Biology in Sexual Orientation

Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resource on your own before you bid. One of the references must come from Broderick and Blewitt (2015). I need this completed by 12/31/17 at 3pm. Respond to my colleagues by using the following approaches:

· Select a colleague from Discussion A. Validate his or her perspective or suggest an alternative perspective of the identified influences. Support your response by citing your own authentic observations (from your own life or from working with clients) and the current literature.

· Select a colleague from Discussion B. Validate his or her perspective or suggest an alternative perspective of the identified influences. Support your response by citing your own authentic observations (from your own life or from working with clients) and the current literature.

1. (A. Wit-Discussion B)

Many factors influence the development of sexual orientation. In this post, I will examine the how biology, culture, socialization, and age are a part of the sexual orientation process.  There is debate amongst the scientific and general population of whether sexual orientation is inborn or a response to social influences and choice (Morandini, Blaszczynsk, Costa, Godwin, & Dar-Nimrod, 2017).

Role of biology in sexual orientation

The development of sexual attraction begins in the human body as a glandular response to sex hormones (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  A series of chemical reactions starting in the brain, stimulate the onset of puberty, including the development of sexual characteristics (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Half of all adolescents have had sexual experiences with members of the same sex (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). As sexuality develops, so too does sexual orientation.  Many researchers agree that sexual orientation may be related to genetics (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Increased prenatal exposure to masculinizing hormones in girls, and delayed exposure to masculinizing hormones in boys is associated with higher rates of homosexual behavior and fantasies (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Some research points to traits such as handedness and digit ratio as predictors of homosexual or heterosexual orientation (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  In a study of adult lesbian women, individuals who believe their “gayness” is an inborn trait, as opposed to environmental, display higher levels of psychological well-being (Morandini, Blaszczynski, Costa, Godwin, & Dar-Nimrod, 2017).

Role of culture and socialization in sexual orientation

The role of culture and socialization have been identified as factors that contribute to sexual orientation.  Many cultures and religions frown upon relationships that are not heterosexual.  Unlike the research on biological factors influencing sexual orientation, the research on environmental factors is less conclusive (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Children raised by homosexual partners show no increased likelihood of same-sex orientation (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Differences in values and beliefs may be a social factor that influences sexual orientation.  Research has shown that highly valued partner traits in heterosexual men are prioritized by intelligence, good looks, humor, honesty, face attractiveness, and kindness (Lippa, 2007).  Partner traits valued by homosexual men were ranked in slightly different order: intelligence, humor, good looks, honesty, face attractiveness, and kindness (Lippa, 2007).  The same study suggests that family roles, marital roles, gender roles, and social roles of heterosexual and homosexual individuals can affect sexual orientation (Lippa, 2007).

Role of age in sexual orientation

Sexuality and sexual attraction are evident in children by around age 10 (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Regardless of sexual orientation, most people agree that heterosexual or homosexual orientation is “natural” as opposed to chosen (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Some studies suggest that for one in five adolescents, sexual orientation is fluid and subject to change (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

Summary

Whereby factors including biology, culture, and social influence contribute to sexual orientation, most people agree that homosexuality and heterosexuality are natural attractions and not categories of choice.  There is research supporting the importance of genetics and environment as on sexual orientation (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  Homosexuals that accept their sexual orientation as “inborn” are likely to have a greater sense of well-being than those who reject their sexuality (Morandini, Blaszczynski, Costa, Godwin, & Dar-Nimrod, 2017).

References

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education

Lippa, R.A. (2007). The preferred traits of mates in a cross-national study of heterosexual and homosexual men and women: an examination of biological and cultural influences. Archive of Sexual Behavior, 36(2), 193-208

Morandini, J., Blaszczynski, A., Costa, D., Godwin, A., & Dar-Nimrod, I., (2017). Born this way: sexual orientation beliefs and their correlates in lesbian and bisexual women.Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(5). 560-573

2. (H. Men-Discussion A)

Biology

Sexuality refers to people’s sexual interest in and attraction to others; it can also be view as social life of humans.  Sexuality also has to do with one’s gender identity that they choose. Faced with their increased sexual interest, most adolescents begin to explore their sexuality. (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Biology however, plays a role in influencing sexuality.   Sexuality begins during infancy, as young children discover their genitals through touch.  As their sense of self begins to develop, children also begin to form a sexual identity. It is also during this time that children develop an interest in the process of reproduction and formulate questions regarding sexuality.

Cultural and socialization

Unfortunately, the media has influenced how people look at themselves and others. People tend to teach what they want children to do instead of letting them learn difference experiences. Children must be allowed to go through their tween ages. The tween is one of the primary phases of development where we see lots of specks in gender identity, sexuality, sexual orientation; we’re discovering our bodies becoming more aware of our bodies, becoming more embarrass of our bodies and everything externally is really changing (Laureate Education, 2013).  While people are suppressed by their culture beliefs not be who they want to be, society also causes people to want to fit in. Clearly, there are differences across cultures in the specifics of gender-appropriate behavior, but most cultures do place restrictions on what the genders should and should not do (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).  For instance, no one wants to be different due to the fear of being made fun of or rejected. Under normal circumstances, the society as a whole expect girls to be girly and weak, and boys to be strong and manly.

Age

By age 3, most children know something about gender-related preferences for toys and activities, and 4- to 6-year-olds have gendered expectations about people and their behaviors (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Freud also argued that at about age 3, children begin to have vague sexual needs. (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). These needs create a family triangle that plays out somewhat differently for boys versus girls.

References:

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013g). Perspectives: The ‘tween years’ [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

3. (S. Mor-Discussion B)

Adolescents continuously experience changes to their bodies that do not occur overnight, but with this process of change there is a sexual maturity which occurs over a span of several years (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Involved with this sexual maturity the roles of biology, culture, socialization, and age will impact a person’s sexual orientation.

Biology in Sexual Orientation

Biology in sexual orientation is determined normally when a child is born differentiating between a baby being male or female, based on physicians visualization (Lev, 2004). However sexual orientation through a biological lens is not so cut and dry, but actually quite complex. The complexity involves contributing factors which involve “genetics, hormones, morphological, chromosomal, gonadal, biochemical, and anatomical” which affect our bodies and the way our brains signals us to act as a male or a female (Lev, 2004). I am reminded of how adults determine what their child plays with when it comes to their gender roles, cars and trucks for boys while dolls are only for girls. The sexual orientation of a child is determined during conception but what causes the differentiation is the presence of masculine hormones produce gonads allowing the genitalia to be external (Lev, 2004). The female will not have the presence of male hormones allowing female gonads to dominate and produce internal genitalia (Lev, 2004).  The debate regarding sexual orientation as either a choice or this is the way I was born plays a significant role in the biological sense of a person’s life. On one hand if someone says they were born heterosexual, but then say being a homosexual is a choice there is a major disconnect that is placing judgment instead of biological facts on a group of people because they are unlike the majority. Personally it does not have to so complex with trying to understand if someone is born straight or gay, but the simplicity should be we were born to love.

Culture and Socialization in Sexual Orientation

Culture and socialization engage parents and children in different ways, and I do not think many cultures realize the significant role it plays in sexual orientation. Cultures that promote sexual activity in their young people may be unheard of, but I think it is because adults understand the dynamics behind being sexually active. The relationships between boys and girls is allowed up to a certain age, and then adults begin to act weird by not allowing their child to continue playing with the friend they played with for years. Many cultures influence their children’s sexual orientation by showing examples teaching boys how to behave like men, and girls how to behave like ladies (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). Times are changing and society has begun to accept people for who they are and not what everyone says they should be. The struggle is still present and we have a long way to go, but we are not where we used to be. I overheard a mother express herself to a friend about her son’s sexual orientation and what I heard made a lot of sense. The son let his mom know he was gay which she accepted and actually told him she already knew he was from a small age. The mom did not have a problem with her son’s sexual orientation, but her fear is the way society will treat her son who she loves dearly. Just like parents are aware of the responsibilities becoming sexually active entail, this mom knew the persecution and judgment her son will face because he is gay. Support him no matter what would have been my advice to this mom, but again I overheard a conversation, and I remained quiet. In many cultures girls are expected to babysit, cook, or clean; while boys play rough house with their father’s. Children normally are taught gender differences by their parents or the environment that they live in teaches them how boys act versus how girls should act (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015).

Age in Sexual Orientation

Adolescents’ progress at different rates where girl’s growth process normally begins two years earlier than boys, and the level of maturity begins earlier than boys (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015). In the state of Georgia the consensual age of sex is 16 years old, regardless if a parent feels their child is ready for sexual activity. The reality of today allows adolescents the freedom to be sexually free and to explore their own sexuality. It is no longer taboo to walk in a high school and see two females or two males holding hands. Age in sexual orientation has not changed over time, but it has allowed adolescents to be confident in embracing their sexual orientation.

References

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Lev, A. I. (2004). Transgender emergence: Therapeutic guidelines for working with gender-variant people and their families. Binghampton, NY: Routledge.

Readings

· Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2015). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

o Chapter 8, “Gender and Peer Relationships: Middle Childhood Through Early Adolescence” (pp. 282-323)

o Chapter 9, “Physical, Cognitive, and Identity Development in Adolescence” (pp. 324-367)

Best, D. L. (2009). Another view of the gender-status relation. Sex Roles, 61(5/6),341–351.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Cobb, R. A., Walsh, C. E., & Priest, J. B. (2009). The cognitive-active gender role identification continuum. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 21(2),77–97.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Ewing Lee, E. A., & Troop-Gordon, W. (2011). Peer processes and gender role development: Changes in gender atypically related to negative peer treatment and children’s friendships. Sex Roles, 64(1/2),90–102.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Gallor, S. M., & Fassinger, R. E. (2010). Social support, ethnic identity, and sexual identity of lesbians and gay men. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 22(3)287–315.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Lev, A. I. (2004). Transgender emergence: Therapeutic guidelines for working with gender-variant people and their families. Binghampton, NY: Routledge.

o Chapter 3, “Deconstructing Sex and Gender: Thinking Outside the Box” (pp. 79–109)
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

McCabe, J., Tanner, A. E., & Heiman, J. R. (2010). The impact of gender expectations on meanings of sex and sexuality: Results from a cognitive interview study. Sex Roles, 62(3/4), 252–263.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Media

· Laureate Education (Producer). (2013g). Perspectives: The ‘tween years’ [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu
Note: The approximate length of this media piece is 3 minutes.
This week’s presenter discusses how individuals in the in between, or ‘tween’ age can feel uncomfortable about their gender, their bodies, and their sexuality. Strategies for working with tweens are also discussed. It is highly recommended that you view this presentation before posting to this week’s Discussion boards.

Accessible player  –Downloads– Download Video w/CC Download Audio Download Transcript

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