all theories in this text.

The following chart provides a convenient guide to the tables in this text.

Pages

6–7 Table 1.1 Overview of Contemporary Counseling Models

62–63 Table 4.1 Ego-Defense Mechanisms

65–66 Table 4.2 Comparison of Freud’s Psychosexual Stages and Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

432 Table 15.1 The Basic Philosophies

433–434 Table 15.2 Key Concepts

438 Table 15.3 Goals of Therapy

441–442 Table 15.4 The Therapeutic Relationship

443–444 Table 15.5 Techniques of Therapy

444–445 Table 15.6 Applications of the Approaches

446 Table 15.7 Contributions to Multicultural Counseling

447 Table 15.8 Limitations in Multicultural Counseling

448–449 Table 15.9 Contributions of the Approaches

449–450 Table 15.10 Limitations of the Approaches

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Overview of Focus Questions for the Theories For the chapters dealing with the different theories, you will have a basic understand- ing of this book if you can answer the following questions as they apply to each of the eleven theories:

Who are the key figures (founder or founders) associated with the approach?

What are some of the basic assumptions underlying this approach?

What are a few of the key concepts that are essential to this theory?

What do you consider to be the most important goals of this therapy?

What is the role the therapeutic relationship plays in terms of therapy outcomes?

What are a few of the techniques from this therapy model that you would want to incorporate into your counseling practice?

What are some of the ways that this theory is applied to client populations, settings, and treat- ment of problems?

What do you see as the major strength of this theory from a diversity perspective?

What do you see as the major shortcoming of this theory from a diversity perspective?

What do you consider to be the most significant contribution of this approach?

What do you consider to be the most significant limitation of this approach?

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Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

Gerald Corey California State University, Fullerton Diplomate in Counseling Psychology,

American Board of Professional Psychology

Theory and PracTice of counseling and

PsychoTheraPy Tenth Edition

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Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, Tenth Edition Gerald Corey

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To the founders and key figures of the theories presented

in this book—with appreciation for their contributions

to contemporary counseling practice.

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iv

abouT The auThor

gerald corey is Professor Emeritus of Human Services and Counseling at California State University at Fullerton. He received his doctorate in counseling from the University of Southern California. He is a Diplomate in Counseling Psy- chology, American Board of Professional Psychology; a licensed psychologist; and a National Certified Counselor. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Associa- tion (Division 17, Counseling Psychology; and Division 49, Group Psychotherapy); a Fellow of the American Counseling Association; and a Fellow of the Association for Specialists in Group Work. He also holds memberships in the American Group Psychotherapy Association; the American Mental Health Counselors Association; the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling; the Asso- ciation for Counselor Education and Supervision; and the Western Association of Counselor Education and Supervision. Both Jerry and Marianne Corey received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Mental Health Counselors Associ- ation in 2011, and both of them received the Eminent Career Award from ASGW in 2001. Jerry was given the Outstanding Professor of the Year Award from California State University at Fullerton in 1991. He regularly teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses in group counseling and ethics in counseling. He is the author or coauthor of 15 textbooks in counseling currently in print, along with more than 60 journal articles and book chapters. Several of his books have been translated into other languages. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy has been trans- lated into Arabic, Indonesian, Portuguese, Turkish, Korean, and Chinese. Theory and Practice of Group Counseling has been translated into Korean, Chinese, Spanish, and Russian. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions has been translated into Korean, Japanese, and Chinese.

In the past 40 years Jerry and Marianne Corey have conducted group counsel- ing training workshops for mental health professionals at many universities in the United States as well as in Canada, Mexico, China, Hong Kong, Korea, Germany, Belgium, Scotland, England, and Ireland. In his leisure time, Jerry likes to travel, hike and bicycle in the mountains, and drive his 1931 Model A Ford. Marianne and Jerry have been married since 1964. They have two adult daughters, Heidi and Cindy, two granddaughters (Kyla and Keegan), and one grandson (Corey).

Recent publications by Jerry Corey, all with Cengage Learning, include:

ŠŠ Theory and Practice of Group Counseling, Ninth Edition (and Student Manual) (2016)

ŠŠ Becoming a Helper, Seventh Edition (2016, with Marianne Schneider Corey)

ŠŠ Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, Ninth Edition (2015, with Mari- anne Schneider Corey, Cindy Corey, and Patrick Callanan)

ŠŠ Group Techniques, Fourth Edition (2015, with Marianne Schneider Corey, Patrick Callanan, and J. Michael Russell)

ŠŠ Groups: Process and Practice, Ninth Edition (2014, with Marianne Schnei- der Corey and Cindy Corey)

iv

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v

ŠŠ I Never Knew I Had a Choice, Tenth Edition (2014, with Marianne Schneider Corey)

ŠŠ Case Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy, Eighth Edition (2013) ŠŠ The Art of Integrative Counseling, Third Edition (2013)

Jerry Corey is coauthor (with Barbara Herlihy) of Boundary Issues in Counseling: Multiple Roles and Responsibilities, Third Edition (2015) and ACA Ethical Standards Case- book, Seventh Edition (2015); he is coauthor (with Robert Haynes, Patrice Moulton, and Michelle Muratori) of Clinical Supervision in the Helping Professions: A Practical Guide, Second Edition (2010); he is the author of Creating Your Professional Path: Les- sons From My Journey (2010). All four of these books are published by the American Counseling Association.

He has also made several educational DVD programs on various aspects of counseling practice: (1) Ethics in Action: DVD and Workbook (2015, with Marianne Schneider Corey and Robert Haynes); (2) Groups in Action: Evolution and Challenges DVD and Workbook (2014, with Marianne Schneider Corey and Robert Haynes); (3) DVD for Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy: The Case of Stan and Lecturettes (2013); (4) DVD for Integrative Counseling: The Case of Ruth and Lecturettes (2013, with Robert Haynes); and (5) DVD for Theory and Practice of Group Counseling (2012). All of these programs are available through Cengage Learning.

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Preface xi

PART 1

BASIC ISSUES IN COUNSELING PRACTICE

1 Introduction and Overview 1 introduction 2 Where I Stand 3 Suggestions for Using the Book 5 Overview of the Theory Chapters 6 Introduction to the Case of Stan 9 Introduction to the Case of Gwen 13

2 The Counselor: Person and Professional 17

introduction 18 The Counselor as a Therapeutic Person 18 Personal Therapy for the Counselor 20 The Counselor’s Values and the Therapeutic Process 22 Becoming an Effective Multicultural Counselor 25 Issues Faced by Beginning Therapists 28 Summary 35

3 Ethical Issues in Counseling Practice 37

introduction 38 Putting Clients’ Needs Before Your Own 38 Ethical Decision Making 39 The Right of Informed Consent 41 Dimensions of Confidentiality 42 Ethical Issues From a Multicultural Perspective 43 Ethical Issues in the Assessment Process 45 Ethical Aspects of Evidence-Based Practice 48 Managing Multiple Relationships in Counseling Practice 49 Becoming an Ethical Counselor 52 Summary 53

Where to Go From Here 53 Recommended Supplementary Readings for Part 1 54

PART 2

THEORIES AND TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELING

4 Psychoanalytic Therapy 57 introduction 58 Key Concepts 59 The Therapeutic Process 66 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 72 Jung’s Perspective on the Development of Personality 77 Contemporary Trends: Object-Relations Theory, Self Psychology, and Relational Psychoanalysis 79 Psychoanalytic Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 84 Psychoanalytic Therapy applied to the case of stan 85 Psychoanalytic Therapy applied to the case of gwen 87 Summary and Evaluation 89 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 92 Where to Go From Here 92 Recommended Supplementary Readings 93

5 Adlerian Therapy 95 introduction 98 Key Concepts 98 The Therapeutic Process 104 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 108 Adlerian Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 119 adlerian Therapy applied to the case of stan 121 adlerian Therapy applied to the case of gwen 122

Contents

vii

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viii Contents

Summary and Evaluation 124 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 126 Where to Go From Here 127 Recommended Supplementary Readings 128

6 Existential Therapy 129 introduction 132 Key Concepts 137 The Therapeutic Process 146 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 149 Existential Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 153 existential Therapy applied to the case of stan 155 existential Therapy applied to the case of gwen 156 Summary and Evaluation 157 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 160 Where to Go From Here 160 Recommended Supplementary Readings 162

7 Person-Centered Therapy 163 introduction 165 Key Concepts 170 The Therapeutic Process 171 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 176 Person-Centered Expressive Arts Therapy 180 Motivational Interviewing 182 Person-Centered Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 184 Person-centered Therapy applied to the case of stan 186 Person-centered Therapy applied to the case of gwen 187 Summary and Evaluation 190 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 193 Where to Go From Here 193 Recommended Supplementary Readings 195

8 Gestalt Therapy 197 introduction 199 Key Concepts 200 The Therapeutic Process 206

Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 211 Gestalt Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 220 gestalt Therapy applied to the case of stan 221 gestalt Therapy applied to the case of gwen 223 Summary and Evaluation 224 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 227 Where to Go From Here 227 Recommended Supplementary Readings 229

9 Behavior Therapy 231 introduction 233 Key Concepts 236 The Therapeutic Process 238 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 240 Behavior Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 258 behavior Therapy applied to the case of stan 259 behavior Therapy applied to the case of gwen 260 Summary and Evaluation 262 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 265 Where to Go From Here 266 Recommended Supplementary Readings 267

10 Cognitive Behavior Therapy 269 introduction 270 Albert Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy 270 Key Concepts 272 The Therapeutic Process 273 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 275 Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 281 Christine Padesky and Kathleen Mooney’s Strengths-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 289 Donald Meichenbaum’s Cognitive Behavior Modification 293 Cognitive Behavior Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 298 cognitive behavior Therapy applied to the case of stan 300 cognitive behavior Therapy applied to the case of gwen 302 Summary and Evaluation 303

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Contents ix

Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 307 Where to Go From Here 308 Recommended Supplementary Readings 310

11 Choice Theory/Reality Therapy 311

introduction 313 Key Concepts 314 The Therapeutic Process 318 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 320 Choice Theory/Reality Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 327 reality Therapy applied to the case of stan 329 reality Therapy applied to the case of gwen 331 Summary and Evaluation 332 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 334 Where to Go From Here 334 Recommended Supplementary Readings 336

12 Feminist Therapy 337 introduction 339 Key Concepts 341 The Therapeutic Process 345 Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures 348 Feminist Therapy From a Multicultural and Social Justice Perspective 354 feminist Therapy applied to the case of stan 355 feminist Therapy applied to the case of gwen 357 Summary and Evaluation 360 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 364 Where to Go From Here 364 Recommended Supplementary Readings 366

13 Postmodern Approaches 367 Some Contemporary Founders of Postmodern Therapies 368 Introduction to Social Constructionism 368 Solution-Focused Brief Therapy 371 Narrative Therapy 382 Postmodern Approaches From a Multicultural Perspective 390 Postmodern approaches applied to the case of stan 392

Postmodern approaches applied to the case of gwen 394 Summary and Evaluation 396 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 398 Where to Go From Here 399 Recommended Supplementary Readings 400

14 Family Systems Therapy 403 introduction 404 Development of Family Systems Therapy 406 A Multilayered Process of Family Therapy 409 Family Systems Therapy From a Multicultural Perspective 415 family Therapy applied to the case of stan 417 family Therapy applied to the case of gwen 420 Summary and Evaluation 422 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 424 Where to Go From Here 424 Recommended Supplementary Readings 425

PART 3

INTEGRATION AND APPLICATION

15 An Integrative Perspective 427 introduction 428 The Movement Toward Psychotherapy Integration 428 Issues Related to the Therapeutic Process 437 The Place of Techniques and Evaluation in Counseling 443 an integrative approach applied to the case of stan 452 an integrative approach applied to the case of gwen 455 Summary 456 Concluding Comments 457 Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions 458 Where to Go From Here 458 Recommended Supplementary Readings 459

references and suggested readings 461

name index 481

subject index 485

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Preface to Tenth Edition

T his book is intended for counseling courses for undergraduate and graduate students in psychology, counselor education, human services, and the mental health professions. It surveys the major concepts and practices of the contemporary therapeutic systems and addresses some ethical and professional issues in counsel- ing practice. The book aims to teach students to select wisely from various theories and techniques and to begin to develop a personal style of counseling.

I have found that students appreciate an overview of the divergent contempo- rary approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. They also consistently say that the first course in counseling means more to them when it deals with them person- ally. Therefore, I stress the practical applications of the material and encourage per- sonal reflection. Using this book can be both a personal and an academic learning experience.

In this tenth edition, every effort has been made to retain the major qualities that students and professors have found useful in the previous editions: the succinct overview of the key concepts of each theory and their implications for practice, the straightforward and personal style, and the book’s comprehensive scope. Care has been taken to present the theories in an accurate and fair way. I have attempted to be simple, clear, and concise. Because many students want suggestions for supple- mentary reading as they study each therapy approach, I have included an updated reading list at the end of each chapter and a list of references for each chapter at the end of the book.

This tenth edition updates the material and refines existing discussions. Part 1 deals with issues that are basic to the practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Chapter 1 puts the book into perspective, then students are introduced to the counselor—as a person and a professional—in Chapter 2. This chapter addresses a number of topics pertaining to the role of the counselor as a person and the ther- apeutic relationship. Chapter 3 introduces students to some key ethical issues in counseling practice, and several of the topics in this chapter have been updated and expanded. Expanded coverage is given to the ACA’s 2014 Code of Ethics.

Part 2 is devoted to a consideration of 11 theories of counseling. Each of the theory chapters follows a common organizational pattern, and students can easily compare and contrast the various models. This pattern includes core topics such as key concepts, the therapeutic process, therapeutic techniques and procedures, mul- ticultural perspectives, the theory applied to the case of Stan and new to this edition to the case of Gwen, and summary and evaluation. In this tenth edition, each of the chapters in Part 2 has been revised, updated, and expanded to reflect recent trends, and references have been updated as well. Revisions were based on the recommenda- tions of experts in each theory, all of whom are listed in the Acknowledgments sec- tion. Attention was given to current trends and recent developments in the practice of each theoretical approach.

xi

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xii PrefaCe to tenth edition

Each of the 11 theory chapters summarizes key points and evaluates the con- tributions, strengths, limitations, and applications of these theories. Special atten- tion is given to evaluating each theory from a multicultural perspective as well, with a commentary on the strengths and shortcomings of the theory in working with diverse client populations. The consistent organization of the summary and evalu- ation sections makes comparing theories easier. Students are given recommenda- tions regarding where to look for further training for all of the approaches in the Where To Go From Here sections at the end of the chapter. Updated annotated lists of reading suggestions along with DVD resources are offered to stimulate students to expand on the material and broaden their learning.

In Part 3, Chapter 15 develops the notion that an integrative approach to coun- seling practice is in keeping with meeting the needs of diverse client populations in many different settings. Numerous tables and other integrating material help stu- dents compare and contrast the 11 approaches.

What’s new in This Tenth edition Features of the tenth edition include Learning Objectives for all the theory chapters; Self-Reflection and Discussion Questions at the end of each theory chapter to facilitate thinking and interaction in class; and a new Case of Gwen, who is a composite of many clients, to complement the Case of Stan feature. Guest contributor Dr. Kel- lie Kirksey describes her way of working with Gwen from each of the theoretical perspectives.

Significant changes for the tenth edition for each of the theory chapters are out- lined below:

chapter 4 Psychoanalytic Therapy ŠŠ New material on countertransference, its role in psychoanalytic therapy,

and guidelines for effectively dealing with countertransference ŠŠ Expanded discussion of brief psychodynamic therapy and its application

chapter 5 adlerian Therapy ŠŠ Revised material on the life tasks ŠŠ More emphasis on goals for the educational process of therapy ŠŠ More on the role of assessment and diagnosis ŠŠ New material on early recollections with concrete examples ŠŠ Many new examples to bring Adlerian concepts to life ŠŠ Revised discussion of reorientation and encouragement process ŠŠ Expanded discussion of Adlerian techniques

chapter 6 existential Therapy ŠŠ Revised material on existential anxiety and its implications for therapy ŠŠ Revised section on the client–therapist relationship ŠŠ Expanded discussion of tasks of the existential therapist

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PrefaCe to tenth edition xiii

chapter 7 Person-centered Therapy ŠŠ Expanded discussion of clients as active self-healers ŠŠ Updated coverage of the core conditions of congruence, unconditional

positive regard, and empathy ŠŠ More attention to the diversity of styles of therapists practicing person-

centered therapy ŠŠ More emphasis on how the basic philosophy of the person-centered

approach is appropriate for working with diverse client populations ŠŠ A new section on emotion-focused therapy, stressing the role of emotions

as a route to change ŠŠ Revised section on motivational interviewing (person-centered approach

with a twist)

chapter 8 gestalt Therapy ŠŠ Revised discussion of the role of experiments in Gestalt therapy and

how they differ from techniques and structured exercises ŠŠ New emphasis on therapist presence, the role of dialogue in therapy,

and the therapeutic relationship ŠŠ Expanded discussion of therapist authenticity and self-disclosure ŠŠ More attention to the contemporary relational approach to Gestalt

practice

chapter 9 behavior Therapy ŠŠ Increased attention to the “third-generation” or “new wave” behavior

therapies ŠŠ Updating of section on EMDR ŠŠ Expanded and updated discussion of the role of mindfulness and

acceptance strategies in contemporary behavior therapy ŠŠ New and expanded material on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

and stress reduction ŠŠ Expanded and revised treatment of dialectical behavior therapy

chapter 10 cognitive behavior Therapy ŠŠ Major reorganization and updating of the entire chapter ŠŠ Streamlining and updating of Albert Ellis’s rational emotive behavior

therapy ŠŠ Revised and expanded coverage of Aaron Beck’s cognitive therapy ŠŠ Increased coverage of Judith Beck’s role in the development of cognitive

therapy ŠŠ New section on Christine Padesky’s strength-based cognitive behavior

therapy ŠŠ Increased attention on Donald Meichenbaum’s influence in the devel-

opment of CBT ŠŠ More clinical examples to illustrate key CBT techniques and concepts ŠŠ Expanded coverage of a comparison among the various CBT approaches

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xiv PrefaCe to tenth edition

chapter 11 choice Theory/reality Therapy ŠŠ Revision of the relationship of choice theory to reality therapy ŠŠ More practical examples of reality therapy practice

chapter 12 feminist Therapy ŠŠ Updated and expanded treatment of the principles of feminist therapy ŠŠ Increased attention given to cultural and social justice perspectives ŠŠ More emphasis on concepts of power, privilege, discrimination, and

empowerment ŠŠ Expansion of relational-cultural theory and implications for practice ŠŠ Revised and expanded discussion on therapeutic techniques and

strategies ŠŠ Revised material on strengths from a diversity perspective

chapter 13 Postmodern approaches ŠŠ Updated coverage on parallels between solution-focused brief therapy

(SFBT) and positive psychology ŠŠ Broadened discussion of the key concepts of SFBT ŠŠ More emphasis on the client-as-expert in the therapy relationship in

postmodern approaches ŠŠ More clinical examples to illustrate the use of SFBT techniques ŠŠ New material on the defining characteristics of brief therapy ŠŠ Increased emphasis on the collaborative nature of narrative therapy and

SFBT ŠŠ Revision of narrative therapy section

chapter 14 family systems Therapy ŠŠ Streamlined to focus mainly on an integrative approach to family

therapy ŠŠ More on recent developments in family systems therapy ŠŠ More attention given to feminism, multiculturalism, and postmodern

constructionism as applied to family therapy

Chapter 15 (“An Integrative Perspective”) pulls together themes from all 11 theo- retical orientations. This chapter represents a major revision of the discussion of the psychotherapy integration movement; updates of the various integrative approaches; revision of the section on integration of spirituality in counseling; added material on research demonstrating the therapeutic alliance; expanded discussion on the central role of the client in determining therapy outcomes; new section on feedback-informed treatment; and updated coverage of the conclusions from the research literature on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. New to this chapter are two cases (Stan and Gwen) that illustrate integrative approaches. Chapter 15 develops the notion that an integrative approach to counseling practice is in keeping with meeting the needs of diverse client populations in many different settings. Numerous tables and other integrating mate- rial help students compare and contrast the 11 approaches.

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