Cochlear nucleus

Cochlear nucleus

QUESTION 1

Which of the following is not a basic process in learning?

Consolidation
Encoding
Retrieval
Transduction

QUESTION 2

When we use memory to perform a learned ability such as playing a musical instrument we are using _____memory.

 

 

QUESTION 3

The three successive events that are necessary for recall of a past event are , , and .

 

QUESTION 4

It has been proposed that PTSD can be reduced or eliminated by administering drugs to:

Accelerate forgetting
Block the effects of emotional stress on memory
Inhibit behavioral sensitization
Reduce frontal lobe activity

 

QUESTION 5

The most striking impairment suffered by H.M. is:

Prosopagnosia
Anterograde amnesia
Retrograde amnesia
Episodic amnesia

 

QUESTION 6

Memories that we are consciously aware that we are retrieving are known as _____memories.

 

QUESTION 7

Which memory store holds the largest number of items?

Iconic memory
Short-term memory
Intermediate-term memory
Long-term memory

 

QUESTION 8

The ability of elderly people to retrieve certain memories (but not others) seems particularly related to the:

Presence of memory cues
Absence of delays between learning and recall
Presence of rewards
Specificity of the items to be retrieved from memory

 

QUESTION 9

Research indicates that emotional enhancement of memory:

Cannot be shown in laboratory research
Occurs in humans but not in nonhuman animals
Involves adrenergic stress hormones
Lasts only briefly

 

QUESTION 10

Declarative memory is said to deal with:

“How”
“Why”
“Where”
“What”

QUESTION 11

Which of the following does not occur in the continuum of mammalian color vision?

Excellent trichromatic color vision
Robust dichromatic color vision
Feeble dichromatic vision of species that have few cones
Total lack of wavelength discrimination

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 12

The dorsal stream system of visual processing is said to specialize in processing information about:

“What”
“Who”
“Where”
“When”

QUESTION 13

Rods and cones in the retina are analogous to:

Merkle’s discs in the skin
The tympanic membrane of the ear
Odor receptor cells in the nasal epithelium
All of the above

 

QUESTION 14

When you are gazing at near objects (such as this question), the lens of the eye is:

Relaxed
Stretched and thinned
Thickened
Concave

 

QUESTION 15

Which of the following is the correct route for the passage of visual information?

Optic tract, optic nerve, optic radiations
Optic radiations, optic nerve, optic tract
Optic nerve, optic radiations, optic tract
Optic nerve, optic tract, optic radiations

 

QUESTION 16

The _____neuron is active when an individual observes another individual making a particular movement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 17

Because the visual system integrates stimuli over time, its performance is relatively:

Fast, at the expense of sensitivity
Slow but sensitive
Fast and sensitive
Sensitive, at the expense of acuity

 

QUESTION 18

Which of the following is the dominant modern theory of color discrimination?

Helmholtz trichromatic hypothesis
Hering opponent-process hypothesis
De Valois hypothesis of spectrally opponent cells
Zeki hypothesis of cortical color processing

 

QUESTION 19

Retinal receptor cells release the neurotransmitter _____.

 

 

QUESTION 20

The brightest light at which we can see is about _____ times as intense as the dimmest light at which we can see.

100,000
10 million
1 billion
10 billion

 

QUESTION 21

In human males, sexual orientation is probably determined:

Around puberty
By age four
By hormonal variations
By the sex chromosome carried by the father’s sperm

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 22

The stages of reproductive behavior include all of the following except:

Appetitive behavior
Sexual attraction
Organizational behavior
Copulation

 

QUESTION 23

The internal sex organs:

Require hormonal stimulation in both males and females for proper development
Are bisexual early in development, unlike the gonads
Develop from the müllerian system in males
None of the above

 

QUESTION 24

The first standardized information about human sex behavior was obtained by:

Beach
Kinsey
Masters and Johnson
Money and Ehrhardt

 

QUESTION 25

Which of the following, if true, would indicate that aromatization does not play a role in sexual differentiation of humans?

There are no sex differences in humans.
The sensitive period for humans is postnatal.
Human estrogen does not cross the placenta.
Human α-fetoprotein does not bind estrogens.

 

QUESTION 26

Research indicates that treating postmenopausal women with low doses of _____can revive sexual interest.

androgen
estrogen
progesterone
cortisol

 

QUESTION 27

Which of the following are the organs derived from the wolffian duct system?

Seminal vesicles, vas deferens, testes, epididymis, prostate
Seminal vesicles, vas deferens, prostate, epididymis
Seminal vesicles, epididymis, prostate, testes
Seminal vesicles, vas deferens, epididymis

QUESTION 28

Among humans, the only behavior that is displayed exclusively by one sex is _____.

 

 

QUESTION 29

Which of the following can regulate sex determination?

Paternal hormones
Temperature
Genes
Both b and c

 

QUESTION 30

Müllerian ducts develop to form:

Internal male reproductive structures
Labia
Internal female reproductive structures
Ovaries

 

QUESTION 31

One of the reasons we know that insulin is not the only cue for satiety is that:

Insulin does not rise after a meal.
Low doses of insulin do not stop eating.
High doses of insulin initiate eating.
Untreated diabetic patients are not hungry.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 32

Which of the following animals does not regulate its body weight?

A rat with a recent LH lesion
A rat recovering from an LH lesion
A rat provided with a high-fat diet
A rat provided with a low-fat diet

 

QUESTION 33

About _____% of the heat produced by a human at rest is generated by the brain.

20
33
50
75

QUESTION 34

The body stores glucose for later use after first converting it to a more complex form called _____.

 

QUESTION 35

People suffering from anorexia nervosa:

Have no appetite
Think about food a great deal
Have a neurological disease
Gain weight

QUESTION 36

A principal advantage that ectotherms have over endotherms is that ectotherms:

Eat less
Eat more
Run faster
Jump higher

 

QUESTION 37

Which of the following is not considered a motivated behavior?

Taking shelter in a storm
Eating
Drinking
Breathing

 

QUESTION 38

The relationship of basal metabolism to body mass across species does not hold for:

Very large mammals
Microorganisms
An animal that is food-deprived or not at its target weight
None of the above; the relationship holds for all of these groups

 

QUESTION 39

When a person stops producing insulin early in life, from which type of diabetes does he or she suffer?

Diabetes insipidus
Type I
Type II
Congenital

 

QUESTION 40

A primary tenet of homeostasis is:

Repetition
Redundancy
Body temperature maintenance
Water balance

 

QUESTION 41

Growth hormone secretion is high during _____sleep.

 

 

QUESTION 42

Nightmares are associated with:

Stage 1 SWS
Stage 2 SWS
Stages 3 and 4 SWS
REM sleep

 

QUESTION 43

If animals that are normally seasonal are kept in constant conditions in a laboratory and receive no information about changes in day length or temperature, their circannual rhythms:

Persist, with a period of 365 days
Become free-running
Disappear
Persist only in females

 

QUESTION 44

If the SCN is detached from the rest of the brain by a series of knife cuts, its rhythmicity:

Disappears
Becomes abnormally short
Persists
Becomes infradian

 

QUESTION 45

The incidence of insomnia is greatest in _____ in general, and in both men and women in _____.

women; the later stages of life
men; the later stages of life
women; middle age
men; middle age

 

QUESTION 46

The attacks of sleep that occur in narcolepsy are characterized by:

The immediate onset of deep SWS
The immediate onset of REM
A usual pattern of SWS and REM sleep
The lack of REM

 

QUESTION 47

Entrainment of circadian rhythms refers to the process by which:

The periodic oscillations of an animal’s activity are dampened
The length a typical day is extended
The rhythms of an animal’s activities are synchronized and shifted
A free-running process is established

 

QUESTION 48

The most powerful stimulus for resetting the circadian clock is _____.

 

QUESTION 49

_____sleep is characterized by a rapid EEG of low amplitude.

 

QUESTION 50

Which neurotransmitter has been especially implicated in the generation of rhythms within the SCN?

Acetylcholine
Serotonin
GABA
None of the above

 

 

QUESTION 51

Mark and Ervin have argued that some human violence is:

Related to temporal lobe seizure activity
Socially inspired and shaped
Related to the XXY chromosome pattern
Resistant to surgical intervention

 

QUESTION 52

Which of the following statements is most true about cross-cultural observations of facial expressions?

All facial expressions are interpreted similarly across cultures.
Explicit cultural training is needed to interpret facial expressions.
Facial expressions are subject to culture-specific display rules.
Only the static features of facial expression are culture-invariant.

 

QUESTION 53

From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, emotions can be viewed as _____ programs that organize behavior in adaptive ways.

 

 

QUESTION 54

Which of the following is not an attribute of the type A personality?

High competitive drive
Submission to authority
Impatience
Hostility

QUESTION 55

Which of the following transmitters has been especially implicated in the control of aggression?

Acetylcholine
Substance P
Serotonin
Dopamine

 

QUESTION 56

The device that is used to measure bodily responses to stress is called a _____.

 

QUESTION 57

In a normal young subject, the presence of a friend during a demanding task:

Places strong physiological demands on the subject
Provokes unregulated hostility and physiological arousal
Increases blood pressure
Lessens the magnitude of cardiovascular response to this type of stress

 

QUESTION 58

Papez’s circuit provides a model of the relationships of different regions in the limbic system involved in:

Facial expression
Autonomic response specificity
Emotional expression
The neural control of violence

 

QUESTION 59

With increased levels of corticosteroids, the responses of the immune system to pathogens such as viruses is:

Inhibited
Enhanced
Unchanged
Affected slightly

 

 

 

QUESTION 60

Patients with Parkinson’s disease show which of the following changes of emotional expression?

They cannot move the face voluntarily.
They lose spontaneous emotional expression.
They can show expressions of happiness only.
They have profound lesions of the facial nucleus.

 

QUESTION 61

Split-brain individuals are those who have undergone surgery to cut the  as a treatment for .

 

QUESTION 62

Prosopagnosia is the inability to:

Identify objects by touch
Learn the names of objects that are seen
Recognize faces
Distinguish different patterns of visual stimuli

 

QUESTION 63

Broca’s aphasia is usually associated with lesions of:

The angular gyrus
The left inferior frontal region
Wernicke’s area
The left temporal lobe

 

QUESTION 64

An exciting future treatment for brain injury may be the use of [_____] to replace the damaged neurons.

 

 

QUESTION 65

The left visual field is projected to:

The left hemisphere
Both hemispheres
The right hemisphere
The hemisphere associated with handedness

 

QUESTION 66

Improvements in language ability following a stroke may develop from a:

Shift to right-hemisphere control of language
Profound regrowth of connections in the left hemisphere
Subcortical control of language
Shift to frontal cortical control of language

 

QUESTION 67

According to some studies, stroke patients given _____ therapy can show about a 75% return of normal use of a paralyzed arm within a relatively short period of time.

melodic intonation
constraint-induced-movement
edema reduction
intense massage

 

QUESTION 68

Widespread neuronal death occurs in stroke apparently as a consequence of:

Too little activity of neurons
Too much excitation of neurons
A loss of connections from other regions
Pathological changes in glial cells

 

QUESTION 69

A patient who produces seemingly fluent but largely unintelligible speech and has poor comprehension of verbal material is most likely suffering from _____ aphasia.

Wernicke’s
Broca’s
conduction
global

QUESTION 70

Patients with aphasia sometimes produce entirely new, nonsensical words called:

Nonfluent speech items
Agraphisms
Neologisms
Anomias

 

QUESTION 71

Which of the following does not belong with the others?

Semicircular canal
Middle canal
Tympanic canal
Vestibular canal

 

 

QUESTION 72

The auditory system is believed to have evolved from the  system, which in turn is thought to have evolved from the  system.

 

QUESTION 73

The phenomenon of onset _____ and the formation of a sound _____by the head allow for the localization of sound in space.

disparity; shadow
disparity; box
similarity; shadow
similarity; box

 

QUESTION 74

The inferior colliculus projects auditory impulses to the:

Cochlear nucleus
Superior olivary complex
Medial geniculate nucleus
Primary auditory cortex

 

QUESTION 75

Hearing may be partially restored in deaf people through the use of devices called _____.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

QUESTION 76

The lowest level at which impulses from the two ears interact is the:

Cochlear nucleus
Medial geniculate
Olivary nucleus
Inferior colliculus

 

QUESTION 77

The idea that we use both intensity differences and differences in the time of arrival of auditory signals to localize sounds is called the _____theory.

 

 

 

QUESTION 78

Deafness that arises from problems with the middle ear is called _____deafness.

 

 

QUESTION 79

For humans, the minimal discriminable frequency difference between two tones is about:

20 Hz for sounds up to 2000 Hz
2 Hz for sounds up to 2000 Hz
10 Hz for sounds less than 20,000 Hz
10 Hz for sounds greater than 2000 Hz

 

QUESTION 80

Within the nucleus laminaris of birds, bineural cells act as _____to detect the location of sound in space.

space detectors
coincidence detectors
place engineers
None of the above

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