PSY216 Environmental & Cultural Influences on Personality Assignment

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Hello I hope you had a GREAT DAY, mine has been soooo busy. I’m running in circles

Could you please help me with this paper also?

Here is what has been approved by my Professor so far, please feel free to change anything necessary.

Track and Topic Selection:

I would like to use the following track and topic for my final project.

Track Two: Environmental Influences on Personality

Topic Two: Culture

Here is the literature review that I turned in, please check for APA formation, this is what my instructor feedback said:

You did a very good job with this literature review. You showed that you have a good grasp of the articles’ content, were able to identify the research designs used (except for one), and provided a clear view on whether you think the researchers conducted their research ethically. The only issue was that the article titles need to be formatted using APA style.

I see that you included five articles rather than the required three. That’s OK; you’re just a bit ahead.
Literature Review: Research Designs: You did a good job identifying the designs for the Lucas et al. and Morris et al. studies, Loretta. The Cheng et al. study used an experimental design.
Articulation of Response: Please make sure to use APA style to format the titles. See APA resources in the SNHU Online Writing Center or in one of the earlier class announcements I posted.

Literature Review Draft

Milestone One

Track Two: Environmental Influences on Personality

Topic Two: Culture

Article One – Cross Cultural Evidence for the Fundamental Features of Extraversion

Lucus, E. L., Diener, E., Grob, A., Suh, E. M., Shoa, L. (2000). Cross Cultural Evidence for the Fundamental Features of Extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 79(3), 2000, pp. 452-468.

What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?

This study was conducted to determine the defining characteristics of extraversion. According to the authors, reward sensitivity is the variable that links extrovert facets. This study aims to prove that instead of being a core factor to an extroversive personality, sociability is a by-product of reward sensitivity associated with the trait.

What is the hypothesis of the study? What are the outcomes of the study?

This study’s hypothesis is that extraversion facets are linked by reward sensitivity. To prove this hypothesis models that reflect sociability and reward sensitivity as related to extraversion were conducted.

What variables (factors) are being looked at as an environmental/cultural influence on personality?

Reward sensitivity and sociability are the variables that are being looked at for this study. The authors want to prove that sensitivity to reward rather than sociability is the reason people display extrovert behaviors. The generalization of models, were tested in a diverse sample of participants from 39 nations using common extraversion scales. It is believed that extraverts are more sensitive to pleasant stimuli consequently causing them to seem happier and more social than introverts.

If these variables or relationship between the variables have been studied before, what have other studies found?

Even though extraversion has been studied for many years psychologist who conducted previous studies struggled to connect the facets that determine the defining characteristics of the extraversion personality. Most early studies of extraversion personality traits also focused on the pleasant outcomes of extraversion but concluded that extroverts and introverts both enjoyed social environments, though extraverts found the experience more stimulating.

Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

This study used a correlational design to determine the fundamental feature of extraversion across cultures. A 31 item scale was used to measure affiliation, ascendance, venturesome and interaction facets. The results were used to compare sociability to reward sensitivity in various situations. Participants also completed a PANAS test, surveys and questionnaires.

Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or Why not?

The research for this study was conducted in an ethical manner because informed consent was collected from each participant at the beginning of the study. The privacy of all participants was considered and no one was harmed as a result of the study.

Article Two – Culture and Cause: American and Chinese Attributions for Social and Physical Events

Morris, M. & Peng, K. (1994). Culture and Cause: American and Chinese Attributions for Social and Physical Events. Journal of Personality and Personal Psychology, Vol 67(6), 1994.pp. 949-971.

What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?

The purpose of this article is to explain how cultural differences can lead to varying interpretations of the same events. This relates to personality psychology because this study shows why social and physical events can be deciphered in either an individualist or collectivist manner. Americans are taught to act as an individual and Asians are taught to act as part of a group; this is a key factor in personality development.

What is the hypothesis of the study? What are the outcomes of the study?

The hypothesis is that personal factors such as traits, abilities or feelings reflect a close connection theory about social behavior that is more prevalent in individualist cultures than in collectiveness cultures. It is assumed that these theories about a specific sphere of activity or knowledge is acquired from culturally bound experiences, folktales, laws, sacred texts and works of art.

What variables (factors) are being looked at as an environmental/cultural influence on personality?

The variables that are being looked at as environmental/cultural influences on personality for this study are individualism and collectivism. The authors claim that cultural differences such as family unit, social roles and emotional climate affect the way American and Chinese view events.

If these variables or relationship between the variables have been studied before, what have other studies found?

Earlier studies that were conducted were found to be not as valid as current studies. This is because the participants of the studies were asked questions about individuals of the same culture; Americans were asked questions about Americans and Asians were asked questions about Asians. This created a gap in the focal point of the studies which was the difference in cultural interpretation of mirroring events. In order to produce more accurate results, the psychologist who conducted this study allowed both ethnicities to answer questions and analyze each other’s social and physical events.

Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

The research design that was used for this study was experimental because the design presented the participants with scenarios that needed to be interpreted according to their values and experiences.

Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or Why not?

This study was conducted in an ethical manner because the participants were graduate students who were selected through the distribution of questionnaires to American and Chinese students attending the University of Michigan. The students were not harmed and all personal information was protected as required by standards. The study was supervised by qualified professionals; each participant gave informed consent to participate and debriefed after the study was complete.

Article Three – Unpacking Cultural Differences in Interpersonal Flexibility: Role of Culture-Related Personality and Situational Factors

Chen, C., Wang, F., Golden, D. L. (20011). Unpacking Cultural Differences in Interpersonal Flexibility: Role of Culture-Related Personality and Situational Factors. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol 42(3), 2011. pp. 425-444. DOI: 10.1177/0022022110362755

What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?

This study was conducted to country differences in interpersonal flexibility. It aims to prove that there is a cultural difference in the way different cultures display interpersonal flexibility.

What is the hypothesis of the study? What are the outcomes of the study?

The hypothesis of this study is to prove that the role of culture-related personality and situational factors present distinct differences in interpersonal flexibility. The results of this study indicate Chinese individuals report a better interpersonal flexibility than Caucasian Americans. Chinese individuals display more primary approach responses and fewer secondary approach responses in controllable than in uncontrollable interpersonal situations. Caucasian Americans are less flexible, they display more primary approach responses in uncontrollable than in controllable situations. This study also proved that country differences in levels of interpersonal flexibility can be accounted by the cultural self-construal.

What variables (factors) are being looked at as an environmental/cultural influence on personality?

The variables that are being used in this study are personality and situational flexibility. It is believed that countries with collectivistic cultures are more flexible as compared to those who have individualistic cultures. This study compares how and why Caucasian Americans and Chinese individuals reflect different interpersonal flexibility.

If these variables or relationship between the variables have been studied before, what have other studies found?

This study is the first time these studies have been conducted. This study has two parts; both Study 1 and Study 2 concluded with the same results.

Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

This study used Chinese and American university students along with a select group of Chinese students from a university in Hong Kong. An experimental design was used featuring a situational based measure (IFQ) to access interpersonal flexibility. IFQ is an open ended questionnaire is used to get respondents to tell their experience in four controllable and four uncontrollable interpersonal problems and their responses to each of the situations.

Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or Why not?

This study was conducted in an ethical manner because there was no harm done to any of the participants. The students took part in this study as part of a course requirement; therefore all of the necessary privacy, informed consent and debriefing measures were taken and approved by the universities. All APA standards were followed.

Article Four – Culture, Personality and Subjective Well Being: Integrating Process Models of Life Satisfaction

Schimmack, U., Radhakrishnan, P., Oishi, S., Dzokoto, V., Ahadi, S. (2002). Culture, personality and subjective well-being: Integrating process models of life satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2005, April; Volume 82(4) pp. 582-593. Database: Social Sciences Citation Index

What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?

The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between personality and cultural factors in the outcome of the affective and cognitive components of subjective well-being.

What is the hypothesis of the study? What are the outcomes of the study?

The hypothesis of this study is that the influence of personality on life satisfaction is mediated by hedonic balance and that the relationship between hedonic balance and life satisfaction is moderated by culture. The authors also hypothesis the influence of personality on life satisfaction is also moderated by culture. As predicted the authors found that there is a cross cultural result between the hedonic balance as related to extraversion and neuroticism but there was more evidence of life satisfaction in individualistic cultures than in collectivistic ones.

What variables (factors) are being looked at as an environmental/cultural influence on personality?

This study examined the mediator – moderator model of life satisfaction. These variables were looked at to determine if there is in fact a cross cultural difference in the way people respond to the feeling of well-being.

If these variables or relationship between the variables have been studied before, what have other studies found?

Previous research showed that affective and cognitive components of subjective well-being are influenced by personality and culture. These studies were done in isolation and without cross cultural influences or conjoint of personality as related to environmental constraints. That is why psychologist decided to continue research on this subject to determine the cultural influence on a hedonic balance and life satisfaction.

Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

This study used a simple correlational design that compared the results of integrated process models of self-well-being. The mediator-moderator models shared a common assumption which was that hedonic balance is associated with life satisfaction because hedonic balance is often considered in life satisfaction judgements.

Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or Why not?

This study was conducted in an ethical manner because it was monitored by qualified professionals who took every measure to protect the personal information of the participants. None of the participants were harmed during this study and each of them signed informed consent forms followed by a debriefing after data was collected.

Article Five – How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross-cultural Comparison Perspective

Deng, L., Wang, L., Zhao, Y. (2016). How Creativity Was Affected by Environmental Factors and Individual Characteristics: A Cross Cultural Comparison Perspective. Creativity Research Journal, 2016; Volume 28(3), pp. 357-366 2016. (EJ1108838), Database: ERIC

What is the purpose of the article and how does the purpose relate to personality development?

This study explores how individual characteristics and environmental factors combine to affect the creative achievement of Chinese and American college students.

What is the hypothesis of the study? What are the outcomes of the study?

There are three hypotheses for this study, they are (1) environmental factors such as family environment, high school education and college directly predict creative achievement. Hypothesis (2) Creative personality mediates the effects of environmental factors on creative attitudes and the effects of environmental factors on creative achievement. Hypothesis (3) there are cultural differences in the effect of family environment and school education on creative achievement between American and Chinese college students.

The results for this study prove that for both samples, creative attitudes mediated the effects of openness on divergent thinking. The results also suggest that there are more cultural differences in the effects of environmental factors on creativity as compared to the effects of individual characteristics on creativity between the two samples.

What variables (factors) are being looked at as an environmental/cultural influence on personality?

This study looks at the impact of family environment and school education on creativity, tests whether and how individual characteristics play a role in the relationship between achievement factors/creative achievements and examine cultural differences in relationships using data from college students in the United States and China.

If these variables or relationship between the variables have been studied before, what have other studies found?

Previous research on the study of environmental influence on personality claimed that cognitive process social and emotional process, family, education and culture may potentially promote creativity collectively instead of individually. The collective position of these variables on creativity was accepted but researchers say the nature of how these factors collectively influence creativity is still not clear.

Describe the research design (e.g., descriptive, correlational, experimental) that was used in the study.

This study was conducted using a correlational t test design. Two independent samples were used to compose the samples on these variables. The researchers used ATTA questionnaires and surveys to collect data in classrooms and inside computer labs. All necessary materials were translated to Chinese and then checked by native Chinese speakers who were part of the research team.

Do you think the research in this article was conducted in an ethical manner? Why or Why not?

The research for this study was conducted in an ethical way because the participants were informed of what the study was about, the participants agreed to fill out questionnaires in exchange for one of the following: $10 cash, a USB flash disk or research credits that could be used in class. The students also received debriefing forms after data was collected.

Here is the Research Gap Identification and Research Question that was approved and this is what my instructor feedback said:

PSY 216 Module Four Worksheet Rubric feedback: You did a good job of identifying a gap and developing a question to address that gap. It’s an interesting question.

PSY 216 Research Gap Worksheet

Gap Identification

Based upon your review of the articles in your chosen track, identify a gap in the personality psychology research presented in the course that is unexplored or underdeveloped. For example, is there an unexplored aspect of personality psychology you believe could be further explored?

For centuries psychologist have worked to determine what makes individuals behave the way they do. This has proven to be a difficult task because personalities are compiled of a large combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual’s distinctive character. Covariations of these characteristics combined with environmental influences and culture; add even another dimension to personality that needs to be explored before the correlation between the effects culture has on individual personality as related to environmental influences can be explained. As scientist look further into cultural/environmental effects on personality it has been discovered that individualistic and collectivist cultures

Research Question

Develop a basic research question addressing the identified gap. In other words, create a question that further investigates your identified gap and that you could answer through research.

Does an individual’s culture have a significant personal influence on how that person responds to various environmental situations they encounter?


Can you do a research design? I was unable to do one.


This is all I have done for this assignment please edit as you see fit and complete as outlined in Final Project Rubric.

Thank you for your help



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