Which of the following is not a basic process in learning?
When we use memory to perform a learned ability such as playing a musical instrument we are using _____memory.
The three successive events that are necessary for recall of a past event are , , and .
It has been proposed that PTSD can be reduced or eliminated by administering drugs to:
|Block the effects of emotional stress on memory|
|Inhibit behavioral sensitization|
|Reduce frontal lobe activity|
The most striking impairment suffered by H.M. is:
Memories that we are consciously aware that we are retrieving are known as _____memories.
Which memory store holds the largest number of items?
The ability of elderly people to retrieve certain memories (but not others) seems particularly related to the:
|Presence of memory cues|
|Absence of delays between learning and recall|
|Presence of rewards|
|Specificity of the items to be retrieved from memory|
Research indicates that emotional enhancement of memory:
|Cannot be shown in laboratory research|
|Occurs in humans but not in nonhuman animals|
|Involves adrenergic stress hormones|
|Lasts only briefly|
Declarative memory is said to deal with:
Which of the following does not occur in the continuum of mammalian color vision?
|Excellent trichromatic color vision|
|Robust dichromatic color vision|
|Feeble dichromatic vision of species that have few cones|
|Total lack of wavelength discrimination|
The dorsal stream system of visual processing is said to specialize in processing information about:
Rods and cones in the retina are analogous to:
|Merkle’s discs in the skin|
|The tympanic membrane of the ear|
|Odor receptor cells in the nasal epithelium|
|All of the above|
When you are gazing at near objects (such as this question), the lens of the eye is:
|Stretched and thinned|
Which of the following is the correct route for the passage of visual information?
|Optic tract, optic nerve, optic radiations|
|Optic radiations, optic nerve, optic tract|
|Optic nerve, optic radiations, optic tract|
|Optic nerve, optic tract, optic radiations|
The _____neuron is active when an individual observes another individual making a particular movement.
Because the visual system integrates stimuli over time, its performance is relatively:
|Fast, at the expense of sensitivity|
|Slow but sensitive|
|Fast and sensitive|
|Sensitive, at the expense of acuity|
Which of the following is the dominant modern theory of color discrimination?
|Helmholtz trichromatic hypothesis|
|Hering opponent-process hypothesis|
|De Valois hypothesis of spectrally opponent cells|
|Zeki hypothesis of cortical color processing|
Retinal receptor cells release the neurotransmitter _____.
The brightest light at which we can see is about _____ times as intense as the dimmest light at which we can see.
In human males, sexual orientation is probably determined:
|By age four|
|By hormonal variations|
|By the sex chromosome carried by the father’s sperm|
The stages of reproductive behavior include all of the following except:
The internal sex organs:
|Require hormonal stimulation in both males and females for proper development|
|Are bisexual early in development, unlike the gonads|
|Develop from the müllerian system in males|
|None of the above|
The first standardized information about human sex behavior was obtained by:
|Masters and Johnson|
|Money and Ehrhardt|
Which of the following, if true, would indicate that aromatization does not play a role in sexual differentiation of humans?
|There are no sex differences in humans.|
|The sensitive period for humans is postnatal.|
|Human estrogen does not cross the placenta.|
|Human α-fetoprotein does not bind estrogens.|
Research indicates that treating postmenopausal women with low doses of _____can revive sexual interest.
Which of the following are the organs derived from the wolffian duct system?
|Seminal vesicles, vas deferens, testes, epididymis, prostate|
|Seminal vesicles, vas deferens, prostate, epididymis|
|Seminal vesicles, epididymis, prostate, testes|
|Seminal vesicles, vas deferens, epididymis|
Among humans, the only behavior that is displayed exclusively by one sex is _____.
Which of the following can regulate sex determination?
|Both b and c|
Müllerian ducts develop to form:
|Internal male reproductive structures|
|Internal female reproductive structures|
One of the reasons we know that insulin is not the only cue for satiety is that:
|Insulin does not rise after a meal.|
|Low doses of insulin do not stop eating.|
|High doses of insulin initiate eating.|
|Untreated diabetic patients are not hungry.|
Which of the following animals does not regulate its body weight?
|A rat with a recent LH lesion|
|A rat recovering from an LH lesion|
|A rat provided with a high-fat diet|
|A rat provided with a low-fat diet|
About _____% of the heat produced by a human at rest is generated by the brain.
The body stores glucose for later use after first converting it to a more complex form called _____.
People suffering from anorexia nervosa:
|Have no appetite|
|Think about food a great deal|
|Have a neurological disease|
A principal advantage that ectotherms have over endotherms is that ectotherms:
Which of the following is not considered a motivated behavior?
|Taking shelter in a storm|
The relationship of basal metabolism to body mass across species does not hold for:
|Very large mammals|
|An animal that is food-deprived or not at its target weight|
|None of the above; the relationship holds for all of these groups|
When a person stops producing insulin early in life, from which type of diabetes does he or she suffer?
A primary tenet of homeostasis is:
|Body temperature maintenance|
Growth hormone secretion is high during _____sleep.
Nightmares are associated with:
|Stage 1 SWS|
|Stage 2 SWS|
|Stages 3 and 4 SWS|
If animals that are normally seasonal are kept in constant conditions in a laboratory and receive no information about changes in day length or temperature, their circannual rhythms:
|Persist, with a period of 365 days|
|Persist only in females|
If the SCN is detached from the rest of the brain by a series of knife cuts, its rhythmicity:
|Becomes abnormally short|
The incidence of insomnia is greatest in _____ in general, and in both men and women in _____.
|women; the later stages of life|
|men; the later stages of life|
|women; middle age|
|men; middle age|
The attacks of sleep that occur in narcolepsy are characterized by:
|The immediate onset of deep SWS|
|The immediate onset of REM|
|A usual pattern of SWS and REM sleep|
|The lack of REM|
Entrainment of circadian rhythms refers to the process by which:
|The periodic oscillations of an animal’s activity are dampened|
|The length a typical day is extended|
|The rhythms of an animal’s activities are synchronized and shifted|
|A free-running process is established|
The most powerful stimulus for resetting the circadian clock is _____.
_____sleep is characterized by a rapid EEG of low amplitude.
Which neurotransmitter has been especially implicated in the generation of rhythms within the SCN?
|None of the above|
Mark and Ervin have argued that some human violence is:
|Related to temporal lobe seizure activity|
|Socially inspired and shaped|
|Related to the XXY chromosome pattern|
|Resistant to surgical intervention|
Which of the following statements is most true about cross-cultural observations of facial expressions?
|All facial expressions are interpreted similarly across cultures.|
|Explicit cultural training is needed to interpret facial expressions.|
|Facial expressions are subject to culture-specific display rules.|
|Only the static features of facial expression are culture-invariant.|
From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, emotions can be viewed as _____ programs that organize behavior in adaptive ways.
Which of the following is not an attribute of the type A personality?
|High competitive drive|
|Submission to authority|
Which of the following transmitters has been especially implicated in the control of aggression?
The device that is used to measure bodily responses to stress is called a _____.
In a normal young subject, the presence of a friend during a demanding task:
|Places strong physiological demands on the subject|
|Provokes unregulated hostility and physiological arousal|
|Increases blood pressure|
|Lessens the magnitude of cardiovascular response to this type of stress|
Papez’s circuit provides a model of the relationships of different regions in the limbic system involved in:
|Autonomic response specificity|
|The neural control of violence|
With increased levels of corticosteroids, the responses of the immune system to pathogens such as viruses is:
Patients with Parkinson’s disease show which of the following changes of emotional expression?
|They cannot move the face voluntarily.|
|They lose spontaneous emotional expression.|
|They can show expressions of happiness only.|
|They have profound lesions of the facial nucleus.|
Split-brain individuals are those who have undergone surgery to cut the as a treatment for .
Prosopagnosia is the inability to:
|Identify objects by touch|
|Learn the names of objects that are seen|
|Distinguish different patterns of visual stimuli|
Broca’s aphasia is usually associated with lesions of:
|The angular gyrus|
|The left inferior frontal region|
|The left temporal lobe|
An exciting future treatment for brain injury may be the use of [_____] to replace the damaged neurons.
The left visual field is projected to:
|The left hemisphere|
|The right hemisphere|
|The hemisphere associated with handedness|
Improvements in language ability following a stroke may develop from a:
|Shift to right-hemisphere control of language|
|Profound regrowth of connections in the left hemisphere|
|Subcortical control of language|
|Shift to frontal cortical control of language|
According to some studies, stroke patients given _____ therapy can show about a 75% return of normal use of a paralyzed arm within a relatively short period of time.
Widespread neuronal death occurs in stroke apparently as a consequence of:
|Too little activity of neurons|
|Too much excitation of neurons|
|A loss of connections from other regions|
|Pathological changes in glial cells|
A patient who produces seemingly fluent but largely unintelligible speech and has poor comprehension of verbal material is most likely suffering from _____ aphasia.
Patients with aphasia sometimes produce entirely new, nonsensical words called:
|Nonfluent speech items|
Which of the following does not belong with the others?
The auditory system is believed to have evolved from the system, which in turn is thought to have evolved from the system.
The phenomenon of onset _____ and the formation of a sound _____by the head allow for the localization of sound in space.
The inferior colliculus projects auditory impulses to the:
|Superior olivary complex|
|Medial geniculate nucleus|
|Primary auditory cortex|
Hearing may be partially restored in deaf people through the use of devices called _____.
The lowest level at which impulses from the two ears interact is the:
The idea that we use both intensity differences and differences in the time of arrival of auditory signals to localize sounds is called the _____theory.
Deafness that arises from problems with the middle ear is called _____deafness.
For humans, the minimal discriminable frequency difference between two tones is about:
|20 Hz for sounds up to 2000 Hz|
|2 Hz for sounds up to 2000 Hz|
|10 Hz for sounds less than 20,000 Hz|
|10 Hz for sounds greater than 2000 Hz|
Within the nucleus laminaris of birds, bineural cells act as _____to detect the location of sound in space.
|None of the above|