250 words and 2 references for each discussion.
1) Tolliver Anderson
Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.1)
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. It is essential that counselors can identify and respond to IPV victims competently (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). According to the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey twenty-two percent of women and fourteen percent of men endure physical violence by their intimate partner in his/her lifetime (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). An understanding of IPV can help crisis counselors in using more practical and suitable interventions when working with victims of IPV. I think it is necessary for the counselor to assess each family member for domestic violence that includes both partners and children. Children who become exposed to IPV can experience negative results such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), low self-esteem, aggressive behavior, and difficulty in school (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). In some states when a child is exposed to IPV, it could be considered child abuse and should be reported to authorities. When assessing a client for IPV, the counselor should not ask the client about the violence in front of the abuser doing so can increase harm to the client (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). And the counselor should not suggest to the client to end his/her relationship as a safe way out of the relationship because injury to the client may increase (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). However, the client/counselor should come up with an emergency plan in case s/he needs to escape quickly.
Jackson-Cherry, L. R., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Crisis assessment, intervention, and prevention (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
2) Teressa DeJean
Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.1)
Clients who are victims of trauma/ abuse generally display signs, and during intake, therapists ask clients specifically if they are in danger. Therefore, we rely on the client’s ability to be open and honest. We subconsciously assess every client for domestic violence, and as trained professionals, we should be able to identify signs of various forms of abuse. We should also be able to assess the probability for injury. Unstructured clinical decision making is probably still the most widely used approach to spousal violence risk assessment, and this method involves no constraints or guidelines for the evaluator; decisions are based on the exercise of professional discretion and usually are justified according to the qualifications and experience of the professional who makes them; thus, professionals must trust their intuition or “gut ” when determining who is or who is not dangerous (Kropp, 2008). For example, clients who experience physical abuse generally have bruises in different stages of healing. Clients who experience emotional abuse are usually quiet, withdrawn, or uncommunicative. We simply have to be aware of the signs, and use our instincts to determine the client’s level of risk and provide the necessary treatment.
Kropp, P. R. (2008). Intimate partner violence risk assessment and management.Violence and Victims, 23(2), 202-20. doi:http://dx.doi.org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1891/0886-…
3) Kylee Palmer
Topic 4 DQ 2 (Obj. 4.2)
Safety planning is a unique process and should always be treated as such. Not every person experiencing IPV will call for the same interventions. It is important to tailor safety plans to every person’s situation to best serve as well as support them. Things that a counselor and client will identify together are support systems, safety locations and if law enforcement should be called. Support systems can include friends, family, support groups, behavioral health workers, etc. Safety locations can also be home-based or in the community. Local shelters and safe houses should be reviewed. Additionally, a counselor needs to review that a safety plan does not guarantee the safety of the IPV victim (Jackson-Cherry & Erford, 2018). Situations may include having a safety plan for before, when, or after you leave an abusive relationship. It could also be when something bad happens and you’re afraid. A plan can also include what to take with you when you leave. The biggest piece, in my opinion, is what to do when you are emotionally dysregulated. A counselor and client can make a list of grounding techniques for them to read when they need help or make flashcards to keep as a reminder. A good way to remember what to cover is the who, what, when, and where topics.
Jackson-Cherry, L. R., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Crisis assessment, intervention, and prevention (3rded.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. ISBN-13: 9780134522715
4) Tarneshala Cowans
Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.1)
Intelligence tests measure thinking and problem-solving skills. They can show what a child’s intellectual potential is. These tests identify areas of strength and weakness and suggest where further testing needs to be done. An evaluator often chooses a particular test based on a child’s age and language skills.
The Weschler Intelligence Scale is an IQ test that is often used by school psychologists to determine cognitive ability. The Weschler Intelligence Scale test not only provides excellent predictors of academic achievement but can also be used to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the child. But children with severe language based disabilities may have very low scores on the Weschlers.
Non-Verbal IQ tests are designed to give a comprehensive, standardized assessment of general intelligence with entirely nonverbal administration and response formats.
Two tests that may be used are:
- The Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI) – The CTONI states that it is a language free intelligence test that requires no reading, writing, speaking or listening on the child’s part. It is designed for children and adults, and can be given to individual children or in small groups in about 15 minutes.
- The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) – The UNIT can be used on children from age 5-age 17 is nonverbal and response is done by 8 hand or body gestures. There are three testing options available: Abbreviated, Standard, and Extended batteries. Can be used for deaf and hearing impaired students.
Collins, J. (2018, May 06). IQ Tests Special Education Verbal or Non-Verbal. Retrieved from https://www.disabled-world.com/disability/educatio…
5) Ariel Glover
Topic 4 DQ 1 (Obj. 4.1)
I researched the Wechsler IQ Test and it was a pretty straightforward assessment. It was a 25 question timed test for a total of 6 minutes. The questions were a little complex and the writing was small/average 11 to 12 point font. However, for a visually impaired test, the print must be large and there cannot be time constraints due to some test takers requiring braille assistance. True/false questions are more realistic than multiple choice questions. In addition, for all verbal sections, a reader who enunciates well or an audio recording must be provided (IQ Test Labs, 2017). Although I was not able to locate an intelligence assessment for visually impaired individuals online, the IQ Test Labs website was very helpful in providing detailed information of what all is required when administering intelligence assessments to blind or visually impaired individuals. Both the tests for average testtaker and the test taker that requires special accommodations appear to still measure one’s intellectual abilities. But the IQ Test Labs makes it clear that most tests designed to accommodate blind or visually impaired individuals are usually a little more easier due to the absence of time constraints, which is also helpful because it allots more time to think longer on each question, as opposed to focusing too much on time running out.
IQ Test Labs. (2017). Intelligence testing for the visually impaired. Retrieved 11 April 2019 from https://www.intelligencetest.com/articles/training…
6) Demetress Hall
Topic 4 DQ 2 (Obj. 4.1)
Assessment and Diagnosis
Cohen and Swerdlik (2018) describe an Assessment as a psychometric tool the gather data about human behavior and the data is evaluated to help assign meaning about patterns of behavior, ability and skills. Diagnosis after examination, testing, assessment and the process of classifying of an illness, disorder or condition having some maladaptive impact on the individual that may require treatment to reverse or minimize the disorders effects/progression. Pearson (2018) points out that the assessment and test screener role is to detect at risk factors or rule out risk factors, while a diagnosis is further intervention by a qualified professional with client.
One assessment that can screen for risk factors and diagnose for Dyslexia is the Shaywitz DyslexiaScreen. In matching the client with this screen the client may be experiencing problems with reading and in order to differiate one learning disorder from another the Shaywitz DyslexiaScreen could be considered. According to Pearson (2018), Dyslexia is a reading learning disorder but not all reading disorders are Dyslexia. The disorder effects reading comprehension, ability to learn and written language. The impact Dyslexia has on academic success does warrant special education.
Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M.E. (2018). Psychological Testing and Assessment: An Introduction to Test and Measurements (9th ed). McGraw Hill Education. Retrieved from http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/mcgraw-hill/2017/psychological-testing-and-assessment_9e.php
Pearson (2018). Educational Practice in Dyslexia: Professional Roles and Knowledge Gaps. Pearson website. Retrieved from https://www.pearsonassessments.com/professional-as…