Question 1 Pretrial detention: What direction to take to improve criminal justice outcome?… 1 answer below »

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Question 1

Pretrial detention: What direction to take to improve criminal justice outcome?


Pretrial detention occurs when an accused person in a criminal case is detained before trial. Grounds for pretrial detention may include risk for failure to appear, or potential harm posed to community. Proponents of pretrial detention argue that pretrial detention improves public safety and integrity of criminal justice process while others say it increases jail population, deprives of one’s liberty, and is related to one’s ability to post bail.

The study:

You are asked to design a study focused on pretrial detention to improve criminal justice outcome(s). You may aim to either increase or decrease pretrial detention to achieve the study goal(s). Make sure your study addresses the following:

1. Purpose: It is pertinent to limit the scope of your research study and provide clear statement of purpose.Provide a clear purpose statement of your study. Specify whether you plan to increase or decrease pretrial detention to achieve criminal justice outcome(s) you plan to improve.

2. Research question and hypothesis: Present one or two research questions. Your research questions must be clear and empirically testable. Formulate at least one research hypothesis per research question. Identify independent variable (IV, the cause) and dependent variable (DV, the effect).

3. Study design: Identify your study design. Is it a true experiment, quasi-experiment, or secondary data analysis of a sort?

4. Sample: Identify your unit of analysis/ population of the study. Discuss and justify your sampling techniques and sample size. If relevant, be sure to discuss appropriate comparison group(s) as part of your design/sampling strategy.

5. Data collection: Discuss your specific data collection methods. Indicate whether you will use secondary or primary data.

6. Measurement/ conceptual issues: Discuss what you plan to measure (i.e. construct/ operational definition) and describe the specific variables you plan to use. You must specify your independent variable and dependent variable in this step.

7. Ethical issues: Discuss ethical issues your study raises, and any IRB concerns.

8. Implications/significance: Discuss the implications/significance of your study for future research and policy.

Question 2

You have been asked to examine data on prison rates across the United States. The data include the prison rate (PrisonRt2000variable) in each state in 2000, as well as information on each state, specifically whether they are a southern or non-southern state. For your research, you need to investigate potential differences between the prison rates of various parts of the United States (specifically, Southern states versus the rest of the country; variableSouth).

1. What number and percentage of states are in the south?

2. Examine the graphic distribution of the prison rate (PrisonRt2000) variable.

a. Is the prison rate variable normally distributed? If not, what shape is it?Describe the shape of the distribution for this variable, in terms of skewness, kurtosis, and overall normality (do NOT copy and paste the graph).

b. Report the mean, median, mode and standard deviation for the PrisonRt2000 variable.

1. For your research question, you are asked to investigate whether there is a significant difference in the average prison rate between 2 groups: the south versus the rest of the nation.

a. What is your independent variable and what is its level of measurement?

b. What is your dependent variable and what is its level of measurement?

c. Clearly state the null (H0) and alternative (H1) hypotheses.

d. What test is appropriate for this research question?Why is this particular test appropriate to test your hypothesis?

e. Perform the test andreport all relevant results. Do you reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?

f. Drawing on theories from your coursework, explain the findings.

Links needed: PRISON_RATES.sav


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